The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and largest of the Mexican Armed Forces, it is also known as the National Defense Army. It was the first army to adopt and use a self-loading rifle, the Mexican Army has an active duty force of 766,750. Mexico has no major foreign nation-state adversaries and it officially repudiates the use of force to settle disputes and rejects interference by one nation in the affairs of another. Although it has not suffered a major international terrorist incident in recent decades, in the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and highly developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico. In Aztec society, it was compulsory for all males, nobles as well as commoners. Itzcoatl Obsidian Serpent, fourth king of Tenochtitlán, organized the army defeated the Tepanec of Atzcapotzalco. His reign began with the rise of what would become the largest empire in Mesoamerica, then Moctezuma Ilhuicamina The arrow to the sky came to extend the domain and the influence of the monarchy of Tenochtitlán. He began to trade to the outside regions of the Valley of Mexico. This was the Mexica ruler who organized the alliance with the lordships of Texcoco, the Aztec established the Flower Wars as a form of worship, these, unlike the wars of conquest, were aimed at obtaining prisoners for sacrifice to the sun. Combat orders were given by kings using drums or blowing into a sea shell that gave off a sound like a horn. Giving out signals using coats of arms was very common, for combat outside of cities, they would organize several groups, only one of which would be involved in action, while the others remained on the alert. In the early morning of September 16,1810, the Army of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the independence movement, Hidalgo was followed by his loyal companions, among them Mariano Abasolo, and a small army equipped with swords, spears, slingshots and sticks. Captain General Ignacio Allende was the brains of the insurgent army in the first phase of the War of Independence. The Spaniards saw that it was important to defend the Alhóndiga de Granaditas public granary in Guanajuato, the insurgents entered Guanajuato and proceeded to lay siege to the Alhóndiga. With this stunt, the managed to bring down the door and enter the building. Hidalgo headed to Valladolid, which was captured with little opposition, on November 29,1810, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara, the capital of Nueva Galicia, where he organized his government and the Insurgent Army, he also issued a decree abolishing slavery. At Calderon Bridge near the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, insurgents held a battle with the royalists. During the fierce fighting, one of the ammunition wagons exploded
This page from the Codex Mendoza shows the gradual improvements to equipment and tlahuiztli as a warrior progresses through the ranks from commoner to porter to warrior to captor, and later as a noble progressing in the warrior societies from the noble warrior to "Eagle warrior" to "Jaguar Warrior" to "Otomitl" to "Shorn One" and finally as "Tlacateccatl".
Guanajuato. At center: the Alhóndiga de Granaditas
Constitutional decree for the freedom of the Mexican America