1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and they were the first Games to use an all-weather track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track. The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne, the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the governments repression. On October 18,1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games. The 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, and on to Mexico. American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games, the Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American civil rights badge as support to them on the podium.
As punishment, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, American George Foreman won the gold medal for boxing by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag as he bowed to the crowd, the high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m above sea level, influenced many of the events, particularly in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation, as a reminder of this fact, one of the promotional articles of these Olympics was a small metallic box labeled Aire de México, that was Especial para batir récords. The tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder, for the first time and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956,1960, and 1964. Beethovens Ode to Joy was played when East and West Germany arrived in the stadium. Al Oerter of the U. S. won his fourth gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event.
Bob Beamon of the U. S. leapt 8.90 m in the long jump and it remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. American athletes Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans set long-standing world records in the 100 m,200 m and 400 m, in the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Viktor Saneev won the first of three gold medals in this event. Dick Fosbury of the U. S. won the medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four medals in gymnastics. Debbie Meyer of the U. S. became the first swimmer to win three gold medals, in the 200,400 and 800 m freestyle events
Sittard is a city in the Netherlands, situated in the southernmost province of Limburg. The town is part of the municipality of Sittard-Geleen and has some 48,400 inhabitants, in its east, Sittard borders the German municipality of Selfkant. The city centre is located at 45 m above sea level, archaeological discoveries have dated the first settlement in the Sittard area around 5000 B. C. Present day Sittard is assumed to have been founded around 850 A. D. Sittard was first mentioned in 1157. It was granted city rights by the Duke of Limburg in 1243, in 1400 it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuilt repeatedly, due to fires and it was a stronghold until it was largely destroyed in 1677, during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation, Sittard was part of the Roer department, since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War, it was occupied by the Germans, the city was liberated September 18–19,1944 by the 2nd Armored Division.
The historic town was spared destruction, despite lying in the frontline for over four months, in which over 4000 shells. After World War II, Sittard expanded rapidly and many new neighbourhoods were built, the coal mines in the region were the driving force of a booming economy, until closed in the 1960s and 70s. It now has large industrial zones and office premises, Sittard has a small historic city centre with numerous architectural monuments, including several old churches, monasteries and a few half-timbered houses. The central market square has many restaurants and bars, the city has retained part of its city wall. On the south-eastern side of the city centre, the St Rosa chapel crowns the Kollenberg hill, museum Het Domein is situated in a converted nineteenth century school building in the city centre. It focuses on art, urban history and archaeology. There is a Commonwealth War Cemetery, where 239 soldiers of the Commonwealth Nations lie buried, among them Dennis Donnini, the youngest to have received the Victoria Cross in World War II.
Sittard houses the SABIC European head office and a large DSM office, the head office of the plant hire company Boels Rental is located in Sittard. There are several schools for vocational education and training in the city, including faculties of the Hogeschool Zuyd. Large schools for education in Sittard are Trevianum and Da Capo
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, commerce, entertainment, international trade, culture and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics.
In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil.
In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat common
1969 European Athletics Championships
The 9th European Athletics Championships were held from 16–21 September 1969 in the Karaiskaki Stadium of Athens, the capital of Greece. New at these championships were the womens 1500 metres and the womens 4×400 metres relay event, womens 80 metres hurdles was replaced by womens 100 metres hurdles. Contemporaneous reports on the event were given in the Glasgow Herald, the Dutch decathlete Edward de Noorlander was disqualified for the use of amphetamine, the first disqualification for doping in athletics. Nb1 Max Klauß from East Germany jumped 8.00 in the final, as of statistic handbooks Viktor Saneyevs mark wasnt ratified as a new championship record. According to a count,675 athletes from 30 countries participated in the event. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010, archived from the original on 22 September 2010
The outright winner receives a gold medal and the second place a silver medal. More generally, bronze is traditionally the most common used for all types of high-quality medals. The practice of awarding bronze third place medals began at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, prior to which only first, minting Olympic medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassiolis design remained on the obverse with a design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassiolis design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was originally a Greek game, winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In 1995, a study was carried out by social psychologists Victoria Medvec, Scott Madey, the study showed that athletes who won the bronze medal were significantly happier with their winning than those athletes who won the silver medal. The silver medalists were more frustrated because they had missed the gold medal and this is more pronounced in knockout competitions, where the bronze medals are achieved by winning a playoff, whereas silver medals are awarded after a defeat in the final.
