An alphabet is a standard set of letters that represent the phonemes of any spoken language it is used to write. This is in contrast to other types such as syllabaries and logographic systems; the first phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic and Brahmic. Peter T. Daniels, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels, an abjad, in which letters predominantly or represent consonants, an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the Greek alphabet, developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet. Of the dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular is the Latin alphabet, derived from the Greek, which many languages modify by adding letters formed using diacritical marks.
While most alphabets have letters composed of lines, there are exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille. The Khmer alphabet is the longest, with 74 letters. Alphabets are associated with a standard ordering of letters; this makes them useful for purposes of collation by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, in such contexts as numbered lists and number placements; the English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Greek ἀλφάβητος. The Greek word was made from the first two letters and beta; the names for the Greek letters came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet. Sometimes, like in the alphabet song in English, the term "ABCs" is used instead of the word "alphabet". "Knowing one's ABCs", in general, can be used as a metaphor for knowing the basics about anything. The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, to transcribe loan words and foreign names. In the Middle Bronze Age, an "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script appears in Egyptian turquoise mines in the Sinai peninsula dated to circa the 15th century BC left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell discovered an earlier version of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to circa 1800 BC and showing evidence of having been adapted from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to circa 2000 BC suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed about that time. Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs; this script had no characters representing vowels, although it was a syllabary, but unneeded symbols were discarded.
An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three that indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit; the Proto-Sinaitic script developed into the Phoenician alphabet, conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram; this script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Aramaic; the Aramaic gave rise to the Hebrew script. The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not true alphabets, are called abjads exemplified in scripts including Arabic and Syriac; the omission of vowels was not always a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants are sometimes used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable. These letters have a dual function since they are used as pure consonants.
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other used writing systems at the time, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Linear B. The Phoenician script was the first phonemic script and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically; the script was spread by the Phoenicians across the Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West; the vowels have independent letter forms separate from those of consonants. The Greeks chose letters representing sounds. Vowels are significant in the Greek language, the syllabical Linear B scri
Wiigwaasabak are birch bark scrolls, on which the Ojibwa people of North America wrote complex geometrical patterns and shapes. When used for Midewiwin ceremonial use, these scrolls are called mide-wiigwaas; these enabled the memorization of complex ideas, passing along history and stories to succeeding generations. Several such scrolls are in museums, including one on display at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC. In addition to birchbark and slate may have been used, along with hides and other artifacts; some archaeologists are presently trying to determine the exact origins and locations of their use. Many scrolls were hidden away in man-made pits; the bark of the paper birch tree provides an excellent writing material. A stylus of either bone, metal or wood is used to inscribe these ideographs on the soft inner bark. Black charcoal is used to fill the scratches to make them easier to see. To form a scroll, pieces of inscribed bark are stitched together using wadab. To prevent unrolling, the scroll is lashed placed in a cylindrically-shaped wiigwaasi-makak for safe-keeping.
Scrolls were recopied after so many years, stored in dry locations underground in special containers, or in caves. Elders recopied the scrolls over time, some were hidden away in remote areas for safekeeping. Scrolls were kept hidden to avoid improper interpretations and to avoid ridicule or disrespect of the teachings; some scrolls are details of Midewiwin rituals and medicine lodges. Some of the oldest maps of North America were made by natives, who wrote on birch bark for explorers and traders to follow; some scrolls give the history of the Ojibway migration from Eastern North America to further west. They indicate the discovery of miigis shells along their migration through the Great Lakes region; these shells are used in Midewiwin ceremonies, Whiteshell Provincial Park is named after these kinds of shells that grow in salt water oceans, not in fresh water, which indicates a large trading and traveling network. The Ojibwa peoples of the Great Lakes region used birch bark to keep records for instructional and guidance purposes.
Songs and healing recipes were readable by members of the tribe. Either through engraving or with the use of red and blue pigment, scrolls could contain any number of pictorial representations. Birch bark scrolls could measure anywhere from centimeters to several meters; the scrolls and traditions are still alive today, passed along from generation to generation. The Midewiwin are a traditional group that still keeps their teachings alive. There is some secrecy involved to keep the scrolls safe, to interpret them and to wait until there is more respect for this ancient language system. Scrolls are passed along and the oral teachings that go with them. Complex stories are memorized with the use of the pictures on the scrolls. There are many claims made by elders and indigenous teachers that humans have existed in North America before the last ice age, ancient ways of writing and other ancient skills and artifacts may provide some clues to the migration patterns and history of North American and South American peoples.
