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Miami River (Florida)

The Miami River is a river in the United States state of Florida that drains out of the Everglades and runs through the city of Miami, including Downtown. The 5.5-mile long river flows from the terminus of the Miami Canal at Miami International Airport to Biscayne Bay. It was a natural river inhabited at its mouth by the Tequesta Indians, but it was dredged and is now polluted throughout its route through Miami-Dade County; the mouth of the river is home to the Port of Miami and many other businesses whose pressure to maintain it has helped to improve the river's condition. Although it is believed that the name is derived from a Native American word that means "sweet water", the earliest mention of the name comes from Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, a captive of Indians in southern Florida for 17 years, when he referred to what is now Lake Okeechobee as the "Lake of Mayaimi, called Mayaimi because it is large"; the Mayaimi Indians were named beside which they lived. Spanish records include the cacique of "Maimi" in a group of 280 Florida Indians that arrived in Cuba in 1710.

Reports on a Spanish Mission to the Biscayne Bay area in 1743 mention "Maymies" or "Maimíes" living nearby. The river has been known as the Garband River, Rio Ratones, Fresh Water River, Sweetwater River, Lemon River, it has been known as the Miami River since the Second Seminole War of 1835–42. In its original natural state, the river started at rapids formed by water from the Everglades flowing over a rocky ledge four miles from its mouth. Frederick H. Gerdes of the U. S. Coast Survey reported in 1849 that "rom the upper falls to near its entrance into Key Biscayne Bay… water in the Glades was 6 feet 2.5 inches above low tide". The rapids were removed; the river divided into a South Fork about three miles above its mouth. Each fork extended only one mile to rapids marking the edge of the Everglades; the North Fork had higher drop over its rapids. One-and-one-half miles above the mouth of the river there was a tributary on the north side, called Wagner Creek, about two miles long; the Miami River was fed by several springs, including some in the bed of the river.

Flow was variable, in times of drought the river did not flow. The earliest known inhabitants of the area around the Miami River were the Tequestas, their major town at the time of first European contact was on the north bank of the river near the mouth. Before the intensive development of Miami in the 20th century, mounds built by the Tequesta were located along the river. Spanish missions were established beside the river in 1567–70 and in 1743, but the area was abandoned when Spain turned Florida over to Britain in 1765; the area around the Miami River attracted settlers throughout the 19th century, with the major exception of the years of the Seminole Wars, but had little effect on the river. The United States Army tried to dig a channel through the sandbar at the mouth of the river in 1856 but stopped when it was decided that Fort Dallas would not be made permanent. Modification of the river began in earnest with the arrival of the Florida East Coast Railway in Miami in 1896. There was much filling along the river.

The rapids at the head of the South Fork were removed in 1908. From 1909 to 1912, the Miami Canal was dug; the canal was dammed off from the river for most of the construction period. When the canal was opened to the river in March 1912, large amounts of Everglades muck and finely ground stone from the dredging were washed down the river, silting it; as a result, the lower river had to be dredged three times in two years. Dredging of the river and of canals connecting to the river continued into the 1930s. Deepening the Miami River, as well as the drainage of the Everglades, a major purpose of the dredging, led to saltwater intrusion in the area, forcing the abandonment of drinking water wells on several occasions. By the 1940s, dams were being installed on the canals leading into the Miami River to prevent salt water from traveling inland; the Miami River became polluted. In 1897, Miami's first sewer line started emptying directly into the river. By the 1950s, 29 sewers were dumping untreated sewage into the river.

Dade County constructed a sewage treatment plant on Virginia Key in the 1950s and connected sewer lines to it, routing the raw sewage away from the river. The Miami River is the shortest working river in the United States; the Center for Urban & Environmental Solutions reported in 2008: "Waterborne commerce through the Miami River port doubled between an annual level of about 250,000 short tons in the early 1970s to about 500,000 in the early years of the new century. Foreign trade accounts for most of the commerce through the Miami River Port. Exports dominate the Port's commerce, accounting for over 75 percent of the total. In the 1970s, exports had averaged 56 percent of the total. Most of the Miami River's foreign trade is with the nearby countries of the Caribbean the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas; this reflects the suitability of the Miami River for shallow draft vessels which serve the many shallow draft ports in the Caribbean."The Miami River has long been home to many small cargo terminals at which smaller ships call to load cargo, most of, destined for ports in the Bahamas and various Caribbean nations.

It is an area into which all manner of contraband—illegal drugs, illegal aliens—has been discharged into the United States. Because of continuing efforts by

1974 2. divisjon

The 1974 2. Divisjon was a Norwegian second-tier football league season; the league was contested by 36 teams, divided into a total of four groups. The winners of group A and B were promoted to the 1975 1. Divisjon, while the winners of the district groups qualified for the Northern Norwegian final; the second placed teams in group A and B met the winner of the district IX–X in a qualification round where the winner was promoted to 1. Divisjon; the winner of district XI was not eligible for promotion. The bottom two teams inn all groups were relegated to the 3. Divisjon. Os won. Both teams promoted to the 1975 1. Divisjon. Fredrikstad finished second in group A won the qualification play-offs and was promoted. Bodø/GlimtEidsvold Turn 2–2 Eidsvold Turn – Fredrikstad 0–1 Fredrikstad – Bodø/Glimt 2–1Fredrikstad won the qualification round and won promotion to the 1. Divisjon. A Northern Norwegian Final was played between the winners of the two district groups, Bodø/Glimt and Kirkenes. Bodø/Glimt – Kirkenes 8–2

Czesław Lenc

Czesław Lenc was a Polish footballer who played as a left back in defense. Born in Chojnice, Lenc started playing football with his local team Chojniczanka Chojnice in 1945, before moving to Lechia Gdańsk in 1948 and spending 14 seasons with the club. Lenc played 3 seasons with Chojniczanka, during which period he became an important player for the club. In 1948 he moved to Lechia Gdańsk where in his first season he helped Lechia win promotion to the I liga by winning the league. Lenc was in the first Lechia team to play in the top division in 1949. During his time with Lechia he won the II liga finishing runners up once, reached the final of the Polish Cup, finishing runners-up after losing 5-0 to Legia Warsaw, was involved in Lechia's joint highest finish in the Polish league, 3rd, achieved in 1956 and has only been matched once in 2019. In total he played scoring 4 goals in all competitions with Lechia. Lenc features on the list of all time appearances made for Lechia, is 3rd on the list for appearances made in the top division with 182.

Lechia Gdańsk I liga Third place: 1956Polish Cup Runners-up: 1955II liga Winners: 1951 Runners-up: 1954