The Wea were a Miami-Illinois-speaking Native American tribe located in western Indiana related to the Miami Tribe. The name Wea is used today as the a shortened version of their numerous recorded names; the Wea name for themselves in their own language is waayaahtanwa, derived from waayaahtanonki,'place of the whirlpool', where they were first recorded being seen and where they were living at that time. The different spellings of their name are numerous, as they were made by different settlers from different language and educational backgrounds. One French version is Ouiatenon. In 2004 the Indiana Historical Bureau installed a marker commemorating the Wea Village in Terre Haute and its living descendants; the Wea spoke a dialect of Miami, the same language as the Miami Tribe, both from the Algonquian languages. When the Wea had increased in numbers at their village of Ouiatenon, near present-day Lafayette, Piankeshaw offered to move and take part of the people with him further downriver to start a new village, which he established near the mouth of the Vermilion River.
He had tribal markings of holes or slits in his ears, he was called Piankeshaw. The Piankeshaw were the Deer Clan of the Wea. During the 19th century the Miami, Eel River and Piankashaw all occupied areas of Indiana; these tribes all signed treaties separately with the United States government and were considered to be distinct polities. The Wea had villages in present-day Wisconsin and Ohio, their main homeland in the 18th century was in Indiana, as well as a few villages in Illinois and Ohio. The three largest villages of the Wea were west of what is now Lafayette. Lesser settlements included five villages on the South side of the Wabash across from Fort Ouiatenon, occupied by the Wea, Piankeshaw and Gros clans. Toward the west near present-day Granville were villages of the Kickapoo people. With increased Euro-American settlement and Indian removals, the United States made many treaties with these tribes. A Treaty in 1854 was made that confederated the Wea who went west, the Kaskaskia and Piankeshaw as the Confederated Peoria Tribe of Kansas Indian Territory.
After moving West they were known as the Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma. Many of the Wea Tribe remained in Indiana, they were referred to in treaties as the Wabash Wea. In historical records, they have been called the Wabash Indians. Descendants of the Wea reside today in the United States and abroad. Listed are just a few villages that were located in Illinois. Chicago Chicago, Illinois Kenapacomaqua Logansport, Indiana Ouiatenon Lafayette, where a marker notes the site Kethtippecahnunk Lafayette Sugar Creek Village/Reserve Sugar Creek, Indiana Weauteno / Jacco's Towne Terre Haute, Indiana Upper Wea Village/Town 2 miles above Terre Haute Old Wea Town Between Terre Haute and Vincennes Wea Reserve Parke County, Indiana Wea Village Danville, Illinois Paola, Miami County, Kansas Below are some of the many Treaties were made between the US and the Wea. Treaty of Greenville, Aug 3, 1795 Fort Wayne Indiana Territory, June 7, 1803was not at the original treaty but signed Vincennes, Indiana Territory, Aug 13, 1803 Grouseland Indiana Territory, Aug 21, 1805 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Dec 30, 1805 Fort Wayne Indiana Territory, Sept 30, 1809 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Oct 26, 1809 Fort Harrison, Indiana Territory, June 4, 1816 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Jan 3, 1818 St Mary's Ohio Oct 2, 1818 Vincennes Indiana Aug 11, 1820 St Joseph Michigan Sept 21,1826 St Joseph Michigan Sept 24, 1828 Caster Hill Missouri, Oct 29, 1832 Washington DC May 30, 1854 Washington DC Feb 23, 1867 The following referred to Wea who chose to stay in Indiana: Treaty of St. Marys 1820 in Article 3: "As it is contemplated by the said Tribe, to remove from the Wabash, it is agreed, that the annuity secured to the Weas, by the Treaty of Saint Mary's, above mentioned, shall hereafter be paid to them at Kaskaskia in the state of Illinois.
" Treaty of Castor Hill 1832 in Article 4: "The United States will afford some assistance to that part of the Wea tribe now residing in the State of Indiana", The descendants of the Wea, along with the Kaskaskia and Piankeshaw, are enrolled in the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, a federally recognized tribe in Oklahoma
The sandhill crane is a species of large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia. The common name of this bird refers to habitat like that at the Platte River, on the edge of Nebraska's Sandhills on the American Plains; this is the most important stopover area for the nominotypical subspecies, the lesser sandhill crane, with up to 450,000 of these birds migrating through annually. The sandhill crane was placed in the genus Grus, but a molecular phylogenetic study published in 2010 found that the genus, as defined, was polyphyletic. In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, four species, including the sandhill crane, were placed in the resurrected genus Antigone, erected by the German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1853; the specific epithet canadensis is the modern Latin word for "Canadian". Adults are gray overall; the average weight of the larger males is 4.57 kg, while the average weight of females is 4.02 kg, with a range of 2.7 to 6.7 kg across the subspecies.
Sandhill cranes have red foreheads, white cheeks, long, pointed bills. In flight, their long, dark legs trail behind, their long necks keep straight. Immature birds have gray underparts; the sexes look alike. Sizes vary among the different subspecies, their wing chords are 41.8–60 cm, tails are 10–26.4 cm, the exposed culmens are 6.9–16 cm long, the tarsi measure 15.5–26.6 cm. These cranes give a loud, trumpeting call that suggests a rolled "r" in the throat, they can be heard from a long distance. Mated pairs of cranes engage in "unison calling"; the cranes stand close together, calling in a complex duet. The female makes two calls for every one from the male. Sandhill cranes' large wingspans 1.65 to 2.30 m, make them skilled soaring birds, similar in style to hawks and eagles. Using thermals to obtain lift, they can stay aloft for many hours, requiring only occasional flapping of their wings, thus expending little energy. Migratory flocks contain hundreds of birds, can create clear outlines of the invisible rising columns of air they ride.
Sandhill cranes fly south for the winter. In their wintering areas, they form flocks over 10,000. One place this happens is at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, 100 mi south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. An annual Sandhill Crane Festival is held there in November. Sandhill cranes have one of the longest fossil histories of any extant bird. A 10-million-year-old crane fossil from Nebraska is said to be of this species, but this may be from a prehistoric relative or the direct ancestor of sandhill cranes and not belong in the genus Grus; the oldest unequivocal sandhill crane fossil is 2.5 million years old, older by half than the earliest remains of most living species of birds found from after the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary some 1.8 million years ago. As these ancient sandhill cranes varied as much in size as present-day birds, those Pliocene fossils are sometimes described as new species. Grus haydeni may have been a prehistoric relative, or it may comprise material of a sandhill crane and its ancestor.
Sandhill cranes vary in size and in migratory habits. A female of A. c. canadensis averages 3.46 kg, 37 in in length, has a wingspan of 1.6 m. A male of A. c. tabida averages 5 kg, 119 cm in length, has a wingspan of 2.12 m. The southern subspecies are intermediate according to Bergmann's rule. Three subspecies are resident: A. c. pulla of the Gulf Coast of the U. S. A. c. pratensis of Florida and Georgia, A. c. nesiotes of Cuba. The northern populations exist as fragmented remains in the contiguous U. S. and a contiguous population from Canada to Beringia. These migrate to Mexico; these cranes are rare vagrants to China, South Korea, Japan and rare vagrants to Western Europe. Six subspecies have been recognized in recent times: Lesser sandhill crane, A. c. canadensis Cuban sandhill crane, A. c. nesiotes – ESA: endangered Florida sandhill crane, A. c. pratensis – ESA: endangeredThe Florida sandhill crane was listed as EC or confused to facilitate an attempted reintroduction of the whooping crane into Florida.
The attempt failed. The current list of endangered subspecies includes only two birds, A. c. nesiotes and A. c. rowani, with A. c. pratensis no longer listed. Mississippi sandhill crane, A. c. pulla – ESA: endangered Canadian sandhill crane, A. c. rowani Greater sandhill crane, A. c. tabida The Canadian sandhill cranes are not distinct and were never accepted as a valid subspecies. The others can be somewhat more reliably distinguished in hand by measurements and plumage details, apart from the size differences mentioned. Unequivocal identification requires location information, impossible in migrating birds. Analysis of control region mtDNA haplotype data shows two major lineages; the Arctic and the subarctic migratory population includes the lesser sandhill cranes. The other lineages can be divided into a migratory and some indistinct clusters which can be matched to the resident subspecies; the lesser and greater sandhill cranes are quite distinct, their divergence dating to 2.3–1.2 million yea
The Kaskaskia were one of the indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands. They were one of about a dozen cognate tribes that made up the Illiniwek Confederation called the Illinois Confederation, their longstanding homeland was in the Great Lakes region. Their first contact with Europeans occurred near present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin, in 1667 at a Jesuit mission station. In 1673, Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette and French-Canadian explorer Louis Jolliet became the first Europeans known to have descended the Mississippi River; the record of their trip is the earliest, best record of contact between Europeans and the Illinois Indians. Marquette and Jolliet, with five other men, left the mission of St. Ignace at Michilimackinac in two bark canoes on May 17. To reach the Mississippi River, they travelled across Lake Michigan into Green Bay, up the Fox River and down the Wisconsin River. Descending the Mississippi, in June, they met the Peoria and Moingwena bands of Illinois at the Haas/Hagerman Site near the mouth of the Des Moines River in Clark County, northeastern Missouri.
They met the Michigamea, when they reached present-day Arkansas. They began their return trip from the Michigamea village about July 17, following the Illinois River eastward to Lake Michigan rather than taking the more northern route along the Wisconsin River. Near modern Utica in LaSalle County, across from Starved Rock, they met the Kaskaskia at the Grand Village of the Illinois; the land controlled by the allied Illinois groups extended north from modern Arkansas, through Eastern Missouri and most of Illinois, west into Iowa, where Des Moines was named after the Moingwena. In 1703, the French established a permanent mission and settlement at Kaskaskia, a part of their New France colonization of North America. French settlers moved in to exploit the lead mines on the Missouri side of the river. Kaskaskia became the capital of Upper Louisiana, Fort de Chartes was built in 1718. In the same year, the French imported African slaves from Saint-Domingue to work in the lead mines. From its beginning, Kaskaskia was a French/Native American settlement, consisting of a few French men and numerous Kaskaskia and other Illinois Indians.
In 1707, the population of the community was estimated at 2,200, the majority of them Illinois Indians who lived somewhat apart. A visitor, writing of Kaskaskia about 1715, said that the village consisted of 400 Illinois men, "very good people," two Jesuit missionaries, "about twenty French voyageurs who have settled there and married Indian women." Of 21 children whose birth and baptism was recorded in Kaskaskia before 1714, 18 mothers were Indian and 20 fathers were French. The offspring of these mixed marriages could become either Indian; because Indian communities were larger and more complete, they tended to be reared with their mothers and their people and culture. One devout Roman Catholic full-blooded Indian woman disowned her half-breed son for living "among the savage nations." The settlement of Kaskaskia had a large Métis population, many of whom worked for fur companies out of St. Louis, Missouri. Male descendants of the French and mixed bloods at Kaskaskia became the voyageurs and coureurs des bois who would explore and exploit the Missouri River country.
The French wanted to trade with all the prairie tribes, beyond with the Spanish colony in New Mexico. French goals stimulated the expedition of Claude Charles Du Tisne to establish trade relations with the Plains Indians in 1719; the fate of the Kaskaskia, the rest of the Illiniwek/Illinois, was irrevocably tied up with that of France. Until their dissolution in France, French Jesuits ministered to the Kaskaskia. By 1763 and the end of the Seven Years' War in North America, the Kaskaskia and other Illinois tribes were in decline. Early French explorers had estimated their original population from 6,000 to more than 20,000. By the end of the war, their numbers were a fraction of that. Contemporary historians believe the greatest fatalities during this period were due to new infectious diseases, to which the Native Americans had no immunity; the causes of decline are many and varied. The Illinois made war with their French allies against the most formidable native nations: to the east, the Iroquois.
Added to combat losses were the great losses due to epidemics of European diseases. In 1769, a Peoria warrior killed Pontiac, which brought the wrath of the Great Lakes tribes against the Kaskaskia and other Illinois tribes; the Ottawa, Fox, Miami and Potawatomi devastated the Illiniwek and occupied their old tribal range along the Illinois River. In 1766, the British established a small detachment from Fort Chartres at Kaskaskia. From 1766 through 1772, this rotating detachment was around 25 men under a junior officer, detached from Fort Chartres. In May 1772, when the British abandoned Fort Chartres, the 18th Regiment of Foot, left a small detachment of four officers and 50 men at Kaskaskia as an effort to retain British control over the Illinois Country. Captain Hugh Lord, of the 18th Foot, was the last British commander in Illinois; the detachment of the 18th Foot was never returned to Illinois. Lord's detachment was garrisoned in the former Jesuit compound at Kaskaskia; the post was called Fort Gage only after Fort Chartres was abandone
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne is a city in the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States. Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles west of the Ohio border and 50 miles south of the Michigan border. With a population of 253,691 in the 2010 census, it is the second-most populous city in Indiana after Indianapolis, the 75th-most populous city in the United States, it is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen and Whitley counties, a combined population of 419,453 as of 2011. Fort Wayne is the economic center of northeastern Indiana; the city is within a 300-mile radius of major population centers, including Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Louisville and Milwaukee. In addition to the three core counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington and Steuben counties, with an estimated population of 615,077. Fort Wayne was built in 1794 by the United States Army under the direction of American Revolutionary War general Anthony Wayne, the last in a series of forts built near the Miami village of Kekionga.