Twentieth century archaeology has confirmed that Native Americans have been using birch bark scrolls for over 400 years. In 1965 the archaeologist Kenneth Kidd reported on two finds of "trimmed and fashioned pieces of birch bark on which have been scratched figures of animals, men, mythological creatures, esoteric symbols" in the Head-of-the-Lakes region of Ontario; some of these resembled scrolls used by the Mide Society of the Ojibwa. Kidd concluded "These two finds of'birch bark scrolls' and associated artifacts indicates that Indians of this region deposited such artifacts in out-of-the-way places in the woods, either by burying them or by secreting them in caves; the period or periods at which this was done is far from clear. But in any event, archaeologists should be aware of the custom and not overlook the possibility of their discovery." Another scroll from a different collection was dated to about 1560, +/-70 years. Birch bark document – ancient and medieval documents from Eurasia Midewiwin mazinibaganjigan – Birch bark folk art by biting a design into birch bark jiimaan – Canoe made using birch bark maniwiigwaasekomaan – Knife for harvesting birch bark wiigiwaam – Wigwam made using birch bark wiigwaasi-makak – boxes and other containers made of birch bark wiigwaas-onaagan – dishes and trays made of birch bark Petroforms Petroglyphs Rock Art Benton-Banai, Edward.
The Mishomis Book - The Voice of the Ojibway.. Copway, George. "The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation.". Deleary, Nicholas. "The Midewiwin, an aboriginal spiritual institution. Symbols of continuity: a native studies culture-based perspective." Carleton University MA Thesis, M. A. 1990. Densmore, Frances. Chippewa Customs.. Dewdney, Selwyn Hanington; the Sacred Scrolls of the Southern Ojibway.. Edwards, Brendan Frederick R. Paper Talk: A history of libraries, print culture, Aboriginal peoples in Canada before 1960.. Hoffman, Walter James. "The Midewiwin, or'Grand Medicine Society', of the Ojibwa" in Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Bureau of Ethnology Report, v. 7, pp. 149-299.. Landes, Ruth. Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin.. Vecsey
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continent, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were exterminated, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Many pre-Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent settlements, agriculture and monumental architecture, major earthworks, complex societal hierarchies.
Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European colonies and the arrival of enslaved Africans, are known only through archaeological investigations and oral history. Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records; because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few hidden documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era. Many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives.
Before the development of archaeology in the 19th century, historians of the pre-Columbian period interpreted the records of the European conquerors and the accounts of early European travelers and antiquaries. It was not until the nineteenth century that the work of men such as John Lloyd Stephens, Eduard Seler and Alfred P. Maudslay, of institutions such as the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, led to the reconsideration and criticism of the European sources. Now, the scholarly study of pre-Columbian cultures is most based on scientific and multidisciplinary methodologies. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait and along the coast. Genetic evidence found in Amerindians' maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout South America; when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate.
One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago. However, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed; some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago. The chronology of migration models is divided into two general approaches; the first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the Americas occurring no earlier than 14,000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at a much earlier date 50,000–40,000 years ago or earlier. Artifacts have been found in both North and South America which have been dated to 14,000 years ago, accordingly humans have been proposed to have reached Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America by this time. In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a much date no more than 2,000 years ago, moving across the ice from Siberia into Alaska.
The North American climate was unstable. It stabilized by about 10,000 years ago. Within this time frame pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified; the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The Paleo-Indians were hunter-gatherers characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of 20 to 50 members of an extended family; these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon and ancient bison. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included distinctive projectile points and knives, as well as less distinctive implements used for butchering and hide processing. The vastness of the North American continent, the variety of its climates, vegetation and landforms, led ancient peoples to coalesce into many distinct linguistic and cultural groups.
This is reflected in the oral histories of the indigenous peoples, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories which say that a given people have been living in a certain territory since the creation of the world. Over the course of thousands of years, paleo-Indian
Archaic period (North America)
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, taken to last from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development. The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts and shellfish; as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming, this date can vary across the Americas. The rest of the Americas have an Archaic Period; this classification system was first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in the accepted 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. In the organization of the system, the Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and is superseded by the Formative stage; the Lithic stage The Archaic stage The Formative stage The Classic stage The Post-Classic stageNumerous local variations have been identified within the cultural rankings.
The period has been subdivided by region and time. For instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara and Chihuahua cultures. Since the 1990s, secure dating of multiple Middle Archaic sites in northern Louisiana and Florida has challenged traditional models of development. In these areas, hunter-gatherer societies in the Lower Mississippi Valley organized to build monumental earthwork mound complexes as early as 3500 BC, with building continuing over a period of 500 years; such early mound sites as Frenchman's Bend and Hedgepeth were of this time period. Watson Brake is now considered to be the oldest mound complex in the Americas, it precedes. More than 100 sites have been identified as associated with the regional Poverty Point culture of the Late Archaic period, it was part of a regional trading network across the Southeast. Across what is now the Southeastern United States, starting around 4000 BC, people exploited wetland resources, creating large shell middens.
Middens developed where the people lived along rivers, but there is limited evidence of Archaic peoples along the coastlines prior to 3000 BC. Archaic sites on the coast may have been inundated by rising sea levels. Starting around 3000 BC, evidence of large-scale exploitation of oysters appears. During the period 3000 BC to 1000 BC, shell rings, large shell middens that more or less surround open centers, were developed along the coast of the Southeastern United States; these shell rings are numerous in South Carolina and Georgia, but are found scattered around the Florida Peninsula and along the Gulf of Mexico coast as far west as the Pearl River. In some places, such as Horr's Island in Southwest Florida, resources were rich enough to support sizable mound-building communities year-round. Four shell or sand mounds on Horr's Island have been dated to between 4,870 and 4,270 Before Present. Early Archaic8000 BC: The last glacial ends, causing sea levels to rise and flood the Beringia land bridge, closing the primary migration route from Siberia.
8000 BC: Sufficient rain falls on the American Southwest to support many large mammal species--mammoth, a bison species-—that soon go extinct. 8000 BC: Hunters in the American Southwest use the atlatl. 7500 BC: Early basketry. 7560—7370 BC: Kennewick Man dies along the shore of the Columbia River in Washington State, leaving one of the most complete early Native American skeletons. 7000 BC: Northeastern peoples depend on deer and wild grains as the climate warms. 7000 BC: Native Americans in Lahontan Basin, Nevada mummify their dead to give them honor and respect, evidencing deep concern about their treatment and condition. Middle Archaic6500 BC–200 AD: The San Dieguito-Pinto tradition and Chihuahua Tradition flourish in southern California, the Southwest, northwestern Mexico. 6000 BC: Ancestors of Penutian-speaking peoples settle in the Northwestern Plateau. 6000 BC: Nomadic hunting bands roam Subarctic Alaska following herds of caribou and other game animals. 6000 BC: Aleuts begin to arrive in the Aleutian Islands.
5700 BC: Cataclysmic eruption of Mount Mazama in Oregon. 5500 BC–500 AD Oshara Tradition, a Southwestern Archaic Tradition, arises in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, southeastern Utah. Natives of the Northwestern Plateau begin to rely on salmon runs. 5000 BC: Early cultivation of food crops began in Mesoamerica. 5000 BC: Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest from Alaska to California develop a fishing economy, with salmon as a staple. 5000 BC: The Old Copper Culture of the Great Lakes area hammers the metal into various tools and ornaments, such as knives, awls, bracelets and pendants. 5000 BC–200 AD: The Cochise Tradition arises in the American Southwest. Native Americans in the northern Great Lakes produce copper tools and utensils traded throughout the Great Plains and Ohio Valley. Shell ornaments and copper items at Indian Knoll in Kentucky evidence an extensive trade system over several millennia. 4000 BC: Inhabitants of Mesoamerica cultivate maize while Peruvian natives cultivate beans and squash.
4000–1000 BC: Old Copper Complex emerges in the Great Lakes region 3500 BC: The largest, oldest drive site at Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Canada. 3500–3000 BC: Construction of extensive mound complex built at Watson Brake in the floodplain of the Ouachita River near Monroe in northern Louisiana. Shell ornaments and copper items at Indian Knoll, Kentucky evi
Abbé Pierre Antoine Simon Maillard was a French-born Roman Catholic priest. He is noted for his contributions to the creation of a writing system for the Mi'kmaq indigenous people of Île Royale, Cape Breton Island, Canada, he is credited with helping negotiate a peace treaty between the British and Mi'kmaq people, which resulted in the Burying the Hatchet Ceremony. He was the first Catholic priest in Halifax and is buried in the St. Peter's Cemetery in downtown Halifax. Maillard was born in the diocese of Chartres, France around 1710, he received his ecclesiastical training at the Séminaire de Saint-Esprit in Paris. In 1734 the Abbé de L'Isle-Dieu selected Maillard in a group of seminarists lent to the Séminaire des Missions Étrangeres, short of personnel. After eight months in that institution, Maillard was selected for the Mi'kmaq missions on Cape Breton Island, his recommendation letter stated "he is a young priest who has edified us.. Full of zeal and piety." Maillard arrived at Fortress Louisbourg on the ship Rubis on 13 August 1735.