This psychological phenomenon was parodied in the Jerry Seinfeld special Im Telling You for the Last Time and brass ornamental work Third place playoff Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
1500 metres world record progression
A distance of 1500 m sometimes is called the metric mile. The French had the first important races over the distance, holding their initial championship in 1888, when the Olympic games were revived in 1896, metric distances were run, including the 1500. The distance has now almost completely replaced the mile in major track meets, the first world record in the 1500 m for men was recognized by the International Amateur Athletics Federation, now known as the International Association of Athletics Federations, in 1912. To June 21,2009, the IAAF has ratified 38 world records in the event, + - indicates record set during mile race. Ovetts 3,31.36 was initially ratified as 3,31.4 until times to the hundredths were recognized in 1981. The first world record in the 1,500 m for women was recognized by the International Amateur Athletics Federation, now known as the International Association of Athletics Federations, to June 21,2009, the IAAF has ratified 13 world records in the event. + - En route time during mile race, the IAAF accepted records to the hundredth of a second starting in 1981.
General Womens record progression Mens record progression Specific Cordner Nelson and Roberto Quercetani, The Milers, Tafnews Press,1985, ISBN 0-911521-15-1
Athletics at the Summer Olympics
Athletics has been contested at every Summer Olympics since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics. The athletics program traces its earliest roots to events used in the ancient Greek Olympics, the modern program includes track and field events, road running events, and racewalking events. Cross country running was on the program in earlier editions, the events contested have varied widely. From 1900 to 1920, tug of war was considered to be part of the Olympic athletics programme, although the sports of tug of war, no new events have been added to the mens athletics programme since the 1952 addition of the short racewalk. The roster of events has not changed since then, with the exception of the omission of the long racewalk in 1976, the last womens event added to the roster was the 3000 metres steeplechase in 2008. A total of 52 different events have held in the mens competition. The current list comprises 24 events, many of the discontinued events were similar to modern ones but at different lengths, especially in the steeplechasing and racewalking disciplines.
Team racing events have been eliminated after appearing in six editions of the Games. The athletic triathlon and pentathlon events were phased out in favor of the decathlon. Standing jump competitions are no longer held, nor are the various modified throwing events which were experimented with in 1908 and 1912, cross country running was on the program from 1912 to 1924 and is the most prominent form of athletics not to feature at the Olympics. Womens competition in athletics began at the 1928 Summer Olympics Nearly every nation that has competed at the Olympics has entered the athletics competition, the number in each box represents the number of athletes the nation sent. Updated after the 2016 Summer Olympics, considering stripped medals as of February 10,2017 Sources, Olympic sports
Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.
After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.
After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown
Track and field
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running and throwing. The name is derived from the sports venue, a stadium with an oval running track enclosing a grass field where the throwing and jumping events take place. Track and field is categorised under the sport of athletics, which includes road running, cross country running. The foot racing events, which include sprints, middle- and long-distance events, the jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who achieves the greatest distance or height. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin and hammer. There are combined events or multi events, such as the pentathlon consisting of five events, heptathlon consisting of seven events, in these, athletes participate in a combination of track and field events. Most track and field events are individual sports with a victor, the most prominent team events are relay races.
Events are almost exclusively divided by gender, although both the mens and womens competitions are held at the same venue. It is one of the oldest sports, in ancient times, it was an event held in conjunction with festivals and sports meets such as the Ancient Olympic Games in Greece. The ancient Olympic Games began in the year 776 BC, when Koroibos, a cook from the city of Elis, won the stadium race. According to some traditions, this was the only athletic event of the games for the first 13 Olympic festivals. In modern times, the two most prestigious track and field competitions are athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the governing body. Records are kept of the best performances in specific events, at world and national levels, however, if athletes are deemed to have violated the events rules or regulations, they are disqualified from the competition and their marks are erased. In North America, the track and field may be used to refer to other athletics events, such as the marathon.
