Christopher John Hurford was a Labor member of the Australian House of Representatives seat of Adelaide from 1969 to 1987. He played a key role in the development of Australia's skills-oriented immigration policy, founded the ALP Labor Unity faction in SA. Hurford was born in India, to an English father and Australian mother. In 1940, his mother took the children to Perth, Western Australia where Hurford attended school, before returning to India to England. In 1949, his whole family migrated to Western Australia as'ten-pound poms', despite their Australian heritage. After studying at the London School of Economics, Chris Hurford worked in accountancy, he entered federal parliament in 1969, representing the Division of South Australia. The seat had fallen to Liberal Andrew Jones during the massive Coalition landslide of 1966. However, Jones' strong conservatism didn't play well in this ancestrally Labor seat, Hurford retook the seat for Labor on a resounding 14.3 percent swing, turning it into a safe Labor seat in one stroke.
Hurford won enough votes on the first count to take the seat without the need for preferences. He held Adelaide until his resignation in 1987. Hurford was Minister for Housing and Construction, outside Cabinet in the first Hawke Ministry from March 1983 to December 1984. In the second Hawke Ministry, he was promoted to Cabinet as Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs until February 1987, when he replaced Donald Grimes as Minister for Community Services; as Immigration Minister, Hurford's major achievement was the introduction of the "points system" for skilled immigration—a system which provided transparency in decisions on skilled migration and brought a new focus to immigration's role in developing human capital. The system has since been adopted in other jurisdictions. Hurford's period in Immigration was notable for his attempt to have Sheikh Taj El-Din Hilaly deported, but was unsuccessful, he made an early, unsuccessful attempt to reduce ministerial discretions in the granting of immigration visas.
In July 1987, Hurford,for personal reasons, withdrew from the third Hawke ministry. He retired from Parliament at the end of the year and became Australia's Consul-General in New York for four years. Within the South Australian ALP, Hurford is arguably an important modernising figure, he led the creation of the Labor Unity faction, a group variously described as "right-wing", moderate or "Third Way". A Catholic, Hurford won support from the conservative leadership of the Shop Distributive and Allied Trades Union in forming the faction. In the 1980s Hurford led the SA Labor Unity group in vigorously defending within the ALP the policy direction of the Hawke Government, a direction with which the larger Centre-Left and Left factions were uncomfortable. By the 1990s Labor Unity became a substantial counterweight to the other factions in SA
Robert Lawson (South Australian politician)
Robert David Lawson, was an Australian politician from 1993 to 2010 as a Liberal Party member of the South Australian Legislative Council. Prior to entering politics, Lawson was appointed Queen's Counsel, he held many positions in Liberal governments, such as Parliamentary Secretary for Information Technology, Presiding Member of Legislative Review Committee, Minister for the Ageing, Minister for Disability Services, Minister for Administrative Services, Minister for Information Services, Minister for Administrative and Information Services, Minister for Workplace Relations, Consumer Affairs, 45th Attorney-General of South Australia. He has held many positions in the Shadow Ministry, as well as Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Council. Lawson retired at the 2010 state election. Robert Lawson. Parliamentary Profile, parliament.sa.gov.au
Bachelor of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer. It served this purpose in the U. S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor degree, Canada followed suit. In Canada, Bachelor of Laws was the name of the first degree in common law, but is the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL. B. programmes were, in practice, second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the vast majority of those admitted to an LL. B. programme were holders of one or more degrees, or, at a minimum, have completed two years of study in a first-entry, undergraduate degree in another discipline. Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, respectively.
The first academic degrees were all law degrees in medieval universities, the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations of the first universities were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law; the first university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age. While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law, although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions. "LL. B." Stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. The "LL." of the abreviation for the degree is from the genitive plural legum. Creating an abbreviation for a plural from Latin, is done by doubling the first letter, It is sometimes erroneously called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L".
The bachelor's degree originated at the University of Paris, whose system was implemented at Oxford and Cambridge. The "arts" designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics. In continental Europe the bachelor's degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford and Cambridge; the teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practise law. Professional training for practising common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation. However, because of the lack of standardization of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world.
In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system. The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only; the apprenticeship programme for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programmes for the trades.
The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729. William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the programme for the purpose of professional study, the lectures were philosophical and theoretical in nature. Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court; the Inns of Court continued but became less effective and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination, therefore in 1846 the Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to the legal education provided in the United States. Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not established until in the century, then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.
