Durango Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur; the city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria. With 123,451.2 km2 or 12.3 million ha, Durango accounts for about 6.3% of the entire territory of Mexico and is its fourth largest state. The state lies at the extreme northwest of the Central Mexican Plateau, where it meets the Sierra Madre Occidental, where the state's highest peaks are; the state has an average altitude of 1,775 meters above sea level, with a mean altitude of 1,750 in the Valleys region and 2,450 meters in the Sierra region. The city of Durango is on the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental with an elevation of 1,857 meters above sea level; the state of Durango is landlocked, bordering the states of Chihuahua, Zacatecas and Sinaloa. It is divided into 39 municipalities, based off the 1917 Constitution with various divisions since then.
One of the main determining factors in the state's regional environments is the barrier that the Sierra Madre Occidental presents, determining altitudes and blocking moisture from the Pacific. The Quebradas region west of the mountain chain has a semi tropical humid climate; the rest of the state has a semi-arid climate with the exception of the highest altitudes. Temperatures are cold depending on altitude; the eastern part of the state is hottest and driest, with some temperate areas in the highest altitudes. Most of the state is covered in mountains and forested, with the Sierra Madre Occidental covering two-thirds of the state alone. However, like much of the rest of northern Mexico, Durango has worked to reforest many of the degraded forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. Much of this work is not related to forests used for wood production and focuses on the planting of native tree species. More work needs to be done as many areas still have tree densities that are too low on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental where tree poaching and clearing for agricultural activities is problematic.
Most of the state inclines from south to north, meaning most of the rivers empty into the Pacific. Most rivers lead into other Mexican states; those which do not flow into the Pacific lead into the lake area of La Comarca and one, the Florida, makes its way to the Gulf of Mexico. Ecologically the state is divided into four regions: La Quebrada, the Sierra, the Valleys and the Semi-desert; the Semi-desert is located in the northeast of the state and includes the municipalities of Hidalgo, Mapimí, San Pedro del Gallo, San Luis del Cordero, Lerdo, Gómez Palacio, Cuencamé, Santa Clara, General Simón Bolívar and San Juan de Guadalupe. Most of the terrain here is flat and its climate is dry. Temperatures are hot in the summer; these municipalities are classified as either part of the Chihuahua Desert or in the transition zone. The area is flat with some mountain ranges and a slight incline towards the interior of the country; the area was at one time under the sea, but today the vegetation consists of scrub, nopal cactus, maguey plants, barrel cactus and other arid zone plants.
It is defined by two rivers: the Aguanaval. The region has two reservoirs: the Lázaro Cárdenas and the Francisco Zarco, located between the Cuencamé and Lerdo municipalities. Animals that can be found here include coyotes, various snakes, chameleons and scorpions. Most of the economically important natural resources come from mining, including deposits of gold, silver and mercury. There are large deposits of marble; the La Laguna is short for La Comarca de la Laguna or La Comarca Lagunera, an arid and semi-arid region that covers a significant portion of northeastern Durango and southeastern Coahuila. The area was created by sediments from torrential river flows deposited over large valleys; these river flows created lagoons which served to recharge underground aquifers or remain as intermittent surface waters. The rivers supported habitat for native grasses and ditch reed which provided habitat for various water birds and fish; the area is home to Durango's only caverns, the Rosario Caves are located near Ciudad Lerdo, as well as the Mapimí Biosphere, noted for various plants and the desert tortoise.