Named in Wayne's honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, Maumee rivers as a trading post for pioneers; the village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad. Once a booming manufacturing town located in what became known as the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy in the 21st century is based upon distribution and logistics, healthcare and business services and hospitality, financial services; the city is a center for the defense industry. There are many jobs through local healthcare providers Parkview Health and Lutheran Health Network. Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, 2009; the city received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1999; this area at the confluence of rivers was long occupied by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Miami tribe established its settlement of Kekionga at the confluence of the Maumee, St. Joseph, St. Marys rivers.
It was the capital of related Algonquian tribes. In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the outpost; the French built Fort Miami in 1697 as part of a group of forts and trading posts built between Quebec and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot's death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis; the first census in 1744 recorded a population of 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami. Increasing tension between France and Great Britain developed over control of the territory. In 1760, France ceded the area to Britain after its forces in North America surrendered during the Seven Years' War, known on the North American front as the French and Indian War. In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac's Rebellion; the Miami regained control of Kekionga. In 1790, after the United States achieved independence, President George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana Territory.
Three battles were fought at Kekionga against the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated U. S. forces in the first two battles. General Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U. S. After General Wayne refused to negotiate, tribal forces advanced to Fallen Timbers, where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, U. S. forces captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built Fort Wayne, named in honor of the general. The first settlement started in 1815. In 1819, the military garrison moved to Detroit. In 1822, a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818. Platted in 1823 at the Ewing Tavern, the village became an important frontier outpost, was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829, with a population of 300; the Wabash and Erie Canal's opening improved travel conditions to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, exposing Fort Wayne to expanded economic opportunities.
The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840. Pioneer newspaperman George W. Wood was elected the city's first mayor. Fort Wayne's "Summit City" nickname dates from this period, referring to the city's position at the highest elevation along the canal's route; as influential as the canal was to the city's earliest development, it became obsolete after competing with the city's first railroad, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, completed in 1854. At the turn of the 20th century, the city's population reached nearly 50,000, attributed to a large influx of German and Irish immigrants. Fort Wayne's "urban working class" thrived in railroad-related jobs; the city's economy was based on manufacturing, ushering in an era of innovation with several notable inventions and developments coming out of the city over the years, such as gasoline pumps, the refrigerator, in 1972, the first home video game console. A 1913 flood caused seven deaths, left 15,000 homeless, damaged over 5,500 buildings in the worst natural disaster in the city's history.
As the automobile's prevalence grew, Fort Wayne became a fixture on the Lincoln Highway. Aviation arrived in 1919 with the opening of Smith Field; the airport se
The Stomp Dance is performed by various Eastern Woodland tribes and Native American communities, including the Muscogee, Cherokee, Choctaw, Miami, Tuscarora, Quapaw, Shawnee, Seminole and Seneca-Cayuga tribes. Stomp Dance communities are active in North Carolina, Alabama and Florida; the term "Stomp Dance" is an English term, which refers to the "shuffle and stomp" movements of the dance. In the native Muskogee language the dance is called Opvnkv Haco, which can mean "drunken," "crazy," or "inspirited" dance; this refers to the exciting, yet meditative effect the dance and the medicine have on the participants. In the native Shawnee language, the dance is called Nikanikawe which refers to a dance involving friends or nikane, it is called the Leading Dance by many Shawnees, but most call it the "Stomp Dance." Among Muscogee Creeks and Four Mothers Society members, the Stomp Dance Grounds contain an elevated square platform with the flat edges of the square facing the cardinal directions. Arbors are constructed upon the flat edges of the square in which the men sit facing one of the four directions.