The sport of track and field has its roots in human prehistory and field-style events are among the oldest of all sporting competitions, as running and throwing are natural and universal forms of human physical expression. The first recorded examples of organized track and field events at a festival are the Ancient Olympic Games. At the first Games in 776 BC in Olympia, only one event was contested and field events were present at the Panhellenic Games in Greece around this period, and they spread to Rome in Italy around 200 BC
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Leicester is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire. The city lies on the River Soar and at the edge of the National Forest, in the 2011 census the population of the City of Leicester unitary authority was 329,839 making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands region. The associated urban area is the 11th most populous in England, the name of Leicester is recorded in the 9th-century History of the Britons as Cair Lerion, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Ligora-ceastre. In the Domesday Book of 1086, it is recorded as Ledecestre, the second element of the name comes from the Latin castrum which is reflected in both Welsh cair and Anglo-Saxon ceastre. Based on the Welsh name, Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes a king Leir of Britain as a founder in his Historia Regum Britanniae. Leicester is one of the oldest cities in England, with a going back at least two millennia. The native Iron Age settlement encountered by the Romans at the seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC.
This area of the Soar was split into two channels, a stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel, the Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for ramparts, suggesting the site was an oppidum. The plural form of the name suggests it was composed of several villages. The Celtic tribe holding the area was recorded as the Coritanians. The Corieltauvians are believed to have ruled over roughly the area of the East Midlands and it is believed that the Romans arrived in the Leicester area around AD47, during their conquest of southern Britain. The Corieltauvian settlement lay near a bridge on the Fosse Way, in the 2nd century, it received a forum and bathhouse. In 2013, the discovery of a Roman cemetery found just outside the old city walls, the remains of the baths of Roman Leicester can be seen at the Jewry Wall, recovered artifacts are displayed at the adjacent museum. Knowledge of the following the Roman withdrawal from Britain is limited.
Certainly there is continuation of occupation of the town, though on a much reduced scale in the 5th and 6th centuries. Its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion of the History of the Britons, following the Saxon invasion of Britain, Leicester was occupied by the Middle Angles and subsequently administered by the kingdom of Mercia. It was elevated to a bishopric in either 679 or 680, this see survived until the 9th century and their settlement became one of the Five Burghs of the Danelaw, although this position was short-lived
The 800 metres, or 800 meters, is a common track running event. It is the shortest common middle-distance running event, the 800 metres is run over two laps of the track and has been an Olympic event since the first games in 1896. During indoor track season the event is run on a 200-metre track. The event was derived from the measurement of a half a mile. Imperial racing distances were common in the United States, american high schools were the last to convert to metric distances in 1980, following the NCAAs conversion in 1976. Countries associated to the English system converted to metric distances after the 1966 Commonwealth Games,800 m is 4.67 m less than half a mile. The event combines aerobic endurance with anaerobic conditioning and sprint speed, both the aerobic and anaerobic systems are being taxed to a high extent, thus the 800 metre athlete is required to combine training between both systems. If they are so inclined,400 m runners are encouraged to run the 200 metres while 800 m runners are encouraged to run the 1500 metres.
The 800 m event is known for its tactical racing techniques. Because the 800 m event is the shortest event that has all the runners converge on lane one and it is commonly believed that getting the first or second position early in the race is advantageous as these positions are not usually caught up in the pack. Olympic champions Dave Wottle, Yuriy Borzakovskiy and others have defied that logic by running a more evenly paced race, lagging behind the pack and kicking past the slowing early leaders. Often the winner of 800 m races at high levels are not determined by the strongest runner and this can lead to the most exciting aspect of the 800 m which is its high probability of an upset. Two common tactics for the 800 meters are running a split or a positive split between laps. The positive split is widely considered to be the more effective strategy, a positive split is achieved by running the first lap faster than the second lap, and a negative split is achieved by the opposite, running the second lap faster than the first.
The current world record holder, David Rudisha, runs using a positive split strategy, in his 2012 Olympic race, he ran his first lap in 49.28 seconds and his second lap in 51.63 seconds. Theoretically, a split is the most effective strategy. As of August 2016 As of August 2016, World junior records are held by Nijel Amos and Pamela Jelimo. Both marks coincidentally rank them as the third fastest ever, a Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 800-metres records in XML