It is a protected area centering on where the states of Chihuahua and Durango meet. The Valleys are located in the center of the state and include the municipalities of Nombre de Dios, Nuevo Ideal, Canatlán, Guadalupe Victoria, Pánuco de Coronado, Poanas, Súchil, Vicente Guerrero, San Bernardo, Indé, Coneto de Comonfort, El Oro, San Juan del Río and Peñón Blanco; the region consists principally in river llanuras located among small mountain ranges. The main peaks in this area include the San Jacinto in the Silla Mountains and Peñon Blanco, which many schoolchildren in the area take trips to. Other major geographical formations in the Valleys Region include cliffs called Las Catedrales, along with those called Malpaís and La Breña, which were formed by lava flows over 250,000 hectares; the area is home to the Cerro de Mercado, important for its large deposit of iron. The valleys proper are flat and apt for agriculture with irrigation from the Nazas and Tunal Rivers. Reservoirs for this purpos
The Phrynosomatidae are a diverse family of lizards, sometimes classified as a subfamily, found from Panama to the extreme south of Canada. Many members of the group are adapted to life in hot, sandy deserts, although the spiny lizards prefer rocky deserts or relatively moist forest edges, the short-horned lizard lives in prairie or sagebrush environments; the group includes both egg-laying and viviparous species, with the latter being more common in species living at high elevations. The 136 species are organised into 9 genera in this subfamily; the earless taxa are sister genera. Family Phrynosomatidae Callisaurus Blainville, 1835 – zebra-tailed lizards Cophosaurus Troschel, 1852 – greater earless lizards Holbrookia Girard, 1851 – earless lizards Petrosaurus Boulenger, 1885 – California rock lizards Phrynosoma Wiegmann, 1828 – horned lizards Sceloporus Wiegmann, 1828 – spiny lizards Uma Baird, 1859 – fringe-toed lizards Urosaurus Hallowell, 1854 – tree and brush lizards Uta Baird & Girard, 1852 – side-blotched lizards Data related to Phrynosomatidae at Wikispecies Media related to Phrynosomatidae at Wikimedia Commons Phrynosomatidae Family
Nuevo León the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey, it is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U. S.–Mexico border adjacent to the U. S. state of Texas. The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, itself named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León. Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. Nuevo León was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of any permanent settlements.
Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor. Nuevo Leon became one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain; the capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states. Nuevo León has an extreme climate, there is little rainfall throughout the year; the territory covers 64,220 square kilometres, can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos and Santa Clara mountain ranges, the Pilón, Ascensión, Río Blanco valleys.
As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality; the flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, prairie dogs, foxes and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species; as of 2015, Nuevo León's population was about 5.119 million. Of these over 90%, or about 4.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 79 years for women. Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, 98% have all utilities; the remaining 2% is the small indigenous population, isolated and lives in the mountain regions.
Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic, but it has a sizable Protestant population. The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an perfect record for finished secondary education, 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard. Institutions of higher education include: Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Tecnológico Nacional de México Centro de Estudios Universitarios Universidad Regiomontana Universidad Metropolitana de Monterrey Universidad de Monterrey Centro de Estudios Superiores de Diseño de Monterrey Facultad Libre de Derecho de Monterrey Highly industrialized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland.
In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita of any Mexican state, was therefore higher than the Mexican national average. One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income, it is home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex, Maseca, Banorte, ALFA (Sigma, Nemak and Hylsa, i-service, Vitro SA, FEMSA, Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. Nuevo León boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt"
In geology and physical geography, a plateau called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, raised above the surrounding area with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity; the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example. They may be formed by upwelling of volcanic extrusion of lava; the underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.
Plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus. Dissected plateaus are eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may be a result from the feedback between tectonic deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains; the Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau. Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau; the magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form volcanic plateaus; the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland, The Deccan Plateau in India and the Columbia Plateau in the United States are examples of lava plateaus. Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a sea.
The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example. Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the Antarctic Polar Plateau in East Antarctica; the largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes metaphorically described as the "Roof of the World", still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The Tibetan plateau covers 2,500,000 km2, at about 5,000 m above sea level; the plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an average elevation of 4,114 m, it is located in northern Pakistan. Deosai means'the land of giants'; the park protects an area of 3,000 km2. It is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion.