He worked extensively with the Mi'kmaq people. He became a witness to, a reluctant participant in the ongoing struggles between French and British forces for control of the area. Maillard immersed himself in learning and becoming proficient in the language of the natives, he devoted himself to missionary work, visiting all the settlements on Île Royale, Île Saint-Jean and English Acadia. He pleaded for additional assistance from his French superiors, who responded by sending Jean-Louis Le Loutre; the two worked together on developing the written language. In 1740 Maillard was appointed Bishop of Quebec's vicar-general for Île Royale. In 1742 this position created friction between his superiors and the provincial of the Recollets of Brittany, who wanted his men to be independent of Maillard's control. Maillard took every opportunity to criticize the conduct of those workers; this arrangement continued until 1754, when Bishop Pontbriand confirmed Maillard in his functions as vicar general, which he exercised alone from that point on.
Along with Abbe Le Loutre, Maillard was involved in supporting the Mi'kmaq and Acadians throughout King George's War. He was present when Annapolis Royal was under siege, after the fall of Louisbourg in June 1745, Maillard encouraged Micmaq warriors to mount raids against British forces. In the closing months of 1745 the British sent him to Boston. From there he was deported to France. However, he returned to Acadia on with the Duc d'Anville Expedition, coordinated with Father Le Loutre, he took active part in military campaigns during the winter of 1746-47 directed by Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas-Roch de Ramezay, such as the Battle of Grand Pre. During Father Le Loutre's War, Maillard encouraged the Mi'kmaq declaration of war against the British. Maillard was involved with resisting the founding of Halifax, Nova Scotia in the summer of 1749. In an attempt to remove his influence from the ongoing events in the area, Halifax Governor Edward Cornwallis tried to persuade Maillard to retire to Minas Basin.
In apparent response to this pressure, the French King awarded Maillard an 800 livre annual pension in 1750, another assistant was dispatched to assist Maillard with his workload. From his mission on Île de la Sainte-Famille, Maillard continued to incite his Mi'kmaq contacts to a state of war until 1758. To assist the religious efforts Maillard self-financed construction of buildings on Île de la Sainte-Famille in the south of Grand Lac de La Brador, where his main mission was located. During the French and Indian War, Maillard relocated to Malagomich in order to escape the ever-increasing British presence, he was still there on 26 November 1759, when he and several other French missionaries accepted an offer of peace from British Major Schomberg, In light of this acceptance, French military officer Jean-François Bourdon de Dombourg dispatched an accusatory dossier against the missionaries to the French Governor of the Canadian Territories, who thereupon accused the missionaries of treason and dispatched a military officer to Restigouche to investigate.
To this officer Maillard sent a letter detailing the near-hopeless situation of the Mi'kmaq, in which he opened "by summing up 23 years.. Spent in this country in the service of our Religion and our Prince." He had indeed treated for peace with the British because of the hopeless situation, as he tried to explain. Shortly afterward, Maillard accepted an invitation from Nova Scotia Governor Charles Lawrence to travel to Halifax and assist in pacifying the Mi'kmaq peoples, he became a British official. He asked for permission to maintain an oratory at a Halifax battery, where he held Catholic services for Acadians and Mi'kmaqs in the area. In his official capacity Maillard was able to obtain agreement from most of the tribal chiefs to sign peace treaties with the British in Halifax. In July 1762 Maillard fell ill. On 12 August he died, attended by Anglican clergyman Thomas Wood. Maillard was accorded a State Funeral by the Nova Scotia Governor.
In the sequence of cultural stages first proposed for the archaeology of the Americas by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, as post-glacial hunters and collectors spread through the Americas. The stage derived its name from the first appearance of Lithic flaked stone tools; the term Paleo-Indian is an alternative indicating much the same period. This stage was conceived of as embracing two major categories of stone technology: unspecialized and unformulated core and flake industries, with percussion the dominant and only technique employed, industries exhibiting more advanced "blade" techniques of stoneworking, with specialized fluted or unfluted lanceolate points the most characteristic artifact types. Throughout South America, there are stone tool traditions of the lithic stage, such as the "fluted fishtail" that reflect localized adaptations to the diverse habitats of the continent; the indications and timing of the end of the Lithic stage vary between regions.
