Australasia comprises Australia, New Zealand, some neighbouring islands. It is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiographically, ecologically where the term covers several different but related regions. Charles de Brosses coined the term in Histoire des navigations, he derived it from the Latin for "south of Asia" and differentiated the area from Polynesia and the southeast Pacific. In Australia "Australasia" is considered to be Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, the neighbouring islands of the Pacific, while in New Zealand it means Australia, New Zealand and former New Zealand dependencies. Richards, Kel. "Australasia". Wordwatch. ABC News Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-30. Media related to Australasia at Wikimedia Commons
Mezzo DSA is a 13-episode anime series created by Yasuomi Umetsu and the first not to be licensed by Anime Works, but instead licensed by ADV Films. It is a follow up to the 2001 OVA Mezzo Forte. Mikura and Harada are the 3 members of the Danger Service Agency. Mikura is the brawn of the group, Harada is the brains, Kurokawa is just a bitter ex-cop who likes to think he's in charge. They'll take on any job as long, their biggest case, could prove to be finding out why someone wants Kurokawa assassinated. The DSA's headquarters is an old red British double-decker bus, converted into living quarters for the three main characters, it has been placed on the rooftop of a two-story building which houses Mugiyama's barber shop on the ground floor. They drive an old style pink Volkswagen Beetle; the series concerns three characters who comprise the Danger Service Agency, as well as a young acquaintance of theirs. The main characters include: Mikura Suzuki Voiced by: Tomoko Kotani. Mikura is strong proficient at fighting and using firearms, her preferred weapon being the Colt M1911A1 semi-automatic pistol.
She has a limited yet uncontrollable precognitive ability which enables her to see brief glimpses of the future. She is determined, strong willed and can be a cold blooded killer if the situation requires her to be one, she is competitive and unsociable, but she has a kind soul deep down. She has a love of karaoke. Kenichi Kurokawa Voiced by: Taichirō Hirokawa, he is partners with Harada in the DSA, or Danger Service Agency. He drives a pink Volkswagen Beetle, howls at hot women and always cracks lame puns. Mikura and Harada refer to Kurokawa as "Pops" for short, he likes to think that he is in charge, more than not, he arranges jobs for the DSA. His knowledge in underworld dealings is valuable to the team, he is blackmailing his old chief for ammunition for Mikura by holding a DVD showing the chief in a compromising situation with an underaged pop star, Kurokawa is now hunted by an assassin sent by Black Scissors. He is half American. Tomohisa Harada Voiced by: Takumi Yamazaki, he is an expert on Gynoids and all things technical.
Asami Igarashi Voiced by: Miyu Matsuki. S. A, she is picked on by her classmates who bully her for money. When she doesn't have as much money as they would like, they say hurtful comments to her and push her around; therefore she is quiet. She wants to one day become a strong woman like Mikura, she begins hanging around the DSA's headquarters. Chiyoki Mugiyama Voiced by: Yūichi Nagashima, he seems sadistic, likes to give people'the trim' if something goes wrong. He is the source of information for the D. S. A. However, he is the leader of Black Scissors, a mercenary black market group, contracted by Kurokawa's old police captain to kill Kurokawa. There is a selection of minor characters in the series, some of which have major significance with the major ones. Sakura Sakurada Voiced by: Miki Nagasawa, she and Mikura would survive by stealing for their food, until they got separated when Mikura ran interference against then-detective Kurokawa. Sakura's life afterward went on a downward spiral. One night as she was about to be raped by three men, she was rescued by Momomi Momoi, a character introduced in the original OVA as the psychotic daughter of antagonist Momokichi Momoi who singlehandedly killed the rapists.
Since Sakura and Momomi became lesbian lovers, Momomi had taught Sakura how to fight and defend herself. Sakura described Momomi as beautiful as she is terrifying. Sakura was in love with Momomi, so when she found out that Momomi was killed by Mikura, she set out to get revenge by killing Mikura. However, many of her early attempts were unsuccessful because Kurokawa and Harada, who were on an unrelated case, interfered; when she did make an attempt on Mikura's life, she ended up accidentally stabbing herself. As Sakura was dying, she had told Mikura that she found out that Momomi and Mikura were half-sisters; as she was about to die, a Gynoid came crashing out of a window. Hallucinating from her wounds, Sakura thought. Sakura died. Manon Asakura Voiced by: Junko Noda. Harada had a crush on her, but since she was a daughter of Asakura Industries, he saw little chance of saying hello to her. There wa
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
KITE Liberator is a 2008 direct-to-video anime action science fiction film and second installment of the film series. It was directed and written by Yasuomi Umetsu, who directed the first film in the series; the film was released on November 25, 2014 on Blu-ray. Unlike the first installment of the film series, Kite Liberator does not include an extended cut, therefore, it is the first in the franchise not to be a hentai, it was licensed in North America by Cinedigm. Taking place ten years after the events of the original "Kite" film, this second installment opens with Kōichi Doi, a researcher for Defy Foods, boarding the International Space Station. Doi had been researching methods of preserving bone mass in zero gravity through diet. After Orudo Noguchi and another crew member are found to have space radiation exposure and ordered to discontinue missions, Noguchi asks Doi to deliver a package to his daughter Monaka for her birthday. Meanwhile, in Tokyo, two police officers pursue a violent criminal named Tsuin through the streets and into a train station.
After shooting two bystanders in the women's restroom, he takes a young girl hostage and hides in a stall with her. However, the lights go out in the restroom and he is attacked by the assassin known as Sawa the Angel of Death who disarms and shoots him, leaving a pile of feathers on his corpse; that night, the girl that assumes the identity of Sawa, goes to work at Apollo 11, a maid café with a perverted regular patron. Monaka plays the part of a nerdy, clumsy high school girl while in public making her a vulnerable target for harassment. Monaka's older co-worker Manatsu Mukai does not take kindly to that and retaliates in several occasions, such as spiking his drink with habanero or kicking him in the crotch. Monaka's manager receives a phone call from the real Tsuin, who names Rin Gaga as the other Tsuin's killer. Monaka returns home to find the package from her father, a bracelet made from rocks from Mars. Back on the ISS, Orudo and the other crew member's condition has worsened, their bone volume increasing.
The onboard doctor realizes the condition was caused by a combination of the space radiation and Doi's food, allowed to be shipped to the station without proper lab test. The next morning, Monaka makes plans for her next target, a real estate agent, in fact a serial killer that uses an apartment under his brokerage to carry out murders. After school, she sees Mukai with a child; the manager explains that Mukai is a single mother though he does not know what happened to the father. Sawa proceeds to assassinate her target during the night. On the space station and the other infected crew member have transformed into homicidal, bulletproof monsters who kill most of the crew and ISS police units, they are able to stop one of the monsters by blowing up the space station, though they are unable to find the other. The doctor and Doi along with the others are able to escape the station though the incident draws Defy Food Company to hire agents to get rid of evidence that may jeopardize their reputation.
The same night, after working at Apollo 11, Monaka and Mukai converse while playing with fireworks, discussing Mukai's life and reminding her a little of the past. Mukai hints to Monaka the dangers of living a double life. On her way home, Monaka runs into the police officer chasing the pedophile a few days before, she offers to buy him drinks and to quit her waitress job in exchange for him not notifying the school about her working at the maid cafe as a minor although he instead agrees to settle with a date. During Monaka's short conversation with him, Gaga warns Monaka against being too trusting of adults; as one of the monsters from the space station emerges from the sea nearby, agents from Defy Foods demand the doctor's and Doi's silence concerning the space station incident. The next day, Monaka is told that her mission has been deferred as the new priority is to kill the surviving monster, now roaming the city. In preparing for her mission, Monaka's gun choice is noted by the manager of Apollo 11, who says that it's the same gun used by the real Sawa before she disappeared.
The same night, Gaga returns home only to be attacked by Tsuin. After he turns on his TV, Gaga starts the gunfight before Tsuin flees the scene, starting a foot chase. Not so far away, Sawa uses a sniper rifle to engage the monster, only to find it bulletproof like the other one. Upon discovering that none of her weapons including the machine gun and explosive shells work on the monster, which pins her to a wall, she loses one blue contact lens, the monster recognizes her from her bracelet and eyes, it hesitates, giving Sawa enough time to shoot it through the mouth, which proves to be a weak point, causing the monster to fall onto a passing-by car that happens to be part of a convoy that Doi is travelling with. He attempts to show affection towards her but she brushes his hand away just before the car explodes. Doi convinces her to join him and debriefs her as the rest of the convoy recovers the remains of the monster, it is revealed that the monster that she defeated was her father. After Doi learns that she is Monaka, the two agents at the scene attempt to pull their guns on her, but Monaka kills them before executing Doi.
While exiting the garage to find her father, Monaka was ambushed by Tsuin. Tsuin attempts to threaten Gaga with her life. Gaga finds only Tsuin's corpse and Monaka's hair ribbon. Resuming her attempt to find her father, Monaka ru
A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is an individual who takes part in military conflict for personal profit, is otherwise an outsider to the conflict, is not a member of any other official military. Mercenaries fight for money or other forms of payment rather than for political interests. In the last century, mercenaries have come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. Indeed, the Geneva Conventions declare that mercenaries are not recognized as legitimate combatants and do not have to be granted the same legal protections as captured soldiers of a regular army. In practice, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, as financial and political interests may overlap, as was the case among Italian condottieri. Protocol Additional GC 1977 is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions. Article 47 of the protocol provides the most accepted international definition of a mercenary, though not endorsed by some countries, including the United States.
The Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977 states: Art 47. Mercenaries 1. A mercenary shall not have the right to be a prisoner of war. 2. A mercenary is any person who: is recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict. All the criteria must be met, according to the Geneva Convention, for a combatant to be described as a mercenary. According to the GC III, a captured soldier must be treated as a lawful combatant and, therefore, as a protected person with prisoner-of-war status until facing a competent tribunal; that tribunal, using criteria in APGC77 or some equivalent domestic law, may decide that the soldier is a mercenary. At that juncture, the mercenary soldier becomes an unlawful combatant but still must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", being still covered by GC IV Art 5; the only possible exception to GC IV Art 5 is when he is a national of the authority imprisoning him, in which case he would not be a mercenary soldier as defined in APGC77 Art 47.d.
If, after a regular trial, a captured soldier is found to be a mercenary he can expect treatment as a common criminal and may face execution. As mercenary soldiers may not qualify as PoWs, they cannot expect repatriation at war's end; the best known post-World War II example of this was on 28 June 1976 when, at the end of the Luanda Trial, an Angolan court sentenced three Britons and an American to death and nine other mercenaries to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years. The four mercenaries sentenced to death were shot by a firing squad on 10 July 1976; the legal status of civilian contractors depends upon the nature of their work and their nationalities with respect to that of the combatants. If they have not "in fact, taken a direct part in the hostilities", they are not mercenaries but civilians who have non-combat support roles and are entitled to protection under the Third Geneva Convention. On 4 December 1989, the United Nations passed resolution 44/34, the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use and Training of Mercenaries.
It entered into force on 20 October 2001 and is known as the UN Mercenary Convention. Article 1 contains the definition of a mercenary. Article 1.1 is similar to Article 47 of Protocol I, however Article 1.2 broadens the definition to include a non-national recruited to overthrow a "Government or otherwise undermining the constitutional order of a State. Critics have argued that APGC77 Art. 47 are designed to cover the activities of mercenaries in post-colonial Africa and do not address adequately the use of private military companies by sovereign states. The situation during the Iraq War and the continuing occupation of Iraq after the United Nations Security Council-sanctioned hand-over of power to the Iraqi government shows the difficulty of defining a mercenary soldier. While the United States governed Iraq, no U. S. citizen working as an armed guard could be classified as a mercenary because he was a national of a Party to the conflict. With the hand-over of power to the Iraqi government, if one does not consider the coalition forces to be continuing parties to the conflict in Iraq, but that their soldiers are "sent by a State, not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces" unless U.
S. citizens working as armed guards are lawfully certified residents of Iraq, i.e. "a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict", they are involved with