In spring it is covered by a wide variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" near the Chilim Valley; the lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, is 2.3 km long, 1.8 km wide, 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are: Najd in the Arabian Peninsula elevation 762 to 1,525 m, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, the Deccan Plateau. Another large plateau is the icy Antarctic Plateau, sometimes referred to as the Polar Plateau, home to the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which covers most of East Antarctica where there are no known mountains but rather 3,000 m high of superficial ice and which spreads slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous glaciers; this polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that large parts of the Antarctic "dry land" surface have been pressed below sea level.
Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. On the other hand, were the ice cap melts away too the surface of the land beneath it would rebound away through isostasy from the center of the Earth and that same land would rise above sea level. A large plateau in North America is the Colorado Plateau, which covers about 337,000 km2 in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was there, though not on the same cours
Nota bene is a Latin phrase meaning'note well'. The phrase first appeared in English writing c. 1711. Abbreviated as NB, n.b. or with the ligature N B, the phrase is Latin for "note well" and comes from the Latin roots notāre and bene. It is in the singular imperative mood, instructing one individual to note well the matter at hand, i.e. to take notice of or pay special attention to it. In Modern English, it is used in legal papers, to draw the attention of the reader to a certain aspect or detail of the subject on hand. While NB is often used in academic writing, note is a common substitute; the markings used to draw readers' attention in medieval manuscripts are called nota bene marks. The common medieval markings do not, include the abbreviation NB; the usual medieval equivalents are anagrams from the four letters in the word nota, the abbreviation DM from dignum memoria, or a symbol of a little hand, called a manicule or index, with the index finger pointing towards the beginning of the significant passage.
Annotation Footnote List of Latin abbreviations List of Latin phrases List of legal Latin terms Obiter dictum Postscript
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes Amphisbaenia. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal. Others are legless, have long snake-like bodies; some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide. They are territorial, the males fighting off other males and signalling with brightly colours, to attract mates and to intimidate rivals. Lizards are carnivorous being sit-and-wait predators. Lizards make use of a variety of antipredator adaptations, including venom, reflex bleeding, the ability to sacrifice and regrow their tails; the adult length of species within the suborder ranges from a few centimeters for chameleons such as Brookesia micra and geckos such as Sphaerodactylus ariasae to nearly 3 m in the case of the largest living varanid lizard, the Komodo dragon.
Most lizards are small animals. Lizards have four legs and external ears, though some are legless, while snakes lack these characteristics. Lizards and snakes share a movable quadrate bone, distinguishing them from the rhynchocephalians, which have more rigid diapsid skulls; some lizards such as chameleons have prehensile tails. As in other reptiles, the skin of lizards is covered in overlapping scales made of keratin; this reduces water loss through evaporation. This adaptation enables lizards to thrive in some of the driest deserts on earth; the skin is tough and leathery, is shed as the animal grows. Unlike snakes which shed the skin in a single piece, lizards slough their skin in several pieces; the scales may be modified into spines for display or protection, some species have bone osteoderms underneath the scales. The dentitions of lizards reflect their wide range of diets, including carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and molluscivorous. Species have uniform teeth suited to their diet, but several species have variable teeth, such as cutting teeth in the front of the jaws and crushing teeth in the rear.
Most species are pleurodont, though chameleons are acrodont. The tongue can be extended outside the mouth, is long. In the beaded lizards and monitor lizards, the tongue is forked and used or to sense the environment, continually flicking out to sample the environment, back to transfer molecules to the vomeronasal organ responsible for chemosensation, analogous to but different from smell or taste. In geckos, the tongue is used to lick the eyes clean: they have no eyelids. Chameleons have long sticky tongues which can be extended to catch their insect prey. Three lineages, the geckos and chameleons, have modified the scales under their toes to form adhesive pads prominent in the first two groups; the pads are composed of millions of tiny setae which fit to the substrate to adhere using van der Waals forces. In addition, the toes of chameleons are divided into two opposed groups on each foot, enabling them to perch on branches as birds do. Aside from legless lizards, most lizards are quadrupedal and move using gaits with alternating movement of the right and left limbs with substantial body bending.
This body bending prevents significant respiration during movement, limiting their endurance, in a mechanism called Carrier's constraint. Several species can run bipedally, a few can prop themselves up on their hindlimbs and tail while stationary. Several small species such as those in the genus Draco can glide: some can attain a distance of 60 metres, losing 10 metres in height; some species, like chameleons, adhere to vertical surfaces including glass and ceilings. Some species, like the common basilisk, can run across water. Lizards make use of their senses of sight, touch and hearing like other vertebrates; the balance of these varies with the habitat of different species. Monitor lizards have acute vision and olfactory senses; some lizards make unusual use of their sense organs: chameleons can steer their eyes in different directions, sometimes providing non-overlapping fields of view, such as forwards and backwards at once. Lizards lack external ears, having instead a circular opening in which the tympanic membrane can be seen.
Many species rely on hearing for early warning of predators, flee at the slightest sound. As in snakes and many mammals, all lizards have a specialised olfactory system, the vomeronasal organ, used to detect pheromones. Monitor lizards transfer scent from the tip of their tongue to the organ; some lizards iguanas, have retained a photosensory organ on the top of their heads called the parietal eye, a basal feature present in the tuatara. This "eye" has only a rudimentary retina and lens and cannot form images, but is sensitive to changes in light and dark and can detect movemen
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, snakes, lizards and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology; because some reptiles are more related to birds than they are to other reptiles, the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade. For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class, including all living Diapsids; the earliest known proto-reptiles originated around 312 million years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from advanced reptiliomorph tetrapods that became adapted to life on dry land. Some early examples include Casineria. In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In particular, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs and sauropods, as well as many species of theropods, including troodontids, dromaeosaurids and abelisaurids, along with many Crocodyliformes, squamates.
Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica, although some birds are found on the periphery of Antarctica. Several living subgroups are recognized: Testudines, 350 species. Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates, creatures that either have four limbs or, like snakes, are descended from four-limbed ancestors. Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Most reptiles are oviparous, although several species of squamates are viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades – the fetus develops within the mother, contained in a placenta rather than an eggshell; as amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, which can grow up to 17 mm to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, which can reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1,000 kg.
In the 13th century the category of reptile was recognized in Europe as consisting of a miscellany of egg-laying creatures, including "snakes, various fantastic monsters, assorted amphibians, worms", as recorded by Vincent of Beauvais in his Mirror of Nature. In the 18th century, the reptiles were, from the outset of classification, grouped with the amphibians. Linnaeus, working from species-poor Sweden, where the common adder and grass snake are found hunting in water, included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ; the terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were interchangeable, "reptile" being preferred by the French. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians similar to that of Linnaeus. Today, the two groups are still treated under the same heading as herptiles, it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that it became clear that reptiles and amphibians are, in fact, quite different animals, Pierre André Latreille erected the class Batracia for the latter, dividing the tetrapods into the four familiar classes of reptiles, amphibians and mammals.
The British anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley made Latreille's definition popular and, together with Richard Owen, expanded Reptilia to include the various fossil "antediluvian monsters", including dinosaurs and the mammal-like Dicynodon he helped describe. This was not the only possible classification scheme: In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley grouped the vertebrates into mammals and ichthyoids, he subsequently proposed the names of Ichthyopsida for the latter two groups. In 1866, Haeckel demonstrated that vertebrates could be divided based on their reproductive strategies, that reptiles and mammals were united by the amniotic egg; the terms "Sauropsida" and "Theropsida" were used again in 1916 by E. S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards and their relatives on the one hand and mammals and their extinct relatives on the other. Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, other features, such as the structure of the forebrain.
According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, Protosauria in which he included some animals today considered reptile-like amphibians, as well as early reptiles. In 1956, D. M. S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged early in reptilian history, so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria between them, he reinterpreted Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals, respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Millerosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia