James Clark Ross
Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy explorer known for his exploration of the Arctic with Sir William Parry and Sir John Ross, his uncle, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica. Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir John's first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry, in 1829 to 1833, again served under his uncle on Sir John's second Arctic voyage, it was during this trip that a small party led by James Ross located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands renamed Clarence Islands by his uncle. In 1834, Ross was promoted to captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had become trapped in Baffin Bay, they accepted his offer, he set sail in HMS Cove in January 1836.
The crossing was difficult, by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, William Torr, crushed in the ice in December 1835, he returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health. From 1835–1839, except for his voyage with Cove, he conducted a magnetic survey of Great Britain with Sir Edward Sabine. Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded HMS Erebus on his own Antarctic expedition and charted much of the continent's coastline. Captain Francis Crozier was second-in-command of commanding HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy and a member of several scientific societies. On the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, invited along as assistant ship's surgeon. Erebus and Terror were bomb vessels—an unusual type of warship named after the mortar bombs they were designed to fire and constructed with strong hulls, to withstand the recoil of the mortars, which were to prove of great value in thick ice.
In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called variously the Barrier or the Great Ice Barrier named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honour; the following year, he attempted to penetrate south at about 55° W, explored the eastern side of what is now known as James Ross Island and naming Snow Hill Island and Seymour Island. Ross reported that Admiralty Sound appeared to him to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. Ross's ships arrived back in England on 4 September 1843, he was awarded the Grande Médaille d'Or des Explorations in 1843, knighted in 1844, elected to the Royal Society in 1848. In 1848, Ross was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin; the others were the Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition and the expedition aboard HMS Plover and HMS Herald through the Bering Strait.
He was given command of HMS Enterprise, accompanied by HMS Investigator, Because of heavy ice in Baffin Bay he only reached the northeast tip of Somerset Island where he was frozen in at Port Leopold. In the spring he and Sir Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge, he thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it. The next summer he was blocked by ice and returned to England, he was married to Lady Ann Coulman. He died at Aylesbury five years after his wife. A blue plaque marks Ross's home in Eliot Place, London, his closest friend was Francis Crozier. He lived in the ancient House of the Abbots of St. Albans in Buckinghamshire, he is buried with his wife in Aston Abbotts. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus. Ross, played by British actor Richard Sutton, is a secondary character in the 2018 AMC television series The Terror, portrayed in a fictionalized version of his 1848 search for Franklin's lost expedition, as well as in the 2007 Dan Simmons novel on which the series is based.
The Ross seal, one of the four Antarctic phocids, first described during the Ross expedition The James Ross Strait, Ross Bay, Ross Point, Rossoya in the Arctic are all named after him. RRS James Clark Ross is a British Antarctic Survey research ship; the crater Ross on the Moon is named after him. Ross's gull, a small gull, the only species in its genus, that breeds in the high arctic of northernmost North America and northeast Siberia Ross Dependency, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in the Antarctic are all named after him. European and American voyages of scientific exploration E. C. Coleman, The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration From Frobisher to Ross. ISBN 0752436600. Ray Edinger, Fury Beach: The Four-Year Odyssey of Captain John Ross and the Victory. ISBN 0425188450. "Ross, John". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Media related to James Clark Ross at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about James Clark Ross at Internet Archive
Adolphus Washington Greely was a United States Army officer, polar explorer, recipient of the Medal of Honor. He began his long and distinguished military career shortly after the outbreak of the American Civil War. On 26 July 1861, he enlisted in the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment at the age of 17, after having been rejected twice before. Over the next two years he worked his way up the enlisted ranks to 1st sergeant. On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 26 April 1864 and to captain on 4 April 1865. After the war he received a brevet promotion to major to rank from 13 March 1865 for "faithful and meritorious service during the war", he was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 36th Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army on 7 March 1867 and was reassigned to the 5th Cavalry Regiment on 14 July 1869 after the 36th Infantry was disbanded.
He was promoted to first lieutenant on 27 May 1873. In 1881, First Lieutenant Greely was given command of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition on the ship Proteus. Promoted by Henry W. Howgate, its purpose was to establish one of a chain of meteorological-observation stations as part of the First International Polar Year; the expedition was commissioned by the US government to collect astronomical and polar magnetic data, carried out by the astronomer Edward Israel, part of Greely's crew. Another goal of the expedition was to search for any clues of the USS Jeannette, lost in the Arctic two years earlier. Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party were able to discover many hitherto unknown miles along the coast of northwest Greenland; the expedition crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west and Lt. James B. Lockwood and Sgt. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. In 1882, Greely sighted a mountain range during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island and named them the Conger Range.
He sighted the Innuitian Mountains from Lake Hazen. Two consecutive supply parties failed to reach Greely's party encamped at Fort Conger on Ellesmere Island in 1882 and 1883. In accordance with his instructions for this case, Greely decided in August 1883 to abandon Fort Conger and retreat south with his team, they reached Cape Sabine expecting to find food and equipment depots from the supply ships, but these had not been provided. With winter setting in Greely and his men were forced to winter at Cape Sabine with inadequate rations and little fuel. A rescue expedition, led by Capt. Winfield Scott Schley on the USRC Bear, was sent to rescue the Greely party. By the time Bear and ships Thetis and Alert arrived on June 22, 1884, to rescue the expedition, nineteen of Greely's 25-man crew had perished from starvation, hypothermia, and, in the case of Private Henry, gunshot wounds from an execution ordered by Greely. Greely and the other survivors were themselves near death; the returning survivors were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism during the remaining days of low food.
An exhibition on the "Greely expedition" was part of the Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was captured on stereoscopic images. In June 1886, Greely was promoted to captain after serving twenty years as a lieutenant and, in March 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed him as Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier general. During his tenure as Chief Signal Officer of the Army, the following military telegraph lines were constructed and maintained during the Spanish–American War: Puerto Rico, 800 miles. In connection with Alaska General Greely had constructed under adverse conditions a telegraph system of nearly 4,000 mi, consisting of submarine cables, land cables and wireless telegraphy, the latter covering a distance of 107 mi, which at the time of installation was the longest commercial system working in the world. In 1906, he served as military commander over the emergency situation created by the San Francisco earthquake. On February 10, 1906, he was promoted to major general and on March 27, 1908, he retired, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64.
In 1911 he represented the United States Army at the coronation of King George V. On March 21, 1935, a special act of Congress awarded Greely the Medal of Honor in recognition of his long and distinguished career, he is the second person to be awarded the Medal of Honor for "lifetime achievement" rather than for acts of physical courage at the risk of one's own life. His was the last award of the Medal of Honor by the Army for non-combat service. General Greely died on October 20, 1935, in Washington, D. C. and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. Greely attended the First Presbyterian Church and married Henrietta Nesmith in 1878 and with her had six children: Antoinette in 1879, Adola in 1881, John in 1885, Rose in 1887, Adolphus in 1889, Gertrude in 1891. Henrietta was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and one of the founding vice presidents general of the Children of the American Revolution. After the Civil War, Greely became a companion of the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society composed of Union officers
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions and journeying through these perils by sight and foot has proven difficult; some scholars believe that the first attempts to penetrate the Arctic Circle can be traced to ancient Greece and the sailor Pytheas, a contemporary of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, who, in c. 325 BC, attempted to find the source of the tin that would sporadically reach the Greek colony of Massilia on the Mediterranean coast. Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and Cornwall circumnavigating the British Isles. From the local population, he heard news of the mysterious land of Thule farther to the north.
After six days of sailing, he reached land at the edge of a frozen sea, described what is believed to be the aurora and the midnight sun. Some historians claim that this new land of Thule was either the Norwegian coast or the Shetland Islands based on his descriptions and the trade routes of early British sailors. While no one knows how far Pytheas sailed, he may have crossed the Arctic Circle, his tales were regarded as fantasy by Greek and Roman authorities, such as the geographer Strabo. The first Viking to sight Iceland was Gardar Svavarsson, who lost his route due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands; this led to a wave of colonization. Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. In the 10th century, Gunnbjörn Ulfsson got lost in a storm and ended up within sight of the Greenland coast, his report spurred Erik the Red, an outlawed chieftain, to establish a settlement there in 985. While they flourished these settlements foundered due to changing climatic conditions.
They are believed to have survived until around 1450. Greenland's early settlers sailed westward, in search of better hunting grounds. Modern scholars debate the precise location of the new lands of Vinland and Helluland that they discovered; the Scandinavian peoples pushed farther north into their own peninsula by land and by sea. As early as 880, the Viking Ohthere of Hålogaland rounded the Scandinavian Peninsula and sailed to the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea; the Pechenga Monastery on the north of Kola Peninsula was founded by Russian monks in 1533. They explored north by boat, discovering the Northern Sea Route, as well as penetrating to the trans-Ural areas of northern Siberia, they founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the now famous Bering Strait between Asia. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century.
