François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande is a French politician who served as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017. He was the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008, President of the Corrèze General Council from 2008 to 2012. Hollande served in the National Assembly of France twice for the department of Corrèze's 1st constituency from 1988 to 1993, again from 1997 to 2012. Born in Rouen and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hollande began his political career as a special advisor to newly elected President François Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman, he became a member of the National Assembly in 1988 and was elected First Secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997. Following the 2004 regional elections won by the Socialists, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but resigned as First Secretary and was elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as President of the General Council of Corrèze in 2008.
In 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the primary election to select the Socialist Party presidential nominee. During his tenure, Hollande legalised same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. 344, reformed labour laws and credit training programmes, withdrew French combat troops present in the Afghanistan military intervention and concluded a EU directive through a Franco-German contract. Hollande led the country through 2016 Nice attacks, he was a leading proponent of EU mandatory migrant quotas and NATO's 2011 military intervention in Libya. He sent troops to Mali and the Central African Republic with the approval of the UN Security Council in order to stabilise those countries, two operations seen as successful; however his support of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen drew controversy among his left-wing electoral basis. Under his term, France became the most toured country in the world, known as a nation of open markets, regulatory efficiency, rule of law and limited governmental intervention.
Paris hosted the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Hollande's efforts to attract the 2024 Summer Olympics to the city were successful. Notwithstanding, with unemployment up to 10% as of December 2016 and domestic troubles over his tenure due to terrorism, he faced spikes and downturns in approval rates making him one of the most unpopular French Presidents in history. On 1 December 2016, he announced he would not seek re-election in the 2017 French presidential election. François Hollande was born on 12 August 1954 in Rouen, his mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert, was a social worker, his father, Georges Gustave Hollande, is a retired ear and throat doctor who "ran for local election on a far right ticket in 1959." The name "Hollande" meant "one from Holland" – it is found in Hollande's ancestral land, Hauts-de-France, it is speculated to be Dutch in origin. The earliest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller; when Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a exclusive suburb of Paris.
He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, receiving his baccalaureate in 1972 graduated with a bachelor's degree in Law from Panthéon-Assas University. Hollande studied at HEC Paris, graduated in 1975, attended the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he did his military service in the French Army in 1977. He chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. Hollande lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 as a university student. After graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit. Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party, he was spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to run in legislative election of 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, the leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party.
Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round. He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party; as the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995. Former party leader Lionel Jospin resumed his position, selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman.
Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997 returning to the National Assembly. That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of F
Marie-Anne Montchamp is a member of the French government and the National Assembly of France. She represents a constituency in the Val-de-Marne department, she is Secretary of State for Solidarities and Social Cohesion under Minister Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin. She is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement, she is the party's candidate for the Fourth constituency for French residents overseas in the June 2012 legislative election
Chantal Bourragué is a member of the National Assembly of France. She represents the first constituency of the Gironde department and is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement
Jean-Marc Ayrault is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 16 May 2012 to 1 April 2014. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2016 to 2017, he was Mayor of Nantes from 1989 to 2012 and led the Socialist Party group in the National Assembly from 1997 to 2012. Born in Maulévrier in Maine-et-Loire, Jean-Marc Ayrault is the son of Joseph Ayrault, from Maulévrier an agricultural worker, subsequently employed in a textile factory, of Georgette Uzenot, a former seamstress who became a full-time housewife, his early schooling was at the St Joseph Catholic primary school in Maulévrier, after which, between 1961 and 1968, he attended the Lycée Colbert, in Cholet. He subsequently studied German at Nantes University. In 1969/70 he spent a term at the University of Würzburg in Bavaria, he in 1972 obtained his graduate teaching diploma. He stayed in the Nantes area for his probationary teaching year, undertaken in Rezé. Between 1973 and his election to the National Assembly in 1986 he worked as a German language teacher in nearby Saint-Herblain.
During his youth, Ayrault was a member of a movement of young Christians in rural areas. He joined the Socialist Party after the 1971 Epinay Congress during which François Mitterrand took the party leadership. Ayrault was affiliated to one of the left-wing groups in the party. Elected in 1976 to the General Council of Loire-Atlantique département, he subsequently became Mayor of Saint-Herblain, located in the western suburbs of Nantes, in 1977. At 27, he was the youngest mayor of a French city of more than 30,000 inhabitants, he left the General Council in 1982. He reached the PS national committee in 1979 the executive of the party in 1981, he was first elected to the National Assembly in 1986, as representative of Loire Atlantique department, he was re-elected in subsequent elections. In 1989, he was chosen by the PS to conquer the mayoralty of Nantes, held by the Rally for the Republic party, he won. Re-elected in 1995, 2001 and 2008, he was president of the Urban Community of Nantes Métropole since 2002.
