The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep
Voice-over is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative —is used in a radio, television production, theatre, or other presentations. The voiceover is read from a script and may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice talent. Synchronous dialogue, where the voiceover is narrating the action, taking place at the same time, remains the most common technique in voiceovers. Asynchronous, however, is used in cinema, it is prerecorded and placed over the top of a film or video and used in documentaries or news reports to explain information. Voiceovers are used in video games and on-hold messages, as well as for announcements and information at events and tourist destinations, it may be read live for events such as award presentations. Voiceover is added in addition to any existing dialogue, it is not to be confused with the process of replacing dialogue with a translated version, called dubbing or revoicing. In Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Ishmael narrates the story, he sometimes comments on the action in voiceover, as does Joe Gillis in Sunset Boulevard and Eric Erickson in The Counterfeit Traitor.
Voiceover technique is used to give voices and personalities to animated characters. Noteworthy and versatile voice actors include Mel Blanc, Daws Butler, Don Messick, Paul Frees, June Foray. Charactering techniques in voiceovers are used to give personalities and voice to fictional characters. There has been some controversy with charactering techniques in voiceovers with white radio entertainers who would mimic black speech patterns. Radio made this racial mockery easier to get away with because it was a non-confrontational platform to express anything the broadcasters found fit, it became the ideal medium for voice impersonations. Characterization has always been popular in all forms of media. In the late 1920s radio started to stray away from reporting on musicals and sporting events, radio began to create serial talk shows as well as shows with fictional storylines; the technique of characterization can be a creative outlet to expand on film and radio, but it must be done carefully. In film, the filmmaker places the sound of a human voice over images shown on the screen that may or may not be related to the words that are being spoken.
Voiceovers are sometimes used to create ironic counterpoint. Sometimes they can be random voices not directly connected to the people seen on the screen. In works of fiction, the voiceover is by a character reflecting on his or her past, or by a person external to the story who has a more complete knowledge of the events in the film than the other characters. Voiceovers are used to create the effect of storytelling by a character/omniscient narrator. For example, in The Usual Suspects, the character of Roger "Verbal" Kint has voiceover segments as he is recounting details of a crime. Classic voiceovers in cinema history can be heard in The Naked City. Sometimes, voiceover can be used to aid continuity in edited versions of films, in order for the audience to gain a better understanding of what has gone on between scenes; this was done when the film Joan of Arc, starring Ingrid Bergman, turned out to be far from the box-office and critical hit, expected, it was edited down from 145 minutes to 100 minutes for its second run in theaters.
The edited version, which circulated for years, used narration to conceal the fact that large chunks of the film had been cut out. In the full-length version, restored in 1998 and released on DVD in 2004, the voiceover narration is heard only at the beginning of the film. Film noir is associated with the voiceover technique; the golden age of first-person narration was during the 1940s. Film noir used male voiceover narration but there are a few rare female voiceovers. In radio, voiceovers are an integral part of the creation of the radio program; the voiceover artist might be used to remind listeners of the station name or as characters to enhance or develop show content. During the 1980s, the British broadcasters Steve Wright and Kenny Everett used voiceover artists to create a virtual "posse" or studio crew who contributed to the programmes, it is believed. The American radio broadcaster Howard Stern has used voiceovers in this way; the voiceover has many applications in non-fiction as well. Television news is presented as a series of video clips of newsworthy events, with voiceover by the reporters describing the significance of the scenes being presented.
Television networks such as The History Channel and the Discovery Channel make extensive use of voiceovers. On NBC, the television show Starting Over used Sylvia Villagran as the voiceover narrator to tell a story. Live sports broadcasts are shown as extensive voiceovers by sports commentators over video of the sporting event. Game shows made extensive use of voiceovers to introduce contestants and describe available or awarded prizes, but this technique has diminished as shows have moved toward predominantly cash prizes; the most prolific have included Don Pardo, Johnny Olson, John Harlan, Jay Stewart, Gene Wood and Johnny Gilbert. Voiceover commentary by a leading critic, historian, or by the production personnel themselves is ofte
Stone carving is an activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone. Owing to the permanence of the material, stone work has survived, created during our prehistory. Work carried out by paleolithic societies to create flint tools is more referred to as knapping. Stone carving, done to produce lettering is more referred to as lettering; the process of removing stone from the earth is called quarrying. Stone carving is one of the processes; the term refers to the activity of masons in dressing stone blocks for use in architecture, building or civil engineering. It is a phrase used by archaeologists and anthropologists to describe the activity involved in making some types of petroglyphs; the earliest known works of representational art are stone carvings. Marks carved into rock or petroglyphs will survive where painted work will not. Prehistoric Venus figurines such as the Venus of Berekhat Ram may be as old as 800,000 years, are carved in stones such as tuff and limestone.