The use of textiles, fired pottery and start of the gradual replacement of hunter gatherer lifestyles with the use of agriculture and domesticated animals would all be factors. End dates are around 5,000 to 3,000 BC in many areas; the Archaic stage is the most used term for the succeeding stage, but in the periodization of pre-Columbian Peru the Cotton Pre-Ceramic may be used, as in the Norte Chico civilization cultivated cotton seems to have been important in economic and power relations, from around 3,200 BC. One of the leading figures is Alex Krieger who has documented hundreds of sites that have yielded crude, percussion-flaked tools; the most convincing evidence for a lithic stage is based upon data recovered from sites in South America where such crude tools have been found and dated to more than 20,000 years ago. In North America, the time encompasses the Paleo-Indian period that subsequently is divided into more specific time terms such as Early Lithic stage or Early Paleo-Indians and Middle Paleo-Indians or Middle Lithic stage.
Examples include the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition groups. The Lithic stage was followed by the Archaic stage. 12,340 BCE–10,800 BCE: a stone-lined hearth and coprolites left in Paisley Caves, Oregon 10,200 BCE: Cooper Bison skull is painted with a red zigzag in present-day Oklahoma, becoming the oldest known painted object in North America. 9500 BC: Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets retreat enough to open a habitable ice-free corridor through Canada along the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains. 9500 BC: People craft early Clovis spear points and skin scrapers from rock in New Mexico. 9250–8950 BC: Clovis points - thin, fluted projectile points created using bifacial percussion flaking - are created by Clovis culture peoples in the Plains and Southwestern North America 9001 BC: Archaeological materials found on the Channel Islands of California and in coastal Peru. 9000 BC: Archaeological materials found on Channel Islands off the California coast 9000 BC: Human settlers arrive in the Great Basin with its cool, wet prevailing climate 9000–8900 BC: The Folsom culture in New Mexico leaves Bison bones and stone spear points.
8700 BC: Human settlement reaches the Northwestern Plateau region. 8000 BC: The last glacial ends, causing sea levels to rise and flood the Beringia land bridge, closing the primary migration route from Siberia. 8000 BC: Sufficient rain falls on the American Southwest to support many large mammal species--mammoth, a bison species-—that soon go extinct. 8000 BC: Native Americans leave documented traces of their presence in every habitable corner of the Americas, including the American Northeast, the Pacific Northwest, a cave on Prince of Wales Island in the Alexander archipelago of southeast Alaska following these game animals. 8000 BC: Hunters in the American Southwest both use the atlatl. 8000 BC: Sufficient rain falls on the American Southwest to support many large mammal species, such as mammoth, a bison species-—that soon go extinct. 8000 BC: Hunters in the American Southwest use the atlatl. Times from the 8000 BC to about 3000 BC may be classified as part of the lithic stage or of an archaic stage, depending on authority and on region.
7500 BC: Early basketry. 7560—7370 BC: Kennewick Man dies along the shore of the Columbia River in Washington State, leaving one of the most complete early Native American skeletons. 7000 BC: Northeastern peoples depend on deer and wild grains as the climate warms. 7000 BC: Native Americans in Lahontan Basin, Nevada mummify their dead to give them honor and respect, evidencing deep concern about their treatment and condition. 6500 BC–200 AD: The San Dieguito-Pinto tradition and Chihuahua Tradition flourish in southern California, the Southwest, northwestern Mexico. 6000 BC: Ancestors of Penutian-speaking peoples settle in the Northwestern Plateau. 6000 BC: Nomadic hunting bands roam Subarctic Alaska following herds of caribou and other game animals. 6000 BC: Aleuts begin to arrive in the Aleutian Islands. 5700 BC: Cataclysmic eruption of Mount Mazama in Oregon. 5500 BC–500 AD Oshara Tradition, a Southwestern Archaic Tradition, arises in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, southeastern Utah.
Natives of the Northwestern Plateau begin to rely on salmon runs. 5000 BC: Early cultivation of food crops began in Mesoamerica. 5000 BC: Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest from Alaska to California develop a fishing economy, with salmon as a staple. 5000 BC: The Old Copper Culture of the Great Lakes area hammers the metal into various tools and ornaments, such as knives, awls, bracelets and pendants. Archaeology of the Amer
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta