Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Mexica War, was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies and the defeated Aztecs, it was not a contest between a small contingent of Spaniards defeating the Aztec Empire but rather the creation of a coalition of Spanish invaders with tributaries to the Aztecs, most the Aztecs' indigenous enemies and rivals. They combined forces to defeat the Mexica of Tenochtitlan over a two-year period. For the Spanish, the expedition to Mexico was part of a project of Spanish colonization of the New World after twenty-five years of permanent Spanish settlement and further exploration in the Caribbean. Following an earlier expedition led by Juan de Grijalva to Yucatán in 1517, Spanish settler, Hernán Cortés, led an expedition to Mexico. Two years in 1519, Cortés and his retinue set sail from Cuba for Mexico.
The Spanish campaign against the Aztec Empire had its final victory on August 13, 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured the emperor Cuauhtemoc and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The fall of Tenochtitlan marks the beginning of Spanish rule in central Mexico, they established their capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Cortés made alliances with tributaries city-states of the Aztec Empire as well as their political rivals the Tlaxcalteca and Texcocans, a former partner in the Aztec Triple Alliance. Other city-states joined, including Cempoala and Huexotzinco and polities bordering Lake Texcoco, the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico. Important to the Spanish success was a multilingual indigenous slave woman, known to the Spanish conquistadors as Doña Marina, as La Malinche. After eight months of battles and negotiations, which overcame the diplomatic resistance of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II to his visit, Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519, where he took up residence with fellow Spaniards and their indigenous allies.
When news reached Cortés of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, he took Moctezuma captive, along with Cuitláhuac, his kinsman. Capturing the cacique or indigenous ruler was standard operating procedure for Spaniards in their expansion in the Caribbean, so capturing Moctezuma had considerable precedent; when Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, sent to rein in Cortés's expedition that had exceeded its specified limits, Cortés's right-hand man Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge. Alvarado allowed a significant Aztec feast to be celebrated in Tenochtitlan and on the pattern of the earlier massacre in Cholula, closed off the square and massacred the celebrating Aztec noblemen; the official biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre. The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city.
Moctezuma was killed. According to one account, when Moctezuma, now seen by the population as a mere puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace, he was killed by a projectile. According to an indigenous account, the Spanish killed Moctezuma. Cortés had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the capital city during the Noche Triste in June 1520; the Spanish and reinforcements returned a year on August 13, 1521 to a civilization, weakened by famine and smallpox. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before, including Cortés. A whole generation of Spaniards participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises; the Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices. The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which became Mexico. Historical sources for the conquest of Mexico recount some of the same events in both Spanish and indigenous sources.
Others, are unique to a particular primary source or group narrating the event. Individuals and groups laud their own accomplishments, while denigrating or ignoring those of their opponents or their allies or both. 1428 – Creation of the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan 1492-3 – Columbus reaches the Caribbean. One of the enslaved Nahua woman (known as La Malinche, Doña Marina
Constitution of Mexico
The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention, during the Mexican Revolution, it was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor to the Constitution of 1857, earlier Mexican constitutions; the current Constitution of 1917 is the first such document in the world to set out social rights, serving as a model for the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Russian Constitution of 1918. Some of the most important provisions are Articles 3, 27, 123. Aimed at restricting the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, Article 3 established the basis for a free and secular education. Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, 130 restricted the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, attempts to enforce the articles by President Plutarco Calles in 1926 led to the violent conflict known as the Cristero War. In 1992, under the administration of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, there were significant revisions of the constitution, modifying Article 27 to strengthen private property rights, allow privatization of ejidos and end redistribution of land — and the articles restricting the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico were repealed.
Constitution Day is one of Mexico's annual Fiestas Patrias, commemorating the promulgation of the Constitution on 5 February 1917. Although the official anniversary is on 5 February, the holiday takes place on the first Monday of February regardless of the date; the constitution was founded on seven fundamental ideals: A declaration of rights Sovereignty of the nation Separation of powers Representative government A federal system Constitutional remedy Supremacy of the State over the Church The Constitution is divided into "Titles" which are series of articles related to the same overall theme. The Titles, of variable length, are: First Title: Chapter I: Of Human Rights and their Guarantees Chapter II: On Mexicans Chapter III, On Foreigners Chapter IV: On Mexican Citizens Second Title: Chapter I: On National Sovereignty and Form of Government Chapter II: On the Parts That Make Up the Federation and the National Territory Third Title: Chapter I: On the Separation of Powers Chapter II: On the Legislative Power Chapter III: On the Executive Power Chapter IV: On the Judicial Power Fourth Title: About the responsibilities of the public service and the patrimony of the State Fifth Title: About the States of the Federation and the Federal District Sixth Title: About Work and Social Welfare Seventh Title: General Provisions Eighth Title About Reforms to the Constitution Ninth Title: About the Inviolability of the Constitution The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is one of the outcomes of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 won by the Constitutionalist faction led by Venustiano Carranza.
Carranza convoked a congress to draft the new constitution. Carranza excluded the zapatista factions from this congress, it replaced the liberal Constitution of 1857, extending that constitution's restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. Its innovations were in expanding the Mexican state's power into the realms of economic nationalism, political nationalism, protection of workers' rights. Unlike the congresses that produced the 1824 Mexican Constitution and the 1857 Constitution over a lengthy period, the Constituent Congress produced the final draft in a matter of a few months, between November 1916 and February 1917; the constitution was "a means to confer legitimacy on a shaky regime." One interpretation of the speed with which the document was drafted and Carranza's acceptance of some provisions that were radical "suggests that what Carranza and his colleagues chiefly wanted was a Constitution, the hypothetical contents of which could be reviewed and ignored." The Liberal Party of Mexico's 1906 political program proposed a number of reforms that were incorporated into the 1917 Constitution.
Article 123 incorporated its demands for the 8-hour day, minimum wage, hygienic working conditions, prohibitions on abuse of sharecroppers, payment of wages in cash, not scrip, banning of company stores, Sunday as an obligatory day of rest. Article 27 of the Constitution incorporated some of the PLM's d
Second Federal Republic of Mexico
For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; the sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna.
Santa Anna went into the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico. Liberals enacted a series of separate reforms and the Constitution of 1857, collectively known as the Liberal Reform, which sparked a civil war, known as the War of the Reform; the conservatives lost the War of the Reform. After losing the war, conservatives sought another political alternative, which involved the second French intervention in Mexico, with Mexican conservative support, established the Second Mexican Empire. Mexican conservatives' political interests were in tandem with the expansionism of Napoleon III of France. Conservatives invited Maximilian Hapsburg to serve as monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. Mexican republicans fought against the French invaders and were defeated on the battlefield, but Benito Juárez did not resign the presidency, operated a government in exile, which the United States continued to recognize as the legitimate Mexican government; the republic was restored by Juárez in 1867 after the withdrawal of the French and the execution of Maximilian.
With conservatives discredited by their support of the ill-fated monarchy, Juárez was able to implement liberal policies. This period of federalism in Mexico is known as the Restored Republic, lasting from 1867 to the 1876 coup of liberal army general, Porfirio Díaz, ushering in a long period of authoritarian rule and economic development known as the Porfiriato; the liberal constitution remained nominally in force, with regular elections held that were seen as fraudulent. The Constitution of 1857 was supplanted by the Mexican Constitution of 1917, as an outcome of the Mexican Revolution. In the midst of war with the United States, Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga staged a coup against the government of interim President José Joaquín de Herrera. Shortly afterwards, the Congress appointed him interim president. On July 28, 1846 Mariano Paredes left the presidency to command the army in battle against the invaders from the United States, vice president Bravo took office. On August 4 the federalists led an uprising.
Mariano Salas took office as provisional president on August 6. With the constitution again in force, centralism ended and the federal system was restored; the war between Mexico and the United States began on May 13, 1846, but there had been battles before that date. Mexico, in turn, declared war on the United States on May 23. After the declarations of war, US forces invaded Mexican territory in Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila and Alta California, while at the same time blocking the ports of Tampico, Guaymas and San Blas and occupying Santa Fe, San Diego and Los Angeles; the main US force continued through to the Rio Grande and into Mexico, defeating the forces of Pedro Ampudia in the Battle of Monterrey. On December 24, the Congress declared Antonio López de Santa Anna acting president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice president. Gómez Farías assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, fighting the US. After the battles of Angostura, Padierna and Molino del Rey, the Castle of Chapultepec was defended by young cadets who became known as Niños Héroes.
During the assault, the castle's commanders, were taken prisoner. The fall of Chapultepec had two immediate consequences: the US occupation of Mexico City and the resignation of Santa Anna from the presidency on September 16, 1847. Following the resignation of Santa Anna, Manuel de la Peña y Peña assumed the office. On September 26 he established the seat of federal power in nearby Toluca and in Querétaro, where Congress convened. On November 11, De la Peña left office to serve as chancellor and negotiate peace with the United States Congress. Anaya, refusing to satisfy the land claims of the United States, resigned on January 8, 1848. Manuel de la Pena y Pena was again named provisional president, was dedicated to negotiating peace. On February 2 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, in which Mexico ceded 2,400,000 square kilometres of northern territo
Petróleos Mexicanos, which translates to Mexican Petroleum, but is trademarked and better known as Pemex, is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, created in 1938 by nationalization or expropriation of all private and domestic oil companies at that time. Pemex had total assets worth $415.75 billion, was the world's second-largest non-publicly listed company by total market value, Latin America's second-largest enterprise by annual revenue as of 2009, surpassed only by Petrobras. The majority of its shares are not listed publicly and are under control of the Mexican government, with the value of its publicly listed shares totaling $202 billion in 2010, representing one quarter of the company's total net worth. Asphalt and pitch had been worked in Mexico since the time of the Aztecs. Small quantities of oil were first refined into kerosene around 1876 near Tampico. By 1917 commercial quantities of oil were being extracted and refined by subsidiaries of the British Pearson and American Doheny companies, had attracted the attention of the Mexican government who claimed all mineral rights for the state as part of its Constitution.
In 1938, President Lázaro Cárdenas sided with oil workers striking against foreign-owned oil companies for an increase in pay and social services. On March 18, 1938, citing Article 27 of the Constitution of 1917, President Cárdenas embarked on the state-expropriation of all resources and facilities, nationalizing the United States and Anglo–Dutch operating companies, creating Pemex, he is famous in saying in his speech addressing the nation, I ask the entire nation to furnish the necessary moral and material support to face the consequences of a decision which we, of our own free will, would neither have sought nor desired. He framed expropriation as a necessary national response to the injustice of the operations of foreign companies operating on Mexican soil. Expropriation was not outright confiscation, since the Mexican government promised to compensate companies. However, in retaliation, many foreign governments closed their markets to Mexican oil. In spite of the boycott, Pemex developed into one of the largest oil companies in the world and helped Mexico become the fifth-largest oil exporter in the world.
In an interview on the oil news website in November 2005, a Pemex employee spoke anonymously of the company's inability to grow production, stating that the company and country is at Hubbert's Peak. The person interviewed believed export levels could not be recovered once peak had passed, as the size of current fields that have been discovered or are coming online represent a fraction of the size of the oilfields going into terminal decline. Annual production has dropped each year since 2004. Furthermore, it has been reported the 2005–2006 daily oil production was down by 500,000 barrels per day on the previous year. Pemex averaged 3.71 MMBPD in 2006. Pemex has never produced 4 MMBPD or higher for a yearly average. Pemex has been replaced as Latin America's largest company by Petrobras, according to the latest Latin Business Chronicle ranking of Latin America's Top 500 companies. To help capitalize the company, former President Vicente Fox brought forward the possibility of making shares of Pemex available to Mexican citizens and pension funds, to complement a current project-specific investment setup known as "Proyectos de Inversión Diferida En El Registro del Gasto".
President Felipe Calderón made clear at the beginning of his presidency that he would try his best to open up the sector to private investment. Pemex is Latin America's second-largest company measured by revenues, according to a ranking of the region's 500 largest companies by Latin Business Chronicle, behind Brazilian oil company Petrobras. In June 2009, Pemex has asked for an extra $1.5 billion state aid to finance oil fields investments, reported Bloomberg. President Calderón called for change in Mexico's oil industry after output at Pemex fell at the fastest rate since 1942, his comments came after Petrobras and London-based BP said they made a "giant" oil find of as much as 3 billion barrels in the Gulf of Mexico southeast of Houston. According to Mexican Energy Minister Georgina Kessel, Mexico may seek to emulate Brazilian Oil rules that strengthened Petroleo Brasileiro SA as it considers regulation changes to revive the oil industry. In January 2014 Pemex signed a cooperation agreement with the Russian oil company Lukoil focusing on oil production and field exploration as well as exchange of knowledge in the aforementioned areas, including actions for ecological preservation and environmental protection.
In February 2016, Emilio Lozoya Austin stepped down as CEO of Pemex, was replaced by Dr. José Antonio González Anaya. On November 27, 2017, Dr. José Antonio González Anaya was appointed to be the Secretary of Finance and Public Credit. Carlos Alberto Treviño Medina was appointed CEO, sequentially, it is said that Pemex lacks the equipment and financial means to explore for new reserves in deep water or shale gas. In addition to a failing infrastructure, dwindling reserves have created urgency in completing some type of reform. Only 20% of Mexico has been extensively explored for further reserves, it has been argued that Pemex will need the help of some form of foreign investment to explore new reserves, including in the Gulf of Mexico. In February 2015, the b
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses. It had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life; the use of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 to 16 hours, the work week was six days a week. Robert Owen had raised the demand for a ten-hour day in 1810, instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark. By 1817 he had formulated the goal of the eight-hour day and coined the slogan: "Eight hours' labour, Eight hours' recreation, Eight hours' rest". Women and children in England were granted the ten-hour day in 1847. French workers won the 12-hour day after the February Revolution of 1848. A shorter working day and improved working conditions were part of the general protests and agitation for Chartist reforms and the early organisation of trade unions.
The International Workingmen's Association took up the demand for an eight-hour day at its Congress in Geneva in 1866, declaring "The legal limitation of the working day is a preliminary condition without which all further attempts at improvements and emancipation of the working class must prove abortive", "The Congress proposes eight hours as the legal limit of the working day." Karl Marx saw it as of vital importance to the workers' health, writing in Das Kapital: "By extending the working day, capitalist production...not only produces a deterioration of human labour power by robbing it of its normal moral and physical conditions of development and activity, but produces the premature exhaustion and death of this labour power itself."Although there were initial successes in achieving an eight-hour day in New Zealand and by the Australian labour movement for skilled workers in the 1840s and 1850s, most employed people had to wait to the early and mid twentieth century for the condition to be achieved through the industrialised world through legislative action.
The first country to adopt eight-hour working day nationwide was Uruguay. The eight-hour day was introduced on November 1915, in the government of José Batlle y Ordóñez; the first international treaty to mention it was the Treaty of Versailles in the annex of its thirteen part establishing the International Labour Office, now the International Labour Organization. The eight-hour day was the first topic discussed by the International Labour Organization which resulted in the Hours of Work Convention, 1919 ratified by 52 countries as of 2016; the eight-hour day movement forms part of the early history for the celebration of Labour Day, May Day in many nations and cultures. In Iran in 1918, the work of reorganizing the trade unions began in earnest in Tehran during the closure of the Iranian constitutional parliament Majles; the printers' union, established in 1906 by Mohammad Parvaneh as the first trade union, in the Koucheki print shop on Nasserieh Avenue in Tehran, reorganized their union under leadership of Russian-educated Seyed Mohammad Dehgan, a newspaper editor and an avowed Communist.
In 1918, the newly organised union staged a 14-day strike and succeeded in reaching a collective agreement with employers to institute the eight-hours day, overtime pay, medical care. The success of the printers' union encouraged other trades to organize. In 1919 the bakers and textile-shop clerks formed their own trade unions; however the eight-hours day only became as code by a limited governor's decree on 1923 by the governor of Kerman and Balochistan, which controlled the working conditions and working hours for workers of carpet workshops in the province. In 1946 the council of ministers issued the first labor law for Iran, which recognized the eight-hour day; the first company to introduce an eight-hour working day in Japan was the Kawasaki Dockyards in Kobe. An eight-hour day was one of the demands presented by the workers during pay negotiations in September 1919. After the company resisted the demands, a slowdown campaign was commenced by the workers on 18 September. After ten days of industrial action, company president Kōjirō Matsukata agreed to the eight-hour day and wage increases on 27 September, which became effective from October.
The effects of the action were felt nationwide and inspired further industrial action at the Kawasaki and Mitsubishi shipyards in 1921. The eight-hour day did not become law in Japan until the passing of the Labor Standards Act in April 1947. Article 32 of the Act specifies a 40-hour week and paragraph specifies an eight-hour day, excluding rest periods. In Indonesia, the first policy regarding working time regulated in Law No. 13 of 2003 about employment. In the law, it stated that a worker should work for 7 hours a day for 6 days a week or 8 hours a day for 5 days a week, excluding rest periods; the 8-hour work day was introduced in Belgium on September 9, 1924. The 8-hour work day was first introduced in 1907. Within the next few decades, the 8-hour system spread across technically all branches of work. A worker receives 150% payment from the first two extra hours, 200% salary if the work day exceeds 10 hours; the eight-hour day was enacted in France by Georges Clemenceau, as a way to avoid unemployment and diminish communist support.
It was succeeded by a strong French support of it during the writing of the International Labour Organization Convention of 1919. The first German company to introduce the eight-hour day was Degussa; the eight-hour day was signed into law during the German Revolution of 1918. In Hungary, the eight-hour work day was introduced on April 14, 1919 by decree of the Revolutionary Governing Council. In Poland, the eight-hour day was i
Timeline of Mexican history
This is a timeline of Mexican history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events and improvements in Mexico and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see history See the list of heads of state of Mexico and list of years in Mexico. List of years in MexicoCities in MexicoTimeline of Acapulco Timeline of Aguascalientes city Timeline of Campeche city Timeline of Chihuahua city Timeline of Guadalajara Timeline of Guanajuato city Timeline of Ciudad Juárez Timeline of León Timeline of Mérida Timeline of Mexico City Timeline of Monterrey Timeline of Puebla city Timeline of Tijuana Timeline of Villahermosa George Henry Townsend, "Mexico", A Manual of Dates, London: Frederick Warne & Co. William Henry Overall, ed.. "Mexico". Dictionary of Chronology. London: William Tegg. Louis Heilprin. "Mexico". Historical Reference Book... Chronological Dictionary of Universal History. New York: D. Appleton and Company – via Hathi Trust. Charles E. Little, "Mexico", Cyclopedia of Classified Dates, New York: Funk & Wagnalls Benjamin Vincent, "Mexico", Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, London: Ward, Lock & Co.
John Fisher, "Monumental Chronology", Rough Guides, London, p. 601+, OL 24935876M BBC News. "Mexico Profile: Timeline"
Second French intervention in Mexico
The Second French Intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire. Supported by Britain and Spain, the French intervention in Mexico was a consequence of President Benito Juárez's two-year moratorium, on 17 July 1861, of loan-interest payments to French and Spanish creditors. To extend the influence of Imperial France, Napoleon III instigated the intervention in Mexico by claiming that the military adventure was a foreign policy commitment to free trade; the establishment of a friendly monarchy in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets. To realize his imperial ambitions without other European interference, Napoleon III entered into a coalition with Britain and Spain, while the U. S. was occupied with the American Civil War, unable to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. On 31 October 1861, France and Spain agreed to the Convention of London, a joint effort to extract repayments from Mexico. On 8 December, the Spanish fleet disembarked troops at the port of Veracruz, Veracruz, on the Gulf of Mexico.
When the British and the Spanish discovered that France had unilaterally planned to seize Mexico, they withdrew from the military coalition agreed in London. The subsequent French invasion created the Second Mexican Empire, a client state of the French Empire. Besides the Continental empires involved, the Russian Empire acknowledged the political legitimacy of the Maximilian's Second Mexican Empire, when the Tsarist fleet saluted the imperial Mexican flag when sailing off the Pacific Ocean coastal state of Guerrero. In Mexican politics, the French intervention allowed active political reaction against the Liberal policies of racial and socio-economic reform of president Benito Juárez, thus the Roman Catholic Church, upper-class conservatives, much of the Mexican nobility, some Indian communities welcomed and collaborated with the French empire's installation of Maximilian I of Mexico as Emperor of the Mexicans. In European politics, the French intervention in Mexico reconciled the Second French Empire and the Austrian Empire, whom the French had defeated in the Franco–Austrian War of 1859.
French imperial expansion into Mexico counterbalanced the geopolitical power of the Protestant Christian U. S. by developing a powerful Catholic empire in Latin America, the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Mexican north-west. After much guerrilla warfare that continued after the Mexicans' Capture of Mexico City — the French Empire withdrew from Mexico and abandoned the Austrian emperor of Mexico; the British and French fleets arrived at Veracruz, between 8 and 17 December 1861 intending to pressure the Mexicans into settling their debts. The Spanish fleet seized San Juan de Ulúa and subsequently the capital Veracruz on 17 December; the European forces advanced to Orizaba and Tehuacán, as they had agreed in the Convention of Soledad. The city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet on 27 February 1862, a French army, commanded by General Lorencez, arrived on 5 March; when the Spanish and British realised the French ambition was to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces on 9 April, their troops leaving on 24 April.
In May, the French man-of-war Bayonnaise blockaded Mazatlán for a few days. Mexican forces commanded by General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862; the pursuing Mexican army was contained by the French at Veracruz, on 14 June. More French troops arrived on 21 September, General Bazaine arrived with French reinforcements on 16 October; the French occupied the port of Tampico on 23 October, unopposed by Mexican forces took control of Xalapa, Veracruz on 12 December. The French bombarded Veracruz on 15 January 1863. Two months on 16 March, General Forey and the French Army began the siege of Puebla. On 30 April, the French Foreign Legion earned its fame in the Battle of Camarón, when an infantry patrol unit of 62 soldiers and three officers, led by the one-handed Captain Jean Danjou, was attacked and besieged by Mexican infantry and cavalry units numbering three battalions, about 3000 men, they were forced to make a defence in a nearby hacienda. Danjou was mortally wounded at the hacienda, his men mounted an suicidal bayonet attack, fighting to nearly the last man.
To this day, the anniversary of 30 April remains the most important day of celebration for Legionnaires. The French army of General François Achille Bazaine defeated the Mexican army led by General Comonfort in its campaign to relieve the siege of Puebla, at San Lorenzo, to the south of Puebla. Puebla surrendered to the French shortly afterward, on 17 May. On 31 May, President Juárez fled the city with his cabinet, retreating northward to Paso del Norte and to Chihuahua. Having taken the treasure of the state with them, the government-in-exile remained in Chihuahua until 1867. French troops under Bazaine entered Mexico City on 7 June 1863; the main army entered the city three days led by General Forey. General Almonte was appointed the provisional President of Mexico on 16 June, by the Superior Junta; the Superior Junta with its 35 members met on 21 June, proclaimed a Catholic Empire on 10 July. The crown was offered following pressures by Napoleon. Maximilian accepted the crown on 3 October, at the hands of the Comisión Mexicana, sent by the Superior J