He was an important "local baron" of the Socialist Party. After the surprising victory of the "Plural Left" in the 1997 legislative election, he was not appointed to the government but was instead designated as President of the Socialist parliamentary group in the National Assembly, a position he held for the next 15 years. Ayrault was a supporter of François Hollande during the Socialist Party's 2011 primary election to choose its presidential candidate. Hollande was elected President in the 2012 presidential election, he appointed Ayrault as Prime Minister when he took office on 15 May 2012. Following François Hollande's victory in the 2012 presidential election, Ayrault was appointed Prime Minister of France replacing François Fillon; the following day, Ayrault unveiled his Cabinet. In response to the Greek government-debt crisis he asked the European Commission to put unused structural funds towards helping the Greek economy return to growth and said "We waited too long before helping Greece.
This has been going on for two years now and only gets worse..."Ayrault's appointment to the country's head of government prompted discussion within Arabic language mass media as to how to pronounce his surname. When his name is pronounced properly in French, it sounds "very much like a moderately rude Lebanese term" for a phallus. Al-Arabiya decided to pronounce the name properly and write its Arabic transliteration "in a way that makes clear it is not the offensive word". Ayrault announced his resignation on 31 March 2014, the day after the "Socialists suffered heavy losses in nationwide municipal elections", formally handed over to his successor Manuel Valls at the prime ministerial residence, the Hotel Matignon, on 1 April 2014; as part of a 2016 cabinet reshuffle, Hollande appointed Ayrault as foreign minister, replacing Laurent Fabius. Under Ayrault's leadership, the French foreign ministry summoned Vincent Mertens de Wilmars, Belgium's ambassador in Paris, in September 2016 after detaining two Belgian police officers on French territory for depositing migrants across the countries' border.
In September 2016, Ayrault took part in the formal signing ceremony for the Hinkley Point C nuclear power station, a controversial $24-billion Franco-Chinese investment project. French Government Prime Minister: 2012–2014. Minister of Foreign Affairs: 2016–2017National Assembly President of the Socialist Group in the National Assembly of France: 1997–2012. Re-elected in 2002 and 2007. Member of the National Assembly of France for Loire-Atlantique: 1986–2012. Elected in 1986, re-elected in 1988, 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012. General council General councillor of Loire-Atlantique, elected in the canton of Saint-Herbain-Est: 1976–1982. Community Council Président of the Urban Community of Nantes Métropole: 1992–2012. Re-elected in 19
Minister of Labour (France)
The Minister of Social Affairs and Employment is a cabinet member in the Government of France. The position was known as Minister of Labour, created in 1906, Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions. After its 1906 creation, the Inspection du travail service was integrated to it. After the Second World War, the position was renamed Minister of Social Affairs. In its current state, the position was brought back in 1981 under the presidency of François Mitterrand—as a result of the economic situation of France in the 1980s—to oversee issues of social exclusion, racism and social justice; the seat of the ministry is the hôtel du Châtelet, an 18th-century neoclassical palace located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. René Viviani Louis Lafferre Joseph Paul-Boncour René Renoult Léon Bourgeois René Besnard Henry Chéron Albert Métin Jean-Baptiste Abel Maurice Couyba Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin Albert Métin Étienne Clémentel Léon Bourgeois André Renard Pierre Colliard Paul Jourdain Daniel Vincent Albert Peyronnet Daniel Vincent Paul Jourdain Justin Godart Antoine Durafour Louis Pasquet André Fallières Louis Loucheur Pierre Laval Édouard Grinda Adolphe Landry Pierre Laval Albert Dalimier François Albert Eugène Frot Lucien Lamoureux Eugène Frot Jean Valadier Adrien Marquet Paul Jacquier Ludovic-Oscar Frossard Jean-Baptiste Lebas André Février Paul Ramadier Albert Sérol Paul Ramadier Charles Pomaret André Février Charles Pomaret René Belin Hubert Lagardelle Jean Bichelonne Marcel Déat Adrien Tixier René Sanson Alexandre Parodi Ambroise Croizat Daniel Mayer Ambroise Croizat Robert Lacoste Daniel Mayer Pierre Ségelle Paul Bacon Pierre Garet Paul Bacon Eugène Claudius-Petit Louis-Paul Aujoulat Paul Bacon Albert Gazier Paul Bacon Jean-Marcel Jeanneney Maurice Schumann Edgar Faure Nicole Questiaux Pierre Bérégovoy Georgina Dufoix Philippe Séguin Michel Delebarre Claude Évin Jean-Louis Bianco René Teulade Simone Veil Colette Codaccioni Eric Raoult Jacques Barrot Jean-Claude Gaudin Martine Aubry Élisabeth Guigou François Fillon Jean-Louis Borloo Xavier Bertrand Brice Hortefeux Xavier Darcos Éric Woerth Xavier Bertrand Michel Sapin/Marisol Touraine Muriel Pénicaud
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Clermont-Ferrand is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 141,569. Its metropolitan area had 467,178 inhabitants at the 2011 census, it is the prefecture of the Puy-de-Dôme department. Olivier Bianchi is its current mayor. Clermont-Ferrand sits on the plain of Limagne in the Massif Central and is surrounded by a major industrial area; the city known for the chain of volcanoes, the Chaîne des Puys surrounding it, including the dormant volcano Puy de Dôme (10 kilometres, one of the highest, topped by communications towers, visible from the city. Clermont-Ferrand hosts the Clermont-Ferrand International Short Film Festival, one of the world's leading international festivals for short films, it is home to the corporate headquarters of Michelin, the global tyre company founded there more than 100 years ago. Clermont-Ferrand's most famous public square is Place de Jaude, on which stands a grand statue of Vercingetorix sitting imperiously on a horse and holding a sword.
The inscription reads: J'ai pris les armes pour la liberté de tous. This statue was sculpted by Frédéric Bartholdi, who created the Statue of Liberty. Clermont-Ferrand's first name was Augusta Nemetum, it was born on the central knoll where the cathedral is situated today, known as Nemossos. It overlooked the capital of Gaulish Avernie; the fortified castle of Clarus Mons gave its name to the whole town in 848, to which the small episcopal town of Montferrand was attached in 1731, together taking the name of Clermont-Ferrand. The old part of Clermont is delimited by the route of the ramparts, as they existed at the end of the Middle Ages; the town of Clermont-Ferrand came about with the joining together of two separate towns and Montferrand, decreed by Louis XIII and confirmed by Louis XV. Clermont ranks among the oldest cities of France; the first known mention was by the Greek geographer Strabo, who called it the "metropolis of the Arverni". The city was at that time called Nemessos – a Gaulish word for a sacred forest, was situated on the mound where the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand stands today.
Somewhere in the area around Nemossos the Arverni chieftain Vercingetorix was born around 72 BC. Nemossos was situated not far from the plateau of Gergovia, where Vercingetorix repulsed the Roman assault at the Battle of Gergovia in 52 BC. After the Roman conquest, the city became known as Augustonemetum sometime in the 1st century, a name which combined its original Gallic name with that of the Emperor Augustus, its population was estimated at 15,000–30,000 in the 2nd century, making it one of the largest cities of Roman Gaul. It became Arvernis in the 3rd century, taking its name, like other Gallic cities in this era, from the people who lived within its walls; the city became the seat of a bishop in the 5th century, at the time of the bishop Namatius or Saint Namace, who built a cathedral here described by Gregory of Tours. Clermont went through a dark period after the disappearance of the Roman Empire and during the whole High Middle Ages, marked by pillaging by the peoples who invaded Gaul.
Between 471 and 475, Auvergne was the target of Visigothic expansion, the city was besieged, including once by Euric. Although defended by Sidonius Apollinaris, at the head of the diocese from 468 to 486, the patrician Ecdicius, the city was ceded to the Visigoths by emperor Julius Nepos in 475 and became part of the Visigothic kingdom until 507. A generation it became part of the Kingdom of the Franks. On 8 November 535 the first Council of Clermont opened at Arvernis, with fifteen bishops participating, including Caesarius of Arles, Nizier of Lyons, Bishop of Trier, Saint Hilarius, Bishop of Mende; the Council issued 16 decrees. The second canon reiterythe principal that the granting of episcopal dignity must be according to the merits and not as a result of intrigues. In 570, Bishop Avitus ordered the Jews of the city, who numbered over 500, to accept Christian baptism or be expelled. In 848, the city was renamed Clairmont, after the castle Clarus Mons. During this era, it was an episcopal city ruled by its bishop.
Clermont was not spared by the Vikings at the time of the weakening of the Carolingian Empire: it was ravaged by the Normans under Hastein or Hastingen in 862 and 864 and, while its bishop Sigon carried out reconstruction work, again in 898. Bishop Étienne II built a new Romanesque cathedral, consecrated in 946, it was entirely replaced by the current Gothic cathedral, though the crypt survives and the towers were only replaced in the 19th century. Clermont was the starting point of the First Crusade, in which Christendom sought to free Jerusalem from Muslim domination. Pope Urban II preached the crusade at the Second Council of Clermont. In 1120, following repeated crises between the counts of Auvergne and the bishops of Clermont and in order to counteract the clergy’s power, the counts founded the rival city of Montferrand on a mound next to the fortifications of Clermont, on the model of the new cities of the Midi that appeared in the 12th and 13th centuries; until the early modern period, the two remained separate cities: an episcopal city.
Clermont became a royal city in 1551, in 1610, the inseparable property of the French Crown. On 15 April 1630 the Edict of Troyes joined the two cities of Montferrand. T