When law degrees were required by the English bar and bar associations in other common law countries, the LL. B. became the uniform degree for l
John Robert Rau SC is an Australian barrister and politician. He was the 12th Deputy Premier of South Australia from 2011 to 2018 and 48th Attorney-General of South Australia from 2010 to 2018 for the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party in the Weatherill cabinet. Rau was the Labor member of the House of Assembly seat of Enfield from the 2002 election until announcing his intention to retire from Parliament on 10 December 2018, submitting his resignation on 17 December 2018. Rau was admitted as a solicitor and barrister of the Supreme Court of South Australia in 1981, he worked as an adviser to Hawke government ministers Mick Young, Michael Tate and Neal Blewett from 1985 to 1988. He served as a Commonwealth nominee on the South Australian Legal Services Commission, he has served on the ALP State and National Executives. Before his service as a political adviser, Rau worked as a solicitor at Duncan Groom, Carabellas & Hannon. From 1988 to 1997 he worked as a solicitor and barrister at the firm of Johnston Withers, becoming a partner.
Rau joined the independent bar and Murray Chambers in 1997. Rau has appeared as counsel in the South Australian Industrial Relations Commission, the South Australian Industrial Relations Court, the Workers Compensation Tribunal, the Supreme Court of South Australia, the District Court of South Australia and the Federal Court of Australia, his first political experience as a Labor candidate occurred at the 1993 federal election, when he stood for the Division of Hindmarsh, where he was narrowly defeated by Liberal Party candidate Christine Gallus by 1.6 percent. Prior to the 2002 state election, Rau contested Labor preselection for the safe seat of Enfield; the seat had been Ross Smith, held by Ralph Clarke, deposed as the party's deputy leader. The local party branch chose Clarke. However, the party's state executive installed Rau as the pre-selected candidate. Clarke ran as an independent Labor candidate. Rau won the seat with a 35.9 percent primary and 65.9 percent two-party vote. He is aligned with Labor's right faction.
Rau gained publicity in 2004 over his involvement in the Real Estate Industry – Reform bill, designed in an attempt to stop industry practices such as dummy bidding at auctions. The 2006 state election saw Rau retain Enfield with a 63.4 percent primary and 74.5 percent two-party vote. At the 2010 state election, Rau suffered a swing to finish with a 52.6 percent primary and 60.5 percent two-party vote. Rau became Attorney-General when Michael Atkinson stepped down from the position following the 2010 election. Like his predecessor, Rau has been described as a social conservative. Rau expressed approval for the introduction of an R18+ video games classification following the resignation of Atkinson; the issue has been one. Rau appears to be taking a different view to his predecessor and is considering allowing an introduction of an R18+ classification. In February 2011, Rau was elevated to Deputy Premier following the resignation of Kevin Foley from the position. On 22 November 2016, Rau was appointed a Senior Counsel by the Supreme Court of South Australia.
In addition to Deputy Premier and Attorney-General, in the Cabinet of South Australia Rau held the ministerial portfolios with responsibility for justice reform, industrial relations, child protection reform, the public sector and business services, with responsibility for the City of Adelaide. Rau attended Henley High School. Parliamentary Profile: SA Parliament website Parliamentary Profile: SA Labor website "Enfield: Adelaide Inner Northern Suburbs". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2011. "South Australian House of Assembly Election 2006: Enfield". The Poll Bludger. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011. "Ralph Clarke runs as independent". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2 March 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2011
Electoral district of Croydon (South Australia)
Croydon is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Named after the suburb of Croydon, it is a 18.78 km2 suburban electorate in Adelaide's inner north-west. In addition to Croydon, it includes Angle Park, Athol Park, Brompton, Croydon Park, Devon Park, Dudley Park, Ferryden Park, Mansfield Park, Regency Park, Renown Park, West Croydon, Woodville Gardens. Croydon was created in the 1998 electoral distribution as a safe Labor seat, replacing the abolished Spence, it was first contested at the 2002 state election, where it was won by future Attorney-General and Speaker Michael Atkinson, the previous member for Spence since 1989. The seat is split between the marginal federal seats of Adelaide and Hindmarsh and the safe federal Labor seat of Port Adelaide. Following the 2014 election Croydon became Labor's safest seat on an 18.9 percent margin. The 2016 redistribution by the electoral districts boundaries commission saw the northern boundary of Croydon district extended northwards from the vicinity of Regency Road to Grand Junction Road.
