Mu'in al-Din Sulaiman Parwana, better known as Pervane was a Persian statesman, for a time a key player in Anatolian politics involving the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Mongol Ilkhanate and the Mamluks under Baybars. Mu‘in al-Din Suleyman was the son of Muhadhdhab al-Din Ali al-Daylami, an Iranian from Kashan, who served as the vizier to the Seljuq Sultan Kaykhusraw II in 1243 at the time of the Battle of Köse Dağ. Raised in a time of trouble after the Battle of Köse Dağ and having received a good education, Suleyman Pervane become commander of Tokat, Erzincan, he was appointed, by Mongol commander Bayju's recommendation, as chamberlain to the Konya palace of Seljuks sultan of Rûm vassals of the Mongols. He married Kaykhusraw's widow Gürcü Hatun and became the undisputed master of the declining state, making a name as a great intriguer, his title Pervâne means "personal aide of the sultan"After Kaykhusraw’s death and the ensuing dispute among his sons for the throne, the Pervâne supported Kilij Arslan IV and succeeded in having him declared as the successor.
In the same period, he took Sinop and twelve surrounding castles from the Empire of Trebizond and the region was accorded to him and his family as an iqta. His growing power made him worry that the sultan Kilij Arslan IV might want to eliminate him and he took the initiative by having the sultan strangled in Aksaray in 1265; the throne was succeeded by Kilij Arslan IV's minor son Kaykhusraw III. During the Mamluk-Ilkhanid War and after the Mamluk hand had strengthened under Baybars, Pervâne's policy was characterized by multiple allegiances, all at the same time wishing to keep all his options open. According to Ibn Shaddad, when Baybars came to Syria in 1275, Pervâne played a pivotal role in dissuading him from his plans for invading the Anatolian heartland and directed him rather towards raids in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, persuading him to leave the territories of his sultanate to the following year, but neither did he enjoy the Ilkhan Abagha's full confidence and the successes of Baybars had brought insipient anti-Mongol feelings among Seljuk notables, led by the Seljuk governors of Diyarbekir, Harput and Niğde, to the fore.
In 1277, Baybars entered the Seljuk sultanate and on 18 March, overcame the Mongol army in Elbistan, while Pervâne, in command of the Seljuk contingent expected by both Baybars and the Mongols, took flight to Tokat along with the young sultan. Baybars made a triumphal entry into Kayseri on 23 April and returned to Syria. At the news of his troops' defeat, Abaqa hastened to Anatolia and sternly punished the Seljuk Turks, sources citing massacres of tens of thousands of people. Deeming him responsible for Baybars's foray into Anatolia, Abaqa had Pervâne killed on 2 August 1277; the story that the Abagha forced his subjects to eat the flesh of the Pervâne has its origin in Armenian history of Hetoum. His son Mehmed Bey took over the family possessions around Sinop and pursued a prudent policy of allegiance to the Mongols, pursued under his son Mesud Bey's period as Bey. Mesud Bey was held for a heavy ransom; the last representative of the Pervane's line was the Gazi Chelebi, a notable pirate who ruled Sinop in the first decades of the 14th century.
Several foundations of the Pervâne survive. In Sinop the Alaeddin Camii stands on the site of the former cathedral, which sometime after 1214 was converted into a mosque by Kayqubad I; the present structure was built de novo by the Pervâne in A. H. 666. The nearby Alâiye Medrese, sometimes called the Pervâne Medrese, was completed the same year. In Tokat he built the so-called Gök Medrese in 1277. Founded as a hospital and medical school, the building now houses a museum. A nearby Seljuq style hamam is attributed to him. There is another mosque of the Pervâne in Merzifon; the archaeological remains of a medrese founded by the Pervâne came to light within the compound of the closed bazaar of Kayseri. The medrese was excavated in 2002. Pervâneoğlu
The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order is a Sufi order in Konya founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic. The Mevlevi are known as the Whirling Dervishes due to their famous practice of whirling as a form of dhikr. Dervish is a common term for an initiate of the Sufi path. In 2008, UNESCO confirmed "The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony" as amongst the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity; the Mevlevi order was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death by his successor Hüsamettin Çelebi who decided to build a mausoleum for their master, their master's son, Baha al-Din Muhammad-i Walad. He was an accomplished Sufi mystic with great organizing talents, his personal efforts were continued by his successor Ulu Arif Çelebi. The Mevlevi believe in performing their dhikr in the form of a "dance" and musical ceremony known as the Sama, which involves the whirling, from which the order acquired its nickname.
The Sama represents a mystical journey of man's spiritual ascent through mind and love to the "Perfect". Turning towards the truth, the follower grows hey through love, deserts his ego, finds the truth, arrives at the "Perfect", he returns from this spiritual journey as a man who has reached maturity and a greater perfection, able to love and to be of service to the whole of creation. Rumi has said in reference to Sama: For them it is the Sama of this world and the other. More for the circle of dancers within the Sama Who turn and have, in their midst, their own Ka'aba; the origin of Sama is credited in whose name the Mevlevi Order was founded. The story of the creation of this unique form of dhikr tells that Rumi was walking through the town marketplace one day, when he heard the rhythmic hammering of the goldbeaters, it is believed that Rumi heard the dhikr, "la elaha ella'llah" in Arabic "لا اله الا الله", or in English, "There is no god but Allah", spoken by the apprentices beating the gold, was so filled with happiness that he stretched out both of his arms and started spinning in a circle.
With that, the practice of Sama and the dervishes of the Mevlevi Order were born. The Sama was practised in the samahane according to a prescribed symbolic ritual with the dervishes whirling in a circle around their sheikh, the only one whirling around his axis; the Sama is performed by spinning on the Left foot. The dervishes wear symbol of the tombstone. Sama ceremonies are broken up into four parts. Naat and Taksim – Naat is the beginning of the ceremony where a solo singer offers praise for the Islamic prophet Muhammad; the first part is finished with taksim of the ney reed flute which symbolises our separation from God. Devr-i Veled – During the following Devr-i Veled, the dervishes bow to each other and make a stately procession in single file around the hall; the bow is said to represent the acknowledgement of the Divine breath, breathed into all of us. After all the dervishes have done this they kneel and remove their black cloaks; the Four Salams – The Four Salams are the central part of Sama.
The samazens or whirling dervishes are representative of the moon and they spin on the outside of the Sheikh, representative of the sun. They, as mentioned, spin on their left foot and additionally, they have their right palm facing upwards towards Heaven and their left hand pointing at the ground; the four salams themselves are representative of the spiritual journey that every believer goes through. The first one is representative of recognition of God, the second one is recognition of the existence in his unity, the third one represents the ecstasy one experiences with total surrender and the fourth one, where the Sheikh joins in the dance, is symbolic of peace of the heart due to Divine unity. After the four salams, this part of the ceremony is concluded with another solo Taksim. Concluding Prayer – The fourth part of the ceremony is a recitation from the Qu'ran and a prayer by the Sheikh and the Sama is complete; the Mevlevi became a well-established Sufi order in the Ottoman Empire by realising a blood relationship with the Ottoman sultans when Devlet Hatun, a descendant of Sultan Veled married the sultan Bayezid I.
Their son Mehmed I Çelebi became the next sultan, endowing the order, as did his successors, with many gifts. Many of the members of the order served in various official positions of the Caliphate; the centre for the Mevlevi order was in Konya, where their 13th century guiding spirit, Jelaleddin al-Rumi is buried. There is a Mevlevi monastery or dergah in Istanbul, in the Beyoğlu district, where the sama is performed and accessible to the public. During the Ottoman Empire era, the Mevlevi order produced a number of famous poets and musicians such as Sheikh Ghalib, İsmail Ankaravi (both buried at the Galata Mevlevihanesi and Abdullah Sarı. Vocal and instrumental music the ney, plays an important role in the Mevlevi ceremony and famous composers such as Dede Efendi wrote music for the ayin; the ayin text is a selection from the poetry of Rumi. If one buys a CD of Turkish Sufi music, chances are. During the Ottoman period, the Mevlevi order spread into the
Beçin was a historical fort in Turkey. Beçin is situated on a low hill just south west of a modern village bearing the same name, in Milas ilçe of Muğla Province at 37°16′30″N 27°47′21″E, its distance to Milas is 4 kilometres and to Muğla is 66 kilometres. The site has remains from the Hellenistic period, including a 4th-century temple. A Byzantine church indicates the settlement continued to exist into the medieval period - though its minor importance is suggested by the small dimensions of the church. According to a contemporary Italian source its name was Pezona. Towards the end of the 13th century it was captured by the Menteşe Beylik, a principality founded by a Turkmen tribe. Beçin became the capital of the beylik and it expanded in size. In 1333 Ibn Battuta visited Beçin, described it as a newly founded city, mentioned its houses and mosques; the majority of the surviving monuments originate from the 14th century. In the 15th century the beylik of Menteşe was annexed by the Ottoman Empire.
An indication of the town's subsequent decay is revealed in Evliya Çelebi's account of his visit there: he wrote that the town did not have a hammam, yet excavations have revealed the remains of five hammams. A settlement continued to exist inside the site until the 1980s; the Ahmet Gazi Madrasa, named after the Bey who commissioned it, dates from 1375 according to the Arabic inscription above its entrance. The entrance portal, while retaining the components of a traditional Seljuk-era portal, has details that resemble European Gothic architecture indicating an influence deriving from the Menteşe Beylik's commercial activities with the Aegean islands and southern France. Modern reconstruction work has rebuilt large sections of the entrance façade on each side of its portal; the madrasa has two iwans, opening directly onto a rectangular central courtyard. The grave of Ahmet Gazi is located in the main iwan, an adjoining grave may be that of another Menteşe ruler - Shujaeddin Bey. Kizil Han, a caravanserai, is one of two hans surviving in Beçin.
It is plain and unimposing, is ruined with its upper floor collapsed. Buyuk Hammam, is one of five hammams. All are now in ruins; the Buyuk Hammam must have once been one of the town's most imposing structures - though now most of its roof has collapsed. Excavations have revealed its internal rooms and exposed its original floor level, paved with marble blocks; the medieval city was added to the tentative list in the cultural category of UNESCO World Heritage Site on April 13, 2012. Buildings such as Kızıl Han, Kara Paşa Han and Emir Courtyard, the Orman Lodge, the New Church and the Byzantine Chapel are among the archaeological remains. According to the Ministry of Culture, Beçin reflects the architecture of the beylik era and the characteristics of the early Turkish settlements
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as related languages; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed to various forms of art and science, own one of the world's most prominent literatures. In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the eastern Caucasus, albeit assimilated, are referred to as Tats; however the terms Tajik and Persian were synonymous and were used interchangeably, many of the most influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran's present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.
In historical contexts in English, "Persians" may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. In the Bible, it is given as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. A Greek folk etymology connected the name to a legendary character in Greek mythology. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians themselves knew the story, as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Although Persis was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources and used as an official name for all of Iran for many years. Thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country; some medieval and early modern Islamic sources used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples, including the speakers of the Khwarezmian language, the Mazanderani language, the Old Azeri language.
10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as "descendants of the ancient Persians". On March 21, 1935, the former king of Iran, Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran, the native name of the country, in formal correspondence. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent; the earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, an Assyrian inscription from the mid-9th century BC, found at Nimrud. The inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC, settled to the northwest of modern-day Iran.
They were dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region. However, they played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the Medes, another branch of this population, founded the unified empire of Media as the region's dominant cultural and political power in c. 625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a vassal state to the central Median power. In c. 552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c. 550 BC. They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen; the Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and the opulent city of Persepolis.
The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is a reciprocal cultural exchange. Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars; the empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. During the Achaemenid era, Persian colonists settled in Asia Minor. In Lydia, near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in
Aizanoi, Latinized as Aezani was an Ancient Greek city in western Anatolia. Located in what is now Çavdarhisar, Kütahya Province, its ruins are situated astride the River Penkalas, some 1,000 m above sea level; the city was an important economic centre in Roman times. The city fell into decline in Late Antiquity. Serving as a citadel, in 2012 the site was submitted for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Settlement in the area is known from the Bronze Age; the city may have derived its name from Azan, one of three sons of Arcas and the nymph Erato, legendary ancestors of the Phrygians. During the Hellenistic period the city changed hands between the Kingdom of Pergamum and the Kingdom of Bithynia, before being bequeathed to Rome by the former in 133 BC, it continued to mint its own coins. Its monumental buildings date from the early Empire to the 3rd century. Aezani was part of the Roman province of Phrygia Pacatiana, it became a Christian bishopric at an early stage, its bishop Pisticus was a participant at the First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council, in 325.
Pelagius was at a synod that Patriarch John II of Constantinople hastily organized in 518 and that condemned Severus of Antioch. Gregory was at the Trullan Council of 692, John at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, Theophanes at both the Council of Constantinople and the Council of Constantinople; the bishopric was at first a suffragan of Laodicea but, when Phrygia Pacatiana was divided into two provinces, it found itself a suffragan of Hierapolis, the capital of the new province of Phrygia Pacatiana II. No longer a residential bishopric, Aezani is today listed by the Catholic Church. After the 7th century, Aezani fell into decline. In Seljuk times, the temple hill was converted into a citadel by Çavdar Tatars, after which the recent settlement of Çavdarhisar is named; the ruins of Aezani/Aizanoi were discovered by European travellers in 1824. Survey work in the 1830s and 1840s was followed by systematic excavation conducted by the German Archaeological Institute from 1926, resumed in 1970, still ongoing.
The Temple of Zeus, situated upon a hill, was the city's main sanctuary. Ceramic finds indicate local habitation from the first half of the third millennium BC. According to a recent reading of the architrave inscription, construction of the temple began under Domitian. Inscriptions document imperial assistance from Hadrian relating to the recovery of unpaid rents as well as the euergetism of Marcus Apuleius Eurykles; the Çavdar Tatars carved equestrian and battle scenes on the temple. The temple is pseudodipteral, with fifteen along the sides, it has since been restored. Aizanoi's theatre-stadium are built adjacent to each other and this combined complex is said to be unique in the ancient world. Separating the two is the stage building. Construction began after 160 A. D. and was complete by the mid-third century. Inscriptions again attest to the benefaction of M. Apuleius Eurycles. Two sets of thermae have been identified; the first, between the theatre-stadium and the temple, dates to the second half of the second century and includes a palaestra and marble furnishings.
The second, in the north-east of the city, was built a century later. Rebuilt a couple of centuries it served as the bishop's seat. A circular macellum dating to the second half of the second century is located in the south. In the fourth century it was inscribed with a copy of the Price Edict of Diocletian, dating to 301, an attempt to limit inflation resulting from debasement of the coinage. Recent excavations have revealed the existence of a stoa, or covered walkway, dating to ca. 400 AD, colonnaded street. A Temple of Artemis, dating to the time of Claudius, was demolished to make way for the colonnaded street which ran for 450 m and led to the sanctuary of Meter Steunene. A deep tunnel inside a cave, now collapsed, was dedicated to Meter Steunene. Cult figurines made of clay have been found in excavations, along with two round pits used for animal sacrifice; the city's large necropolis includes examples of door-shaped Phrygian tombstones. Inscriptions give the names of donor; some items from Aizanoi, among them a sarcophagus with an Amazonomachy, have been removed to the Archaeological Museum of Kütahya.
Roman Asia Roman architecture List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey Aizanoi Antique City
The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira, along with the related currencies of Europe and the Middle East, has its roots in the ancient Roman unit of weight known as the libra which referred to the Troy pound of silver; the Roman libra adoption of the currency spread it throughout Europe and the Near East, where it continued to be used into medieval times. The Turkish lira, the French livre, the Italian lira, the British pound are the modern descendants of the ancient currency; the Ottoman lira was introduced as the main unit of currency in 1844, with the former currency, kuruş, remaining as a 1⁄100 subdivision. The Ottoman lira remained in circulation until the end of 1927. Historical banknotes from the second and fourth issues have portraits of İsmet İnönü on the obverse side; this change was done according to the 12 January 1926 issue of the official gazette and canceled by the Democrat Party after World War II. After periods of the lira pegged to the British pound and the French franc, a peg of 2.8 Turkish lira = 1 U.
S. dollar was adopted in 1946 and maintained until 1960, when the currency was devalued to 9 Turkish lira = 1 dollar. From 1970, a series of hard soft pegs to the dollar operated as the value of the Turkish lira began to fall. 1966 – 1 U. S. dollar = 9 Turkish lira 1980 – 1 U. S. dollar = 90 Turkish lira 1988 – 1 U. S. dollar = 1,300 Turkish lira 1995 – 1 U. S. dollar = 45,000 Turkish lira 2001 – 1 U. S. dollar = 1,650,000 Turkish liraThe Guinness Book of Records ranked the Turkish lira as the world's least valuable currency in 1995 and 1996, again from 1999 to 2004. The Turkish lira had slid in value so far that one original gold lira coin could be sold for 154,400,000 Turkish lira before the 2005 revaluation. In December 2003, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey passed a law that allowed for redenomination by the removal of six zeros from the Turkish lira, the creation of a new currency, it was introduced on 1 January 2005, replacing the previous Turkish lira at a rate of 1 second Turkish lira = 1,000,000 first Turkish lira.
With the revaluation of the Turkish lira, the Romanian leu became the world's least valued currency unit. At the same time, the Government introduced two new banknotes with the denominations of 50 and 100. In the transition period between January 2005 and December 2008, the second Turkish lira was called Yeni Türk lirası, it was abbreviated "YTL" and subdivided into 100 new kuruş. Starting in January 2009, the "new" marking was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name becoming just "Turkish lira" again, abbreviated "TL". All obverse sides of current banknotes have portraits of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; until 2016, the same held for the reverse sides of all current coins, but in 2016 one-lira coins were issued to commemorate the "martyrs and veterans" of the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the reverse sides of some of which depict hands holding up a Turkish flag while others show in stylized form a collection of five-pointed stars topped by a Turkish flag. From 1 January 2009, the phrase "new" was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name in Turkey becoming just "Turkish lira" again.
The center and ring alloys of the 50 kuruş and 1 Turkish lira coins were reversed. A new series of banknotes, the "E-9 Emission Group" entered circulation on 1 January 2009, with the E-8 group ceasing to be valid after 31 December 2009; the E-9 banknotes refer to the currency as "Turkish lira" rather than "new Turkish lira" and include a new 200-Turkish-lira denomination. The new banknotes have different sizes to prevent forgery; the main specificity of this new series is that each denomination depicts a famous Turkish personality, rather than geographical sites and architectural features of Turkey. The dominant color of the 5-Turkish-lira banknote has been determined as "purple" on the second series of the current banknotes. In 2018, the lira's exchange rate accelerated deterioration, reaching a level of 4.5 USD/TRY by mid-May and of 4.9 a week later. Among economists, the accelerating loss of value was attributed to Recep Tayyip Erdoğan preventing the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey from making the necessary interest rate adjustments.
Erdoğan, who claimed interest rates beyond his control to be "the mother and father of all evil", said that "the central bank can't take this independence and set aside the signals given by the president." Despite Erdogan's apparent opposition, Turkey's Central Bank raised interest rates sharply. In the campaign for the 2018 general election in Turkey, a widespread conspiracy theory claimed that the Turkish lira's decline were the work of a shadowy group, made up of Americans, Dutch and "some Jewish families" who would want to deprive incumbent President Erdogan of support in the elections. According to a poll from April 2018, 42 percent of Turks, 59 percent of governing AK Party voters, saw the decline in the lira as a plot by foreign powers. According to Turkish foreign minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu and analysis, Trumps wish to let the Turkish-USA current tensions to long up to the November 2018 US elections so to appeal to his christian base and gain some points for his party; the current currency
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph