Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration established by War Department General Orders 12, 1907. The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U. S. Army who had participated in the American Indian Wars against the Native Americans between 1865 and 1891. A; the Indian Campaign Medal was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. B; the initial ribbon was all red. C. Campaign streamers of the same design as the service ribbon are authorised for display by units receiving campaign credit participation for Indian Wars as early as 1790; the inscriptions for streamers displayed on the organizational flag will be as indicated in the unit's lineage and honors. The inscriptions for the 14 streamers displayed on the Army flag are listed in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22; the Code of Federal Regulations declares service in the following campaigns as requirements for award of the Indian Campaign Medal: Southern Oregon, northern California, Nevada between 1865 and 1868.
Against the Comanches and confederate tribes in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875. Modoc War between 1872 and 1873. Against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873. Against the Northern Cheyennes and Sioux between 1876 and 1877. Nez Perce War in 1877. Bannock War in 1878. Against the Northern Cheyennes between 1878 and 1879. Against the Sheep-Eaters and Bannocks between June and October, 1879. Against the Utes in Colorado and Utah between September 1879 and November 1880. Against the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico between 1885 and 1886. Against the Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January 1891. Against hostile Indians in any other action in which United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 and 1891; the Code of Federal Regulations describes the medal as follows: The medal of bronze is 11⁄4 inches in diameter. On the obverse is a mounted Indian facing sinister, wearing a war bonnet, carrying a spear in his right hand. Above the horseman are the words ‘‘Indian Wars,’’ and below, on either side of a buffalo skull, the circle is completed by arrowheads, conventionally arranged.
On the reverse is a trophy, composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kriss. Below the trophy are the words ‘‘For Service.’’ The whole is surrounded by a circle composed of the words ‘‘United States Army’’ in the upper half and thirteen stars in the lower half. The medal is suspended by a ring from a silk moire ribbon 13⁄8inches in length and 13⁄8 inches in width composed of a red stripe, black stripe, red band, black stripe, red stripe; the Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct; the silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Star and was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891. Awards and decorations of the United States military U.
S. military history: Indian conflicts, battles and campaigns "Named Campaigns – Indian Wars". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 13 December 2005. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Indian Campaign Medal
Battle of Ciudad Juárez (1919)
The Third Battle of Ciudad Juarez, or the Battle of Juarez, was the final major battle involving the rebels of Francisco "Pancho" Villa. It began on June 15, 1919, when Villa attempted to capture the border city of Ciudad Juarez from the Mexican Army. During the engagement the Villistas provoked an intervention by the United States Army protecting the neighboring city of El Paso, Texas; the Americans routed the Villistas in what became the second largest battle of the Mexican Revolution involving the US, the last battle of the Border War. With the American army closing in, the Villistas had no choice. Pancho Villa attacked Durango but lost again, so he retired to his home at Parral, Chihuahua in 1920, with a full pardon from the Carrancista government. Following the Battle of Columbus and Gen. John J. Pershing's Mexican Expedition in 1916 and 1917, Pancho Villa's army was scattered across northern Mexico, but by 1918 he had assembled several hundred men and began attacking the Carrancistas again.
The Villistas were unsuccessful in their final campaign. Though they captured Parral and took several smaller towns, they chose not to attack the city of Chihuahua because of its large garrison. Instead, Villa turned his attention to Ciudad Juarez in the summer of 1919. According to Friedrich Katz, author of The Life and Times of Pancho Villa, his motivations for attacking Ciudad Juarez are unclear. Katz says that Villa wanted to put one of his generals, Felipe Ángeles, up to it because in the past he had spoken of the "need for reconciliation with the Americans" and the hope that the US would "change its attitude" toward the Villistas. Katz says that Villa may have chosen to attack Juarez because there was a smaller enemy garrison there than in Chihuahua, there was a large source of food and—possibly—to see if the Americans, just across the Rio Grande, were still as hostile as they had been during Pershing's campaign; the new Carrancista commander in northeastern Mexico, Gen. Juan Agustin Castro, was factored in.
According to Katz, Castro was not as aggressive as his predecessor and was "content to fortify himself in a few towns without taking offensive action." Therefore, Villa felt "relatively confident" that he could win the battle for Juarez without having to worry about Castro attacking him from the rear. Villa's army consisted of over 4,000 infantry and cavalry but he had no artillery support; the Carrancista forces, under Gen. Pablo González Garza, numbered nearly 3,000 and had fortified Juarez and occupied the citadel, Fort Hidalgo. Gen. Gonzalez had artillery and two other important advantages: he would be fighting a defensive battle and was protected on the northern flank by El Paso and the American army. Pancho Villa arrived at Ciudad Juarez on the night of June 14, 1919, he first concentrated his forces in an attack on Fort Hidalgo at 12:10 am on June 15, but was repulsed after a 50-minute battle. Gen. Martin Lopez, Villa's godson, led the attack. At about 1:10 am Lopez attacked the city itself.
The cavalry charged ahead of the infantry and advanced in a way so that no bullets were crossing the border into El Paso. At first the Villistas seemed to be making progress—they cut through barbed wire entanglements with wire cutters smuggled in from the US and routed a line of Carrancista infantry; as Lopez proceeded into the city streets, the advance began to slow. For the rest of the morning and throughout day the two sides fought a bloody close-quarters engagement. Gen. Gonzalez was observing the battle from the rooftop; as his lines crumbled he asked his assistant, Col. Escobar, why his forces were not holding. Escobar told him it was because the "Villistas were attacking like rabid dogs." Escobar advised that Gonzales withdraw his forces into the nearby fortress, or else be overrun. Gonzalez agreed with Escobar so the order was given to retreat and the Villistas took complete control of the city; when he got to the fort, Gonzalez used the telephone to contact the American garrison across the river and request aid.
Though the Americans had begun assembling infantry and artillery from Fort Bliss, they had not yet received orders. Villa knew his only chance of getting into the fort was by utilizing some captured Carrancista artillery pieces. Gen. Angeles was put in command of this effort and had to move the artillery from their positions in Juarez to the fort outside the town before beginning the attack This took a while and by the time the task was finished Gen. Gonzalez had come up with a daring plan to use the majority of his cavalry and his infantry in a charge against Angeles' column as it approached the fort; the charge routed Angeles and sent him fleeing back to Juarez, but the Villistas were able to hold onto the downtown area. Meanwhile, on the Texas side of the border, American soldiers were being targeted by Villista snipers who directed their fire towards the 82nd Field Artillery Regiment's headquarters at the El Paso Union Stockyards. Several American soldiers were wounded but the troops did not return fire.
Additionally, two civilians four more were wounded. The first, a man named Floyd Hinton, was killed while watching the fighting from his rooftop near the intersection of Ninth and El Paso streets; the second, a Mrs. Ed. Dominguez, was shot in the head while sitting on her doorstep at 309 East Eighth Street; the US government conducted an investigation into which faction was responsible for the casualties and suggested that the Villistas were to blame. The Americans, under Brig. Gen. James B. Erwin, did not respond to the sniping until 10:35 p
Border War (1910–1919)
The Border War, or the Border Campaign, refers to the military engagements which took place in the Mexico–United States border region of North America during the Mexican Revolution. The Bandit War in Texas was part of the Border War. From the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the United States Army was stationed in force along the border and on several occasions fought with Mexican rebels or federals; the height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico. In response, the United States Army, under the direction of General John J. Pershing, launched an expedition into northern Mexico, to find and capture Villa. Though the operation was successful in finding and engaging the Villista rebels, in killing Villa's two top lieutenants, the revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January 1917. Conflict at the border continued and the United States launched several additional, though smaller operations into Mexican territory until after the American victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales.
Conflict was not only subject to Americans. Revolutionary activity breaks out in Mexico. United States Army deploys to several border towns to protect American lives and property and to ensure that fighting between rebel and federal forces remains on the Mexican side of the border. In late 1910, Francisco Madero issues the Plan of San Luis Potosí, a proclamation which called for Mexican citizens to rise up against the federal government of Porfirio Díaz, in San Antonio, Texas. On 20 November, Madero planned to attack the border town of Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, across the border from Eagle Pass, Texas. Due to the lack of reinforcements, Madero canceled the operation and left to New Orleans, Louisiana, to prepare another plan. Porfirio Díaz pressured the United States government into issuing orders for Madero's arrest. Madero escapes across the border back into Mexico on 14 February. Magonistas began campaigning in northern Baja California in February, they captured the Mexican border town of Mexicali on 11 February and marched to Tijuana where they defeated the federal garrison.
The Mexican government retaliated and attacked Tijuana in June, forcing the rebels to cross the border and surrender to the United States Army at San Ysidro, California. In March, Francisco Madero led 130 men at the Battle of Casas Grandes in Chihuahua; the rebels lost the battle, but the federals retreated which left Madero's army in control. Madero began smuggling arms and ammunition on a large scale from across the border. On 16 March, rebel saboteurs in Ciudad Juárez bombed the barracks and homes of the Mexican Army garrison. A large nitroglycerin explosion was seen on the American side of the border. Two days a large cannon which sat in the town square of El Paso, Texas and was taken to Ciudad Juárez. Maderista rebels fought federal troops loyal to Porfirio Díaz at Sonora, in April. United States troops across the border in Douglas, were attacked by Mexican forces and in response the Americans intervened which left the rebels in control of the town. Madero's rebels under Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco attacked federal forces at the major Second Battle of Ciudad Juarez from 7 April-10 May.
The American garrison of El Paso, exchanged fire with rebels resulting in minor casualties on both sides. Porfirio Díaz exiled. Francisco Madero calls for an end to warfare in the country, he offered to pay rebels of different factions but only if they would lay down their arms or join his new federal Army. Fighting breaks out between rebel factions. United States Army continues garrisoning American border towns. General Pasqual Orozco rebels against President Madero and begins a campaign in the border state of Chihuahua. Madero responds by sending an army. Villa rebels against the Madero government soon after. Federal forces of President Francisco Madero establish Fort Tijuana along the international border with California in response to the Magonista campaign. Nogales, was attacked by General Obregón's army of over 2,000 Constitutionalistas in 1913. Defending federal forces under General Emilio Kosterlitzky collapsed and surrendered to the United States Army garrison of Nogales, Arizona; the Battle of Naco is fought.
Álvaro Obregón's rebel army defeated the federal Mexican border town garrison of Sonora. United States troops watched the battle from across the border. American troops in Naco, begin construction of Fort Naco, one of 12 forts built by the United States Army along the border for protection against warring Mexican forces. General John Pershing and Pancho Villa meet at Fort Bliss and would meet again in 1914 at Ojinaga, Chihuahua. On 9 April, the Tampico Affair, an incident in Tampico, between United States Navy sailors and Mexican troops, occurred, it resulted in the severing of diplomatic relations between the United States. In response to the Tampico Affair, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to approve an armed invasion of Mexico. Congress approves the invasion; the United States Navy's Atlantic fleet under Admiral Frank Fletcher was sent to the port of Veracruz and occupied the city after an amphibious assault and a street battle with Mexican defenders. The longest battle of the Mexican Revolution was fought at Naco, across the border from Fort Naco and Naco, Arizona.
Pancho Villa's men attacked General Obregón's garrison on 17 October. During the 119 following days of siege warfare Villa was defeated. During th
Richard E. Byrd
Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr. was an American naval officer and explorer. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor, the highest honor for valor given by the United States, was a pioneering American aviator, polar explorer, organizer of polar logistics. Aircraft flights in which he served as a navigator and expedition leader crossed the Atlantic Ocean, a segment of the Arctic Ocean, a segment of the Antarctic Plateau. Byrd claimed that his expeditions had been the first to reach both the North Pole and the South Pole by air. However, his claim to have reached the North Pole is disputed. Byrd was born in Winchester, the son of Esther Bolling and Richard Evelyn Byrd Sr, he was a descendant of one of the First Families of Virginia. His ancestors include planter John Rolfe and his wife Pocahontas, William Byrd II of Westover Plantation, who established Richmond, Robert "King" Carter, a colonial governor, he was the brother of Virginia Governor and U. S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, a dominant figure in the Virginia Democratic Party from the 1920s until the 1960s.
On January 20, 1915, Richard married Marie Donaldson Ames. He would name a region of Antarctic land he discovered "Marie Byrd Land" after her, they had four children – Richard Evelyn Byrd III, Evelyn Bolling Byrd Clarke, Katharine Agnes Byrd Breyer, Helen Byrd Stabler. By late 1924, the Byrd family moved into a large brownstone house at 9 Brimmer Street in Boston's fashionable Beacon Hill neighborhood, purchased by Marie's father, a wealthy industrialist. On June 8, 1912, Byrd graduated from the Naval Academy and was commissioned an ensign in the United States Navy. On July 14, 1912, he was assigned to the battleship USS Wyoming. During service in the Caribbean Sea, Byrd received his first letter of commendation, a Silver Lifesaving Medal, for twice plunging clothed to the rescue of a sailor who had fallen overboard. In 1914 he was assigned to the gunboat USS Dolphin, which served as the yacht of the Secretary of the Navy; this assignment brought Byrd into contact with high ranking officials and dignitaries including Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt.
During Byrd's assignment to Dolphin she was commanded by future Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, who served as Chief of Naval Operations during World War II. On March 15, 1916, Byrd was medically retired for a foot injury, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and assigned as the Inspector and Instructor for the Rhode Island Naval Militia in Providence, Rhode Island. On December 14, 1916, he was commissioned as a commander in the Rhode Island Naval Militia. In this position he was commended by Brigadier General Charles W. Abbot, the Adjutant General of Rhode Island, with making great strides in improving the efficiency of the Rhode Island Naval Militia. On April 25, 1928, by act of the Rhode Island General Assembly, he was promoted to captain in the Rhode Island Naval Militia in recognition of his flight to the North Pole in 1926. Shortly after the entry of the United States into the First World War in April 1917, Byrd was recalled to active duty and was assigned to the Office of Naval Operations and served as secretary and organizer of the Navy Department Commission on Training Camps and trained men in aviation at the aviation ground school in Pensacola, Florida.
He qualified as a Naval Aviator in June 1918. He commanded naval air forces at Naval Air Station Halifax in Nova Scotia, Canada from July 1918 until the armistice in November. In that assignment he was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant and the temporary rank of lieutenant commander. For his services during the war, he received a letter of commendation from Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, converted to a Navy Commendation Medal. After the war, Byrd's expertise in aerial navigation resulted in his appointment to plan the flight path for the U. S. Navy's 1919 transatlantic crossing. Of the three flying boats that attempted it, only Lieutenant Commander Albert Read's NC-4 aircraft completed the trip, becoming the first transatlantic flight. During the summer of 1923 Lieutenant Byrd, with the assistance of a group of volunteer Navy veterans of the First World War, helped found the Naval Reserve Air Station at Squantum Point near Boston, using an unused First World War seaplane hangar, which had remained more-or-less intact after the Victory Destroyer Plant shipyard was built on the site.
NRAS Squantum was commissioned on August 15, 1923, is considered to have been the first air base in the Naval Reserve program. Byrd commanded the aviation unit of the arctic expedition to North Greenland led by Donald B. MacMillan from June to October 1925. On May 9, 1926, Byrd and Navy Chief Aviation Pilot Floyd Bennett attempted a flight over the North Pole in a Fokker F. VIIa/3m Tri-motor monoplane named Josephine Ford, after the daughter of Ford Motor Company president Edsel Ford, who helped finance the expedition; the flight went from Spitsbergen and back to its take-off airfield, lasting fifteen hours and fifty-seven minutes. Byrd and Bennett claimed to have reached a distance of 1,535 miles; when he returned to the United States from the Arctic, Byrd became a national hero. Congress passed a special act on December 21, 1926, promoting him to the rank of commander and awarding both him and Floyd Bennett the Medal of Honor. Bennett was promoted to the warrant officer rank of Machinist. Byrd and Bennett were presented with Tiffany Cross versions of the Medal of Honor on March 5, 1927 at the White House b
The Dewey Medal was a military decoration of the United States Navy, established by the United States Congress on June 3, 1898. The medal recognizes the leadership of Admiral of the Navy George Dewey, during the Spanish–American War, the Sailors and Marines under his command; the Dewey Medal was created to recognize the forces of the U. S. Navy and United States Marine Corps. To be awarded the Dewey Medal, a service member must have served on one of the following naval vessels on May 1, 1898: USS Baltimore USS Boston USS Concord USRC McCulloch USS Olympia USS Petrel USS RaleighThe colliers USS Nanshan and USS Zafiro were part of Dewey's squadron and supported the Manila Bay operation but are not listed in Navy regulations having their crew members eligible for the Dewey Medal; this is because 1. The ships were not engaged in the battle and 2, they were, at civilian manned ships purchased to support the Navy. Nanshan was commanded by Lieutenant Benjamin W. Hodges, USN but technically remained a merchant ship so she could resupply at neutral ports which simplified the squadron's logistics.
Zafiro was commanded by Ensign Henry A. Pearson, USN and, like Nanshan, was technically a merchant ship at the time of the battle. Both ships were commissioned in the Navy; the Dewey Medal was a one-time only decoration and there were no devices or campaign stars authorized to the medal. The medal consists of a circular medallion, upon which rests an image of Admiral George Dewey, suspended from a blue and yellow ribbon. Admiral Dewey was awarded the medal, out of modesty, he always wore it with the medal's reverse displayed which depicted a sailor sitting on a gun. Dewey had the rare distinction of being one of only four Americans entitled to wear a medal with their own image on it; the others were Rear Admiral William T. Sampson, Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd and General of the Armies John J. Pershing; the medal was recognized as being given for active military duty. When worn on a military uniform the Dewey Medal was considered senior to the Sampson Medal, although there were no individuals who received both medals.
The Dewey Medal is one of a few United States military awards to have fewer recipients than the Medal of Honor. This medal was designed by celebrated artist Daniel Chester French, who sculpted the statue of a seated Lincoln in Washington's Lincoln Memorial and the Minuteman statue at Concord, Mass; the medal was struck by Co.. The front, or obverse, depicts a bust of Commodore George Dewey. On the back, or reverse, is included the name of the vessel on which the recipient served; the name of the recipient is engraved on the medal's lower rim, this being one of only two service medals issued named to the recipient
San Juan de Ulúa
San Juan de Ulúa known as Castle of San Juan de Ulúa, is a large complex of fortresses and one former palace on an island of the same name in the Gulf of Mexico overlooking the seaport of Veracruz, Mexico. Juan de Grijalva's 1518 expedition named the island. On Easter Sunday 1519, Hernan Cortés met with Tendile and Pitalpitoque, emissaries from Moctezuma II's Aztec Empire; the fort was built in the Spanish colonial New Spain era, with construction starting in 1565. It was expanded several times later. In 1568, the Spanish Navy succeeded in trapping the English fleet of Sir John Hawkins, including his cousin, the young Francis Drake, at San Juan de Ulúa. Although Hawkins and Drake both escaped on their respective ships, many of the English were killed. Richard Hakluyt's book, The Principal Navigations, Voiages and Discoueries of the English Nation, claims Drake and Hawkins were on a private venture, peacefully trading with the local Spanish colonists in violation of Spanish law, when the Spanish naval fleet arrived.
Despite suspicion of treachery, they allowed the Spaniards to take shelter under truce, between San Juan de Ulúa island, on an otherwise open coastline. The attack by the Spanish was a surprise. Historians know that Drake and Hawkins had raided Spanish settlements elsewhere on that voyage; the trade was in African slaves, captured and taken earlier from West Africa. On that occasion, it appears. Historians have speculated that the Spanish colonists traded with them illegally under their threat of raids and attacks. Hawkins and Drake escaped in the ships Minion and Judith, their larger ships were taken or destroyed; the attack and subsequent hardships were instrumental in hardening Drake's attitude against Spain and Catholicism. Earlier in his life, he and his family had been forced to live in poverty after they were displaced by a Catholic rebellion in England. After Mexico's independence in 1821, a large number of Spanish troops continued to occupy San Juan de Ulúa as late as 1825, it was the last site in the former New Spain to be held by Spain and was surrendered to General Miguel Barragán in November 1825.
The Spanish forces were expelled by President Vicente Guerrero after the failed attempt at re-conquering the country. Since San Juan de Ulúa served as a military and political symbol of Mexican resistance to foreign invasions and occupations, several of which took place during the nineteenth century. In 1836 the French occupied to put pressure on the national government. S. occupied the fort and Veracruz, in 1863 the French occupied the city when installing Maximilian I as emperor. For much of the nineteenth century, the fort served as a prison for political prisoners judged to be opposition to the government. Many prominent Mexican politicians spent time. In 1914, the last U. S. invasion and occupation of the port of Veracruz took place as part of the Tampico Affair, against the background of the Mexican Revolution which threatened the regional oil industry, in which Americans were invested. The national legislature awarded the port and city of Veracruz the title of Heroic for the fourth time following this incident.
A portion of San Juan de Ulúa served several times as the presidential palace, housing presidents such as Benito Juárez and Venustiano Carranza. The citadel was used as a prison during the early 20th-century regime of President Porfirio Díaz, it is popularly said that in order to prevent prisoners from escaping, sharks were put into the waters surrounding the island, so that they would kill anyone attempting to escape. The worst pesthole in Veracruz, though not so evident to the public eye, was the prison of San Juan de Ulúa. For several days after the port had been occupied, the Americans made no attempt to take the fortress. Incongruously, the Mexican flag was raised and lowered each day by the garrison of the fort, this with the gunboat Prairie anchored but a few yards away. After three days, however, a party of marines from North Dakota rowed over to the island to take charge of the fort; the Mexican commander was pleased to surrender. His men had nothing to eat, he black bean soup. At the order of the marine commander he threw back the great iron gates to the cell area.
To the Americans it was as though a hole had been opened into Dante’s Inferno. Several hundred men were huddled together in a series of cavernlike cells, each about forty feet long and fifteen feet wide; the marines were overcome by the stench and the maniacal outcries of the prisoners. The convicts were filthy and in rags. Many had tuberculosis; the condition of the political prisoners, the men who had tried to escape military service, was bad enough. But In another hole, where the criminal prisoners were incarcerated, it was more foul; the men inside were like animals. There were no toilets in any of the cells, or in the cell area, rats, cockroaches and fleas infested the whole prison. By orders of General Funston the political prisoners were given their freedom; some returned to their homes in various parts of the Republic. Only those criminal prisoners who, in the judgment of the military government, had been justly convicted, were kept in custody, these were transferred to better and more sanitary quarters in the city jail.
The cleanup of the prison was a more prodigious job than that of the marke
Philippine Campaign Medal
The Philippine Campaign Medal is a medal of the United States Armed Forces, created to denote service of U. S. military members in the Philippine–American War between the years of 1899 and 1913. Although a single service medal, the Philippine Campaign Medal was issued under separate criteria for both the United States Army and the U. S. Navy; the Philippine Campaign Medal was a separate award from the Philippine Congressional Medal, an Army medal awarded for special services rendered during the Philippine–American War. The Army's version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was established on January 12, 1905 by order of the United States War Department; the medal was authorized to any Army service member who had served in campaigns ashore, on the Philippine Islands, from February 4, 1899 to a date, yet to be determined. In January 1914, the Philippine Campaign Medal was declared closed with the following the approved operations for issuance. Any action in the Philippines between February 4, 1899 and July 4, 1902.
Service in the Department of Mindanao between February 4, 1899 and December 31, 1904. Actions against the Pulajanes on Leyte Island between July 20, 1906 and June 30, 1907 Military actions on Samar between August 2, 1904, June 30, 1907. Military actions against Pala on Jolo between April and May, 1905. Military actions against Datu Ali on Mindanao in October 1905. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mount Bud-Dajo, Jolo in March 1906. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mount Bagsac, between January and July 1913. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mindanao or Jolo between 1910 and 1913. Any action in which a U. S. service member was killed or wounded between February 4, 1899, December 31, 1913. The Army's Philippine Campaign Medal was issued as a one time service medal regardless of the number of campaigns in which a service member participated; the Silver Citation Star was authorized for those who had performed feats of bravery. The Navy version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was established on June 27, 1908 by special order of the United States Navy Department.
The obverse of this medal was the same for both services, while the reverse included the service name. To be awarded the Philippine Campaign Medal, a Navy or Marine Corps service member was required to perform service in the Philippine Islands between the dates of February 4, 1899 and December 31, 1904; such service was required to be either ashore in support of Army units or on board certain vessels assigned to the area of the Philippine Sea. The Navy version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was as a one-time award with no devices authorized; the Army and Navy versions of the Philippine Campaign Medal varied in the design with the Army's version of the award displaying a bronze medallion with the words "Philippine Insurrection" centered above the year numeral 1898 and below a palm tree and Roman lamp. The ribbon for the Army's medal consisted of a wide blue ribbon with two red stripes; the Navy Philippine Campaign Medal was considered a separate award from the Army medal and appeared as suspended from a red and yellow ribbon.
On August 12, 1913, the Navy changed the ribbon color to match the Army's version of the award and from that point on the Army and Navy Philippine Campaign Medals were considered the same award but with different medal styles. The Navy's Philippine Campaign Medal displayed a bronze medallion with the words "Philippine Campaign", centered above the dates "1898–1903", below a depiction of a stone gate leading into Manila. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Philippine Campaign Medal Navy History and Heritage Command The Philippine Campaign Medal