The southwestern boundary changed, with Beverley, Woodville Park and Flinders Park being absorbed by the neighbouring districts of Cheltenham and West Torrens. In February 2017, Atkinson announced his intention to resign from parliament and not recontest the seat as of the 2018 election. Upper house MP Peter Malinauskas succeeded him at the 2018 election. ECSA profile for Croydon: 2018 ABC profile for Croydon: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Croydon: 2018
2018 South Australian state election
The 2018 South Australian state election to elect members to the 54th Parliament of South Australia was held on 17 March 2018. All 47 seats in the House of Assembly or lower house, whose members were elected at the 2014 election, 11 of 22 seats in the Legislative Council or upper house, last filled at the 2010 election, were contested; the record-16-year-incumbent Australian Labor Party government led by Premier Jay Weatherill was seeking a fifth four-year term, but was defeated by the opposition Liberal Party of Australia, led by Opposition Leader Steven Marshall. Nick Xenophon's new SA Best party unsuccessfully sought to obtain the balance of power. Like federal elections, South Australia has compulsory voting, uses full-preference instant-runoff voting for single-member electorates in the lower house and optional preference single transferable voting in the proportionally represented upper house; the election was conducted by the Electoral Commission of South Australia, an independent body answerable to Parliament.
^a: Results final as of 5 April. Independents: Frances Bedford, Troy Bell, Geoff Brock The Liberal opposition formed a two-seat majority government with 25 of 47 seats, after retaining three of the four redistributed notionally Liberal seats won by Labor at the previous election and winning the newly-created notionally ultra marginal Labor seat of King; the Labor government went in to opposition with 19 seats. Despite the change of government, there was a statewide two-party-preferred swing away from the Liberals toward Labor; the seats of Colton, Elder and Newland were won by Labor at the previous election, but the 2016 redistribution made them notionally Liberal seats. Colton and Newland were won by the Liberals. ^b: Results final as of 23 April. The 11 of 22 seats up for election were 4 Labor, 1 Green, 1 Conservative and 1 Dignity; the final outcome was 4 Labor, 2 SA Best and 1 Green. Conservative MLC Dennis Hood, elected as a Family First MLC in 2014, defected to the Liberals nine days after the 2018 state election.
The 22 seat upper house composition is therefore 9 Liberal on the government benches, 8 Labor on the opposition benches, 5 to minor parties on the crossbench, consisting of 2 SA Best, 2 Green, 1 Advance SA. The government therefore requires at least three additional non-government members to form a majority and carry votes on the floor. Four hours after the close of polls, at 10pm ACDT, incumbent Premier Jay Weatherill telephoned Steven Marshall and conceded defeat. Weatherill subsequently publicly announced that he had conceded, saying, "I'm sorry I couldn't bring home another victory, but I do feel like one of those horses that has won four Melbourne Cups and I think the handicap has caught up with us on this occasion." Marshall claimed victory saying, "A massive thank you to the people of South Australia who have put their trust, their faith in me and the Liberal team for a new dawn, a new dawn for South Australia!" After the SA Best party failed to win a seat including Hartley, Nick Xenophon ruled out a return to federal politics.
Following the election outcome, Weatherill resigned as state Labor leader and returned to the backbench. Outgoing Minister for Health Peter Malinauskas became Leader of the Opposition, with outgoing Education Minister Susan Close as deputy, following a Labor caucus meeting on 9 April 2018. Notably, the Liberals won 16 of the 33 metropolitan seats, their best showing in the Adelaide area since their landslide victory in 1993, when they took all but nine seats in the capital. Labor had spent all but 12 of the 48 years since the end of the Playmander in government due to its traditional dominance of Adelaide. South Australia is Australia's most centralised state. To a greater extent than other state capitals, Adelaide is decisive in deciding state election outcomes. Since the end of the Playmander, most elections have seen Labor win most of the metropolitan seats, with most of the Liberal vote locked up in safe rural seats. In 2010, for instance, the Liberals won 51 percent of the two-party vote on a swing that should have been large enough to deliver them government.
However, they only won nine seats in Adelaide. In 2014, while picking up a two percent two-party swing, the Liberals were only able to win an additional three seats in Adelaide. Nick Xenophon announced a few SA Best lower house candidates. Polls had included Xenophon's party as one of the four parties they monitored explicitly since February 2016. SA Best planned to only contest 12 seats; this was increased to 20. On 27 January, a landmark was passed when Xenophon announced eight new candidates, making a total of 24; this was the minimum number to be theoretically capable of forming majority government in the 47-seat house. On 1 February, Xenophon said it was the total number of SA Best lower house candidates would be around 30. After early opinion polls indicated that it could outperform other parties, the party contested 36 seats in the House of Assembly and put forward four candidates for the upper house. Opinion polling indicated; the party failed to secure any lower house seats, although there was a close contest in the seat of Heysen.
Xenophon lost the seat of Hartley, with un-finalised results indicating a two-party preferred vote of around 42%. The party came second on primary votes in ten seats. SA Best did, secure two upper house positions, with the successful election of Connie
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re