These earliest examples of the stone carving are the result of hitting or scratching a softer stone with a harder one, although sometimes more resilient materials such as antlers are known to have been used for soft stone. Another early technique was to use an abrasive, rubbed on the stone to remove the unwanted area. Prior to the discovery of steel by any culture, all stone carving was carried out by using an abrasion technique, following rough hewing of the stone block using hammers; the reason for this is that bronze, the hardest available metal until steel, is not hard enough to work any but the softest stone. The Ancient Greeks used the ductility of bronze to trap small granules of carborundum, that are occurring on the island of Milos, thus making a efficient file for abrading the stone; the development of iron made possible stone carving tools, such as chisels and saws made from steel, that were capable of being hardened and tempered to a state hard enough to cut stone without deforming, while not being so brittle as to shatter.
Carving tools have changed little since then. Modern, large quantity techniques still rely on abrasion to cut and remove stone, although at a faster rate with processes such as water erosion and diamond saw cutting. One modern stone carving technique uses a new process: The technique of applying sudden high temperature to the surface; the expansion of the top surface due to the sudden increase in temperature causes it to break away. On a small scale, Oxy-acetylene torches are used. On an industrial scale, lasers are used. On a massive scale, carvings such as the Crazy Horse Memorial carved from the Harney Peak granite of Mount Rushmore and the Confederate Memorial Park in Albany, Georgia are produced using jet heat torches. Carving stone into sculpture is an activity older than civilization itself. Prehistoric sculptures were human forms, such as the Venus of Willendorf and the faceless statues of the Cycladic cultures. Cultures devised animal, human-animal and abstract forms in stone; the earliest cultures used abrasive techniques, modern technology employs pneumatic hammers and other devices.
But for most of human history, sculptors used hammer and chisel as the basic tools for carving stone. The process begins with the selection of a stone for carving; some artists use the stone itself as inspiration. Other artists begin with a form in mind and find a stone to complement their vision; the sculptor may begin by forming a model in clay or wax, sketching the form of the statue on paper or drawing a general outline of the statue on the stone itself. When ready to carve, the artist begins by knocking off large portions of unwanted stone; this is the "roughing out" stage of the sculpting process. For this task they may select a point chisel, a long, hefty piece of steel with a point at one end and a broad striking surface at the other. A pitching tool may be used at this early stage; the pitching tool is useful for removing large, unwanted chunks. Those two chisels are used in combination with a masons driving hammer. Once the general shape of the statue has been determined, the sculptor uses other tools to refine the figure.
A toothed chisel or claw chisel has multiple gouging surfaces which create parallel lines in the stone. These tools are used to add texture to the figure. An artist might mark out specific lines by using calipers to measure an area of stone to be addressed, marking the removal area with pencil, charcoal or chalk; the stone carver uses a shallower stroke at this point in the process in combination with a wooden mallet. The sculptor has changed the stone from a rough block into the general shape of the finished statue. Tools called rasps and rifflers are used to enhance the shape into its final form. A rasp is a flat, steel tool with a coarse surface; the sculptor uses sweeping strokes to remove excess stone as small chips or dust. A riffler is a smaller variation of the rasp, which can be used to create details such as folds of clothing or locks of hair; the final stage of the carving process is polishing. Sandpaper can be used as a first step in sand cloth. Emery, a stone, harder and rougher than the sculpture media, is used in the finishing process.
This abrading, or wearing away, brings out the color of the stone, reveals patterns in the surface and adds a sheen. Tin and iron oxides are
Mozart and the Whale
Mozart and the Whale is a 2005 romantic comedy-drama film starring Josh Hartnett and Radha Mitchell, directed by Petter Næss. The film tells the story of two people with Asperger syndrome. Donald runs a small self-help group for people on the autism spectrum who are more affected by their autism than he is. Mozart and the Whale is a fictional account, using characters loosely based on the real-life relationship of Jerry Newport and Mary Meinel. Donald Morton is a taxi driver and drives two Japanese passengers and his pet cockatiel around Spokane, Washington. Distracted, he bumps into the back of a florist's van. Unfazed and his budgie take their groceries and leave, abandoning his taxi cab and passengers, he takes his groceries to the self-help group for autistic adults. Before they head to the park to meet another autistic group, he tells one member, Gracie, to gather the women and he'll gather the guys to practice telling personal stories, but keeps getting distracted by performing mathematical sums of the microwaves' depleting numbers.
He notices that a new name, has signed up and tells Gracie to let her go first. At the park, Isabelle tells the women of a childhood memory: she saw that her parents were happy an Olympian had broken a record, so in order to please her parents, taking what she heard she broke their music records. Donald couldn't make friends. Isabelle goes on to tell of; this causes Gracie to laugh manically. Heard by Donald, he tries to calm an angry Isabelle down and they find that they have much in common and take a liking to each other. After Isabelle talks to Gregory, a man in the group, taking notes on a notepad, he calls Donald over to ask Isabelle if she may escort him to a Halloween party on his behalf. Before Donald has the chance, Isabelle asks Donald out for lunch, they go to the zoo the following day. They agree to meet in-costume Halloween night. Donald dresses as a whale but decides against attending leaving Isabelle, dressed as Mozart, waiting, she goes to his apartment and they decide to take a walk about town and talk until the final bus is due when they share their first kiss.
Unsure when to call, Donald leaves multiple messages on her phone. During a ring toss, the clanging of the metal rings hitting the bottles and the ringing of a bell cause Isabelle to scream and collapse on the floor. Donald takes her back to his filthy apartment and they agree to sleep together; the following day at the self-help group, Gregory accuses Donald of exploiting his position for sexual favors. Meanwhile, Isabelle occupies herself by waiting with Bronwin, a member of group who learned that her father has blood cancer, until her parents pick her up. Isabelle takes the liberty of cleaning his apartment; when he returns, he's horrified to see. He gets angry at Isabelle for changing everything, he leaves a number of apologetic messages on Isabelle's phone. The next day, he goes to the hair salon where Isabelle works as a hair stylist to apologize in person, Isabelle forgives him, introducing him as her boyfriend to the staff. Isabelle shows Donald an abandoned rooftop, calling this a place where people who don't know where they belong can belong.
She suggests that they can buy a house and her therapist has organised a job interview for a statistic analyst post at a university. He gets the job and they move into their new house, making it their own. Donald tells Isabelle that he wants everything to be nice for when his boss, Wallace comes for dinner. Believing that he thinks that she doesn't keep the house nice, Isabelle spites Donald by keeping the pets uncaged, much to Donald's shock when he returns, she maintains extroverted behavior and tells of her off-the-wall plans for the house. Donald explodes, but when Isabelle says that they are both crazy, he retaliates by telling her that she is crazier, which leads to her throwing him out, he stays with Gregory in his house, after listening to an answer message that Isabelle's rabbit, has died, he runs to comfort her. Isabelle suggests. Donald invites Isabelle to a restaurant, she overdoses. Donald returns just in time to take her to the hospital, where Isabelle's psychiatrist advises him to leave her alone, testing his willpower to refrain from calling her.
Donald sees Isabelle leaving the university and follows her to the abandoned rooftop, where he expresses that the only nice thing he had left to give her was not to call, to find that Isabelle was waiting for his call and she missed him. They express their true love with an kiss; the movie ends with the happy couple in their home, enjoying Thanksgiving dinner with the self-help group. Josh Hartnett as Donald Morton Sharif Shawkat as young Donald Radha Mitchell as Isabelle "Izzy" Sorenson Mercedee Smith as young Isabelle Rusty Schwimmer as Gracie Erica Leerhsen as Bronwin Gary Cole as Wallace Allen Evangelista as Skeets Nate Mooney as Roger Sheila Kelley as Janice John Carroll Lynch as Gregory The screenplay was written by Ron Bass, who wrote Rain Man, a film about an individual with autism. Bass is said to have been inspired by a 199
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only; the term is used in the entertainment business in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, restricted to contexts like criticism. Wiktionary defines the noun ` artist'. A person who makes and creates art as an occupation. A person, skilled at some activity. A person whose trade or profession requires a knowledge of design, painting, etc; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist": A learned person or Master of Arts One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine, alchemy, chemistry A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic One who makes their craft a fine art One who cultivates one of the fine arts – traditionally the arts presided over by the muses The Greek word "techně" translated as "art," implies mastery of any sort of craft.
The adjectival Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words technique, technical. In Greek culture each of the nine Muses oversaw a different field of human creation: Calliope: chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry Clio: muse of history Erato: muse of love or erotic poetry and marriage songs Euterpe: muse of music and lyric poetry Melpomene: muse of tragedy Polyhymnia or Polymnia: muse of sacred song, lyric and rhetoric Terpsichore: muse of choral song and dance Thalia: muse of comedy and bucolic poetry Urania: muse of astronomyNo muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour; the word art derives from the Latin "ars", although defined means "skill method" or "technique" conveys a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word artist existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling craftsman, while the word artesan was still unknown.
An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures; the first division into major and minor arts dates back at least to the works of Leon Battista Alberti: De re aedificatoria, De statua, De pictura, which focused on the importance of the intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills. With the Academies in Europe the gap between fine and applied arts was set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful cannot be standardized without corruption into kitsch. Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person. An artist may be defined unofficially as "a person who expresses him- or herself through a medium"; the word is used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.
Most the term describes those who create within a context of the fine arts or'high culture', activities such as drawing, sculpture, dancing, filmmaking, new media and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an aesthetic value. Art historians and critics define artists as those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline. Contrasting terms for skilled workers in media in the applied arts or decorative arts include artisan and specialized terms such as potter, goldsmith or glassblower. Fine arts artists such as painters succeeded in the Renaissance in raising their status similar to these workers, to a decisively higher level; the term may be used loosely or metaphorically to denote skilled people in any non-"art" activities, as well— law, mechanics, or mathematics, for example. Discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "technician", "entertainer" and "artisan", "fine art" and "applied art", or what constitutes art and what does not.
The French word artiste has been imported into the English language. Use of the word "artiste" can be a pejorative term; the English word'artiste' has thus a narrower range of meaning than the word'artiste' in French. In Living with Art, Mark Getlein proposes six activities, services or functions of contemporary artists: Create places for some human purpose. Create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects. Record and commemorate. Give tangible form to the unknown. Give tangible form to feelings. Refresh our vision and help see the world in new ways. After looking at years of data on
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery; the making of sculpture in wood has been widely practised, but survives much less well than the other main materials such as stone and bronze, as it is vulnerable to decay, insect damage, fire. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures. Outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan, in particular, are in wood, so are the great majority of African sculpture and that of Oceania and other regions. Wood is light and can take fine detail so it is suitable for masks and other sculpture intended to be worn or carried.
It is much easier to work on than stone. Some of the finest extant examples of early European wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Germany, Russia and France, where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England, many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. In the fall of 2018, after the presence of representatives in Iran, abadeh was chosen for first woodcarving city. Nickname of abadeh is the city of wood carving Chip carving Relief carving Scandinavian flat-plane Caricature carving Lovespoon Treen Whittling Chainsaw carving Pattern, Detailing and Smoothening the carving knife: a specialized knife used to pare and smooth wood; the gouge: a tool with a curved cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows and sweeping curves. The coping saw: a small saw, used to cut off chunks of wood at once; the chisel: large and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines and cleaning up flat surfaces.
The V-tool: used for parting, in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines. The U-Gauge: a specialized deep gouge with a U-shaped cutting edge. Sharpening equipment, such as various stones and a strop: necessary for maintaining edges. A special screw for fixing work to the workbench, a mallet, complete the carvers kit, though other tools, both specialized and adapted, are used, such as a router for bringing grounds to a uniform level, bent gouges and bent chisels for cutting hollows too deep for the ordinary tool; the nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. The direction in which wood is strongest is called "grain", it is smart to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it. However, a "line of best fit" is instead employed, since a design may have multiple weak points in different directions, or orientation of these along the grain would necessitate carving detail on end grain.
Carving blanks are sometimes assembled, as with carousel horses, out of many smaller boards, in this way, one can orient different areas of a carving in the most logical way, both for the carving process and for durability. Less this same principle is used in solid pieces of wood, where the fork of two branches is utilized for its divergent grain, or a branch off of a larger log is carved into a beak; the failure to appreciate these primary rules may be seen in damaged work, when it will be noticed that, whereas tendrils, tips of birds beaks, etc. arranged across the grain have been broken away, similar details designed more in harmony with the growth of the wood and not too undercut remain intact. The two most common woods used for carving in North America are basswood and tupelo. Chestnut, oak, American walnut and teak are very good woods. Decoration, to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is carved in pine, soft and inexpensive. A wood carver begins a new carving by selecting a chunk of wood the approximate size and shape of the figure he or she wishes to create or if the carving is to be large, several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size.
The type of wood is important. Hardwoods have greater luster and longevity. Softer woods are more prone to damage. Any wood can be carved but they all have different qualities and characteristics; the choice will depend on the requirements of carving being done: for example, a detailed figure would need a wood with a fine grain and little figure as a strong figure can interfere with'reading' fine detail. Once the sculptor has selected their wood, he or she begins a general shaping process using gouges of various sizes; the gouge is a curved blade. For harder woods, the sculptor may use gouges sharpened with stronger bevels, about 35 degrees, a mallet similar to a stone carver's; the terms gouge and chisel are open to confusion. A gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and a chisel is a tool with a flat cross-section. However, professional carvers tend to refer to them all as'ch