By the 17th century they established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk as far east as the mouth of Yenisey. This route, known as Mangazeya seaway, after its eastern terminus, the trade depot of Mangazeya, was an early precursor to the Northern Sea Route. Exploration to the north of the Arctic Circle in the Renaissance was both driven by the rediscovery of the Classics and the national quests for commercial expansion, hampered by limits in maritime technology, lack of stable food supplies, insufficient insulation for the crew against extreme cold. A seminal event in Arctic exploration occurred in 1409, when Ptolemy's Geographia was translated into Latin, thereby introducing the concepts of latitude and longitude into Western Europe. Navigators were better able to chart their positions, the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced; the Inventio Fortunata, a lost book, describes in a summary written by Jacobus Cnoyen but only found in a letter from Gerardus Mercator, voyages as far as the North Pole.
One disputed claim is that two brothers from Venice and Antonio Zeno made a map of their journeys to that region, which were published by their descendants in 1558. The Northwest Passage connects the Pacific Oceans via the Arctic Ocean. Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. John Cabot's initial failure in 1497 to find a Northwest Passage across the Atlantic led the British to seek an alternative route to the east. Interest re-kindled in 1564 after Jacques Cartier's discovery of the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Martin Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake the challenge of forging a trade route from England westward to India. In 1576 - 1578, he took three trips to. Frobisher Bay is named after him. In July 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had written a treatise on the discovery of the passage and was a backer of Frobisher's, claimed the territory of Newfoundland for the English crown.
On August 8, 1585, under the employ of Elizabeth I the English explorer John Davis entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Davis rounded Greenland before dividing his four ships into separate expeditions to search for a passage
The Polaris expedition of 1871–1873 was an American expedition, one of the first serious attempts to reach the North Pole, after that of British naval officer Sir William Edward Parry, who reached 82° 45′N in 1827. The expedition's notable achievement was reaching 82 ° 29 ′ N by a record at the time; the expedition was commanded by the experienced and self-taught Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall, who had lived among the Inuit in the Arctic region while on his obesessive quest to determine the fate of Franklin's lost expedition of 1845. Hall possessed the necessary survival skills, but lacked an academic background, had no experience leading men and commanding a ship, he had managed to secure the position of expedition commander based on his authority on the subject of the Arctic. Polaris departed from New York in June 1871. Underway, the expedition found itself hampered by poor leadership. Insubordination loomed at the instigation of chief scientist Emil Bessels and meteorologist Frederick Meyer—both German—who looked down on what they perceived to be their unqualified commander.
Bessels and Meyer were supported by the German half of the crew, further increasing tensions among a crew, divided by nationality. By October, the men were wintering in Thank God Harbor, on the shore of northern Greenland, making preparations for the trip to the Pole. Hall returned to the ship from an exploratory sledging journey to a fjord he named Newman Bay, promptly fell ill. Before he died, he accused members of the crew of orchestrating his murder, an accusation directed at Bessels. On the way southward, 19 members of the expedition became separated from the ship and drifted on an ice floe for six months and 1,800 miles, before being rescued; the damaged Polaris was run aground and wrecked near Etah in October 1872. The remaining men were rescued the following summer. A naval board of inquiry investigated Hall's death, but no charges were laid. However, an exhumation of his body in 1968 revealed he had ingested a large quantity of arsenic in the last two weeks of his life. Coupled with recently-discovered affectionate letters written by both Hall and Bessels to Vinnie Ream, a young sculptor they met in New York while waiting for Polaris to be outfitted, suggests Bessels had a motive, besides the means, to kill Hall.
In 1827, Sir William Edward Parry led a British Royal Navy expedition with the aim to be the first men to reach the North Pole. In the next five decades following Parry's attempt, the Americans would mount three such expeditions: Elisha Kent Kane in 1853–1855, Isaac Israel Hayes in 1860–1861, Charles Francis Hall with the Polaris in 1871–1873. Hall was a Cincinnati businessman with no notable academic sailing experience, he worked as a blacksmith and for a couple of years he published his own newspaper – the Cincinnati Occasional. Energetic and enterprising, he enthusiastically wrote about the latest technological innovations, he was a voracious reader captivated by the Arctic. His focus was directed towards the region around 1857, after it had dawned on society that Franklin's Arctic expedition of 1845, in all likelihood, would never be coming home, he spent the next few years studying the reports of previous explorers and trying to raise money for an expedition. As a result of his charisma and personality, he was able to launch two solo expeditions in search of Franklin and his crew.
These experiences established him as a seasoned Arctic explorer, gave him valuable contacts among the Inuit people. The renown he gained allowed him to convince the U. S. Government to finance a third expedition. In 1870, the U. S. Senate introduced a bill in Congress to fund an expedition to the North Pole. Hall, aided by Navy Secretary George M. Robeson lobbied for, received, a $50,000 grant to command the expedition, he began recruiting personnel in late 1870. He secured a 387-ton screw-propelled steamer. At the Washington Navy Yard, the ship was fitted as a fore-topsail schooner, renamed Polaris, she was prepared for Arctic service by the addition of solid oak timber all over her hull, the bow was sheathed in iron. A new engine was added, one of the boilers was retrofitted to burn seal or whale oil; the ship was outfitted with four whaleboats, 20-foot-long and four-foot-wide, a flat-bottomed scow. During his previous Arctic expeditions, Hall came to admire the Inuit umiak—a type of open boat made of driftwood and walrus- or seal skins—and brought a constructed collapsible boat which could hold 20 people.
Food packed on board consisted of tinned ham, salted beef and sailor's biscuit. They intended to prevent scurvy by supplementing their diet with fresh muskox and polar bear meat. In July 1870, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant designated Hall as the expedition's overall commander, he was to be referred to as captain. Although Hall had abundant Arctic experience, he had no sailing experience, the title was purely honorary. In selecting officers and seamen, Hall relied on whalers with experience in the Arctic waters; this was markedly different from the polar expeditions of the British Admiralty, who tended to use naval officers and disciplined crews. For his selection of sailing master, Hall first turned to Sidney O. Budington to George E. Tyson. Both declined due to prior whaling commitments; when those commitments fell through, Hall named Budington as sai
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, parts of Alaska, Greenland, Northern Canada, Norway and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places; the Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, land animals and human societies. Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic; the word Arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός, "near the Bear, northern" and that from the word ἄρκτος, meaning bear. The name refers either to the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern portion of the celestial sphere, or to the constellation Ursa Minor, the "Little Bear", which contains Polaris, the Pole star known as the North Star.
There are a number of definitions of. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle, the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Another definition of the Arctic is the region where the average temperature for the warmest month is below 10 °C; the Arctic's climate is characterized by cool summers. Its precipitation comes in the form of snow and is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm. High winds stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can go as low as −40 °C, the coldest recorded temperature is −68 °C. Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas; the Arctic is affected by current global warming, leading to Arctic sea ice shrinkage, diminished ice in the Greenland ice sheet, Arctic methane release as the permafrost thaws. Due to the poleward migration of the planet's isotherms, the Arctic region is shrinking.
The most alarming result of this is Arctic sea ice shrinkage. There is a large variance in predictions of Arctic sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100. About half of the analyzed models show near-complete to complete sea ice loss in September by the year 2100. Arctic life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, to cold, snow-covered winter conditions. Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, herbs and mosses, which all grow close to the ground, forming tundra. An example of a dwarf shrub is the Bearberry; as one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance and variety of plants to decrease.
Trees cannot grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m in height. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare. Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming and caribou, they are preyed on by the snowy owl, Arctic fox, Grizzly bear, Arctic wolf. The polar bear is a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Other terrestrial animals include wolverines, Dall sheep and Arctic ground squirrels. Marine mammals include seals and several species of cetacean—baleen whales and narwhals, killer whales, belugas. An excellent and famous example of a ring species exists and has been described around the Arctic Circle in the form of the Larus gulls; the Arctic includes sizable natural resources to which modern technology and the economic opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities. The interest of the tourism industry is on the increase.
The Arctic contains some of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats; the Arctic is susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare breeding grounds of the animals that are characteristic to the region. The Arctic holds 1/5 of the Earth's water supply. During the Cretaceous time period, the Arctic still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth. Animals such as the Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus and Edmontosaurus may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, migrated south to warmer climes when the winter ca
Charles Francis Hall
Charles Francis Hall was an American explorer of the Arctic, best known for the suspicious circumstances surrounding his death while leading the American-sponsored Polaris expedition in an attempt to be the first to reach the North Pole. The expedition was marred by insubordination and poor leadership. Hall returned to the ship from an exploratory sledging journey, promptly fell ill. Before he died, he accused members of the crew of poisoning him. An exhumation of his body in 1968 revealed that he had ingested a large quantity of arsenic in the last two weeks of his life. Little is known of Hall's early life, he was either born in Rochester, New Hampshire, or in the state of Vermont before moving to Rochester at a young age, where he was apprenticed to a blacksmith at a young age. In the 1840s, he married and drifted westward, arriving in Cincinnati in 1849, where he went into business making seals and engraving plates, he published his own newspaper. Around 1857, Hall became interested in the Arctic and spent the next few years studying the reports of previous explorers and trying to raise money for an expedition intended to learn the fate of Franklin's lost expedition.
Hall went on his first expedition by gaining passage on the George Henry, a whaler commanded by Captain Sidney O. Budington out of New Bedford, they got as far as Baffin Island. Local Inuit told Hall about relics of Martin Frobisher's mining venture at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island, to which Hall travelled to inspect these items up close, he was assisted by his newly recruited Inuit guides and wife "Joe" Ebierbing and "Hannah" Tookoolito. Hall found what he took to be evidence of the fact that some members of Franklin's lost expedition might still be alive. On his return to New York, Hall arranged for the Harper Brothers to publish his account of the expedition: Arctic Researches and Life Among the Esquimaux, it was edited by William Parker Snow obsessed by Franklin's fate. The two came to a disagreement—mostly due to Snow's slow editing. Snow claimed Hall had used his ideas for the search of Franklin without giving him due credit. During the course of 1863, Hall planned a second expedition to seek more clues on the fate of Franklin, including efforts to find any of the rumoured survivors or their written records.
The first attempt using the 95-ton schooner Active was abandoned due to lack of finances caused by the American Civil War and a troubled relationship with his intended second-in-command Parker Snow. In July 1864, a much smaller expedition departed in the whaler Monticello. During this second expedition to King William Island, he found remains and artifacts from the Franklin expedition, made more inquiries about their fate from natives living there. Hall realized that the stories of survivors were unreliable, either by the Inuit or his own readiness to give them overly optimistic interpretations, he became disillusioned with the Inuit by the discovery that the remnants of Franklin's expedition had deliberately been left to starve. He failed to consider that it would have been impossible for the local population to support such a large group of supernumeraries. Hall's third expedition was of an different character, he received a grant of $50,000 from the U. S. Congress to command an expedition to the North Pole on the USS Polaris.
The party of 25 included Hall's old friend Budington as sailing master, George Tyson as navigator, Emil Bessels as physician and chief of scientific staff. The expedition was troubled from the start as the party split into rival factions. Hall's authority over the expedition was resented by a large portion of the party, discipline broke down. Polaris sailed into Thank God Harbor—present-day Hall Bay—on September 10, 1871, anchored for the winter on the shore of northern Greenland; that fall, upon returning to the ship from a sledging expedition with an Inuit guide to a fjord which he named Newman Bay, Hall fell ill after drinking a cup of coffee. He collapsed in. For the next week he suffered from vomiting and delirium seemed to improve for a few days. At that time, he accused several of the ship's company, including Bessels, of having poisoned him. Shortly thereafter, Hall began suffering the same symptoms, died on November 8. Hall was given a formal burial. Command of the expedition devolved on Budington, who reorganized to try for the Pole in June 1872.
This was unsuccessful and Polaris turned south. On October 12, the ship was on the verge of being crushed. Nineteen of the crew and the Inuit guides abandoned ship for the surrounding ice while 14 remained aboard. Polaris was run aground near Etah and crushed on October 24. After wintering ashore, the crew sailed south in two boats and were rescued by a whaler, returning home via Scotland; the following year, the remainder of the party attempted to extricate Polaris from the pack and head south. A group, including Tyson, became separated as the pack broke up violently and threatened to crush the ship in the fall of 1872; the group of 19 drifted over 1,500 miles on an ice floe for the next six months, before being rescued off the coast of Newfoundland by the sealer Tigress on April 30, 1873, would have all perished had the group not included several Inuit who were able to hunt for the party. The official investigation that followed ruled. However, in 1968, Hall's biographer, Chauncey C. Loomis, a professor at Dartmouth College, made an expedition to Greenland to exhume Hall's body.
To the benefit of the
Frederick St John Barne
Frederick St John Newdigate Barne was a British army officer and a Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1876 to 1885. Barne was the eldest son of Frederick Barne of Sotterley HalI, near Wangford and his wife Mary Anne Elizabeth Honywood, eldest daughter of Sir John Courtenay Honywood, 5th Baronet, his father had been M. P. for the rotten borough of Dunwich in succession to earlier members of the Barne family. He joined the Scots Fusilier Guards in 1859 and retired as captain and lieutenant-colonel in 1872. Barne was elected at a by-election in 1876 as one of the two Members of Parliament for East Suffolk, held the seat until the 1885 general election, when constituency was divided under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. Barne married Lady Constance Adelaide Seymour, daughter of Francis Seymour, 5th Marquess of Hertford in 1871, they lived at Sotterley Hall. Their son Michael Barne was the last surviving officer of the 1901-04 Discovery Expedition. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Frederick Barne