This is formally referred to as the Square Ground, encircled by a ring-mound of earth. In the center of this is the ceremonial fire, referred to by many names including "Mother" fire. Ceremonially, this fire is the focus of the songs and prayers of the people and is considered to be a living sacred being. Outside of the circle of earth, surrounding the Square Ground are the community's clan-houses; these houses are casually referred to as'camps' and depending on the traditional level and financial situation of the community may be nice cottages, shanties or in between. Prior to the dance dinner is prepared in these family camps. Throughout the night guests that arrive are welcomed to help eat up the leftovers; the foods eaten at Stomp Dances are typical southern delicacies such as corn bread, mashed potatoes as well as certain specialized Indian dishes such as sofkee, grape or lye dumplings and numerous traditional dishes. Kituwah stomp dance grounds are encircled by seven clan arbors; these are influenced by the traditionalist revival among Cherokees during the late 19th century, inspired by Redbird Smith.
In 1907, 22 ceremonial grounds were active on Cherokee lands in Oklahoma. Stickball games are played at stomp dance grounds. Yuchi stomp dances are held in conjunction with their ritual football games. In Oklahoma, different tribes will participate in each other's dances. A traditional Stomp Dance grounds is headed by a male elder. In the Creek and Seminole traditions the Meko or "king" is the primary ceremonial authority; the Meko is assisted by his second in charge called a Heniha, the chief medicine man called a Hillis Hiya and speaker called Meko Tvlvswv or Meko's tongue/speaker. It is important to note that Mekos are not supposed to publicly address the entire grounds and as such that responsibility falls on Meko Tvlvswsv. A traditional Creek grounds employs four Tvstvnvkes, four head ladies and four alternate head ladies. A night of dancing starts well after dark and continues until dawn of the next day, with many rounds of dancing throughout the night. Participants who are making a religious commitment to the ceremony will begin fasting after midnight, "touch medicine" at four different times during night, are obligated to stay awake the whole night.
The medicine is made from specific roots and plants which have been ceremonially gathered by selected "medicine helpers" and prepared by the Heles Haya at dawn of the morning of the Dance. This medicine is intended for the physical and spiritual benefit of the members of the dance at the ceremonial ground. One of the male members of the community is given the job of calling out each song leader and all other participants to dance for each round; each round is led by a selected man who has developed his own sequence of songs from the multitude of variations on traditional rhythms and lyrics, sometimes with personalized content in the mix. The songs are performed in call and response form, in the native language; every dance must have at least one woman with shakers, who falls into step behind the song leader, to carry the rhythm. The remaining dancers follow, alternating male-female in a continuous spiral around the central fire, with visitors young children, the odd numbers trailing at the end.
The dancers circle the fire in counterclockwise direction with deliberate stomping steps set to the rhythm created by the women with their shell shakers. Depending on the size of the community and the number of visitors in attendance, the number of people joining the circle may range from less than ten up to several hundred. A round of dancing continues until at least four songs are completed by the dance leader, everyone returns to their seats until another singer is called on to "lead out." There is a few minutes of rest between each leader, but the breaks may stretch longer if there are fewer people present to participate. The Stomp Dance is not meant to be a grueling and physically challenging event, but every participant on the grounds will dance most of the night. Although not as widespread as they were in the past, there are still many Ceremonial Grounds, or Stomp Grounds, located in what is now the southeastern United States and Oklahoma, where so many of the southeastern peoples were forced to move during the 1800s.
Stokes Smith Stomp Dance Ground, located in an isolated area of the Cherokee Nation tribal lands, is one of seven active Cherokee grounds. The Eastern Band Cherokee stomp g
The Miami are a Native American nation speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory, now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, western Ohio. By 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory; the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe; the name Miami derives from Myaamia, the tribe's autonym in their Algonquian language of Miami-Illinois. This appears to have been derived from an older term meaning "downstream people." Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee an onomatopoeic reference to their sacred bird, the sandhill crane. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, a name of unknown etymology; some Miami have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miami, not their autonym. They called themselves Mihtohseeniaki.
The Miami continue to use this autonym today. Early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture. Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive regional trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns, other factors; the historical Miami engaged in hunting. During historic times, the Miami were known to have migrated south and eastwards from Wisconsin from the mid-17th century to the mid-18th century, by which time they had settled on the upper Wabash River in what is now northwestern Ohio; the migration was a result of their being invaded during the protracted Beaver Wars by the more powerful Iroquois, who traveled far in strong organized groups from their territory in central and western New York for better hunting during the peak of the eastern beaver fur trader days. The Dutch and French traders and, after 1652, the British fueled demand; the warfare and social disruption contributed to the decimation of Native American populations, but the major factor were fatalities from infectious diseases for which they had no immunity.
Historic locations When French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the indigenous people were living around the western shores of Lake Michigan. The Miami had moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a loose confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples. At this time, the major bands of the Miami were: Atchakangouen, Atchatchakangouen, Greater Miami or Crane Band Kilatika, Kiratika called by the French known by the English as Eel River Band of Miamis.
Markwayne Mullin is an American politician and former professional mixed martial arts fighter, the United States representative for Oklahoma's 2nd congressional district since 2013. He owns several businesses. Mullin, a member of the Republican Party, was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in the 2012 elections, succeeding Democratic representative Dan Boren. Mullin was born on July 1977 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, he graduated from Stilwell High School in Oklahoma. He did not graduate. Mullin received an associate in applied sciences degree in construction technology from Oklahoma State University Institute of Technology, in 2010. Mullin took over his family's business, Mullin Plumbing, at the age of twenty, when his father fell ill, he owns Mullin Properties, Mullin Farms and Mullin Services. He hosted House Talk, a home improvement radio program, on Tulsa station KFAQ and syndicated across Oklahoma. Incumbent Democratic U. S. congressman Dan Boren decided to retire in 2012. Mullin declared his candidacy for the 2012 elections to the United States House of Representatives to represent Oklahoma's 2nd congressional district in September 2011.
In the six-candidate Republican primary, Mullin ranked first with 42% of the vote, failing to reach the over 50% threshold. State representative George Faught ranked second with 22% of the vote. In the run-off primary election, Mullin defeated Faught 57%–43%, he branded himself as an outsider. A businessman. Not a politician!"The second has been a classic "Yellow Dog" Democratic district. However, it has trended Republican, as Tulsa's suburbs have spilled into the northern portion of the district. For these reasons, Mullin was thought to have a good chance of winning the election. In the general election, Mullin defeated the Democratic candidate, Rob Wallace, a former district attorney, 57%–38%, he became the first Republican to represent the district, since Tom Coburn in 2001, only the second since 1921. On February 5, 2014, Mullin introduced the bill To revoke the charter of incorporation of the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma at the request of that tribe, which would accept the request of the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma to revoke the charter of incorporation issued to that tribe and ratified by its members on June 1, 1940.
In April 2017, Mullin drew criticism when he was recorded during a town hall meeting telling his constituents that it was "bullcrap" that taxpayers pay his salary. He said, "I pay for myself. I paid enough taxes before I continue to through my company to pay my own salary; this is a service. No one here pays me to go." According to the January 2012 Congressional Research Service, the salary of a U. S. representative is $174,000 per year, benefits include allowances, cost-of-living adjustments, enrollment in a pension, health benefits, personnel and office expenses, a travel allowance. During the 2012 campaign, Mullin promised to serve for only three terms, meaning that he would have left Congress in 2019. However, in July 2017, Mullin released an eleven-minute video announcing that he would indeed run for a fourth term in 2018, saying he was ill-advised when he made the promise to only serve three terms. Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on Indian and Alaska Native Affairs Subcommittee on Water and Power Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management Subcommittee on Highways and Transit Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment Republican Study Committee Congressional Western Caucus He and his wife, live in Westville, a few miles from the Arkansas border, have five children.
He is an enrolled member of the Cherokee Nation, is one of four Native Americans in the 116th Congress. The others are fellow Oklahoma Republican Tom Cole, a Chickasaw, Democrats Sharice Davids of Kansas, a Ho-Chunk, Deb Haaland of New Mexico, a Laguna Pueblo. Mullin is a former professional mixed martial arts fighter and is listed in the Sherdog Fight Finder with a 3-0 professional record. List of Native Americans in the United States Congress List of Native American Politicians Congressman Markwayne Mullin official U. S. House site Markwayne Mullin for Congress Markwayne Mullin at Curlie Appearances on C-SPAN Professional mixed martial arts record on Sherdog.com Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress