Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (NZ)
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was co-founded in Christchurch New Zealand in 1959 with the help of Elsie Locke and Mary Woodward. Mabel Hetherington, who belonged to an earlier generation of peace activists from England, was responsible for setting up CND in Auckland when she moved to New Zealand after World War II. With Alison Duff and Pat Denby, Hetherington carried CND in Auckland through the 1960s, it was from CND and the Peace Media that Greenpeace New Zealand evolved. In 1959, responding to rising public concern following the British H-Bomb tests in Australia, New Zealand voted in the UN to condemn nuclear testing while the United Kingdom, United States and France voted against, Australia abstained. In the early 1960s CND New Zealand organised marches and speeches throughout the country to highlight the concerns about French atmospheric nuclear tests at Mururoa atoll in French Polynesia. In 1961, CND with the support of other peace groups urged the New Zealand government to declare it ‘will not acquire or use nuclear weapons' and to withdraw from nuclear alliances such as ANZUS.
In 1963 CND Auckland presented the ‘No Bombs South of the Line' petition with 80,238 signatures to the New Zealand Parliament calling on the government to sponsor an international conference to discuss establishing a nuclear-free-zone in the southern hemisphere. It was the biggest New Zealand petition since the one in 1893 demanding votes for women. In 1972, in a joint Greenpeace and CND campaign, the yacht Vega was re-named "Greenpeace III", it sailed in a defiant protest into the atomic exclusion zone at Mururoa Atoll; the Vega was rammed by a French military warship and David McTaggart was beaten by French military police in a second voyage in 1973. The international publicity which surrounded the incident marked the beginning of a 3 decade protest against nuclear testing at Mururoa with an eventual test ban implemented by the French in 1996. In 1987 the New Zealand parliament adopted the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone and Arms Control Act 1987 declaring the country and its territorial waters a nuclear-free zone.
Two leaders of CND NZ in the 1970s went on to parliamentary careers. CND President Richard Northey ONZM was MP for Eden from 1984 to 1990 and MP for Onehunga from, 1993 to 1996, his Vice President Mike Rann CNZM was Premier of South Australia from 2002 to 2011
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
The MV Greenpeace was a Greenpeace ship built in 1959 as an oceangoing tug/salvage vessel. She was purchased by Greenpeace in 1985 from the Maryland Pilotage Company, the vessel being named MV Maryland, transferred back to the Netherlands to be refitted with modern equipment before being recommissioned, she took over from the first Rainbow Warrior, sunk in 1985 by French commandos. In 2001 she was replaced by the MV Esperanza. During her 15 years of service with Greenpeace, the MV or Black Pig as she was known by her crew, circumnavigated the globe several times, participating in numerous campaigns, her first deployment was as part of the "World Park Antarctica" campaign but following the sinking of the Warrior, she was diverted en route from Europe to New Zealand via the Panama canal, to first participate as part of a peace convoy protesting against French Nuclear Testing at Moruroa Atoll, before continuing to carry on with the Antarctica campaign as planned. The next decade and a half saw her involved in Greenpeace campaigns around the world, from the Persian Gulf to the Antarctic.
Whilst participating in protests against the US testing of Trident missiles in 1989, the Greenpeace was rammed by the US Navy vessel, the USS Kittiwake multiple times. In late 1993 crew aboard the ship exposed Russian ships dumping 900 tonnes of liquid radioactive waste into the Sea of Japan. Protests against the resumption of French nuclear testing in French Polynesia followed in 1995. During this time the vessel was detained by French police in international waters; the Greenpeace was replaced in 2001 by the MV Esperanza. She has since been reconverted to her original form as the Elbe and is now a museum ship in Maassluis. Information about MV Greenpeace All Greenpeace Ships
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president; the Sierra Club operates in the United States. Traditionally associated with the progressive movement, the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, engages in lobbying politicians to promote environmentalist policies. Recent focuses of the club include promoting sustainable energy, mitigating global warming, opposing the use of coal; the club is known for its political endorsements, which are sought after by candidates in local elections. The Sierra Club is organized on both a local level; the club is divided into large chapters representing large geographic areas, some of which have tens of thousands of members. These chapters are divided into regional groups, special interest sections and task forces. While much activity is coordinated at a local level, the Club is a unified organization.
In addition to political advocacy, the Sierra Club organizes outdoor recreation activities, has been a notable organization for mountaineering and rock climbing in the United States. Members of the Sierra Club pioneered the Yosemite Decimal System of climbing, were responsible for a substantial amount of the early development of climbing. Much of this activity occurred in the group's namesake Sierra Nevada; the Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses and occasional alpine expeditions for members. In California, the club, through its outdoor recreation groups, is considered the state's analogue to other state mountaineering clubs such as Mazamas or the Colorado Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's stated mission is "To explore and protect the wild places of the earth. Each year, five directors are elected to three-year terms, all club members are eligible to vote. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members; the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group.
Michael Brune of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the organization's executive director since 2010. Brune succeeded Carl Pope. Pope stepped down amid discontent. Sierra Club members belong to local groups. National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues; the national Sierra Club sets overarching rules. The club is known for engaging in two main activities: promoting and guiding outdoor recreational activities, done throughout the United States but in California, political activism to promote environmental causes. Richard M. Skinner of the Brookings Institution describes the Sierra Club as one of the United States' "leading environmental organizations"; the Sierra Club makes endorsements of individual candidates for elected office, which has substantial weight given the club's reputation and large membership. Journalist Robert Underwood Johnson had worked with John Muir on the successful campaign to create a large Yosemite National Park surrounding the much smaller state park, created in 1864.
This campaign succeeded in 1890. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an "association" to help protect the Sierra Nevada, preliminary meetings were held to plan the group. Others involved in the early planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte and David Starr Jordan. In May 1892, a group of professors from the University of California and Stanford University helped Muir and attorney Warren Olney launch the new organization modeled after the eastern Appalachian Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914. The Club's first goals included establishing Glacier and Mount Rainier national parks, convincing the California legislature to give Yosemite Valley to the U. S. federal government, preserving California's coastal redwoods. Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government.
The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the country's second national park, after Yellowstone in 1872. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from "resource management" conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams. In 1890, San Francisco mayor James D. Phelan proposed to build a dam and aqueduct on the Tuolumne River, one of the largest southern Sierra rivers, as a way to increase and stabilize the city's water supply. Gifford Pinchot, a progressive supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service, which had jurisdiction over the national parks, supported the creation of the Hetch
Rainbow Warrior (2011)
Rainbow Warrior is a purpose-built motor-assisted sailing yacht owned and operated by Greenpeace and intended for use in their activities such as environmental protests and scientific excursions. She was christened on October 14, 2011, has replaced Rainbow Warrior II after further upgrades and maintenance of the older ship had been shown to be impractical; the vessel is the first Rainbow Warrior, not converted from another vessel. Her Hull was constructed in Poland and she was built in Germany, to provide state of the art facilities for the group's use, including advanced telecommunication equipment, specialised scientific equipment and a helicopter landing pad; the ship is designed to be one of the "greenest" ships afloat, to showcase this quality, it runs using wind power, with a 55 m mast system which carries 1255 sq meters of sail and is backed up by a "state-of-the-art hybrid". On board the ship can store up to 59 cubic meters of greywater and blackwater, avoiding the need for disposal at sea.
All materials, from the paintwork to the insulation, have been chosen with a view to sustainability, each component has been supplied with transparent ethical sourcing. Construction of the ship began in the summer of 2010 in Gdansk before being transported to the Fassmer Shipyard near Bremen in Germany to be fitted out before being launched in October 2011; the ship was in part funded by a crowd funding project set up by Greenpeace. Supporters were encouraged to buy parts of the ship through a designed website. Supporters in turn received a certificate for their contribution and had their names etched onto a digital artwork on board the vessel; the website live-streamed names and messages, tying people directly to the part of the ship they contributed to. The multimedia site was accompanied by a webcam allowing people to follow the ship's construction up to its launch date; the project received over 100,000 donors from around the world. After its launch in Bremerhaven, the new Rainbow Warrior toured ports in Europe welcoming supporters on board the new ship and holding specific events such as onboard concerts.
The ship was visited by celebrity supporters such as Radiohead's Thom Yorke, part of the ship's maiden voyage. And 2 Michelin starred chef Diego Guerrero in Barcelona. In January 2012, the ship travelled to the East Coast of the USA, planning to dock at New York City, Southport, North Carolina, Fort Lauderdale and St. Petersburg, Florida. In March 2013, the ship travelled to Australia. Rainbow Warrior Rainbow Warrior MV Arctic Sunrise MV Esperanza MV Sirius Legend of the Rainbow Warriors Rainbow Warrior website Stories from the Rainbow Warrior YouTube Greenpeace orders technologically advanced Rainbow Warrior III We're gonna need a bigger boat! Virtual Tour of the Rainbow Warrior III in Cozumel
Rainbow Warrior (1955)
Rainbow Warrior was a Greenpeace ship active in supporting a number of anti-whaling, anti-seal hunting, anti-nuclear testing and anti-nuclear waste dumping campaigns during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The ship was bombed in the Port of Auckland in New Zealand by operatives of the French intelligence service on 10 July 1985, sinking the ship and killing photographer Fernando Pereira; the Rainbow Warrior was commissioned by the UK Ministry of Agriculture and Food as a trawler called the Sir William Hardy. It was purchased by the environmental organization Greenpeace UK. Sir William Hardy was built in 1955, in Aberdeen and entered service with the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. In 1977 the ship was acquired by Greenpeace UK at a cost of £37,000 and underwent a four-month refit, it was re-launched on 2 May 1978 as Rainbow Warrior. The ship was named by Greenpeace co-founder Susi Newborn after the book Warriors of the Rainbow which she had been given by another Greenpeace co-founder, Robert Hunter.
The book's rhetoric included this passage: "The world is sick and dying, the people will rise up like Warriors of the Rainbow". After a series of high-profile campaigns in the North Atlantic, including two escapes from captivity in Spain resulting in the resignation of the Admiral of the Spanish Navy, Rainbow Warrior made its way to North America where it underwent modification in 1981 and the fitting of sails in a ketch rig in 1985. In early 1985, Rainbow Warrior was in the Pacific Ocean campaigning against nuclear testing. In May, it relocated 300 Marshall Islanders from Rongelap Atoll, polluted by radioactivity from past American nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds, it travelled to New Zealand to lead a flotilla of yachts protesting against French nuclear testing at the Mururoa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. During previous nuclear tests at Mururoa, protest ships had been boarded by French commandos after sailing into the shipping exclusion zone around the atoll.
For the 1985 tests, Greenpeace intended to monitor the impact of nuclear tests and place protesters on the island to monitor the blasts. The French Government infiltrated the Auckland offices of the organisation and discovered these plans. Rainbow Warrior captained by Peter Willcox, was sabotaged and sunk just before midnight NZST on 10 July 1985, by two explosive devices attached to the hull by operatives of the French intelligence service. One of the twelve people on board, photographer Fernando Pereira, returned to the ship after the first explosion to attempt to retrieve his equipment, was killed when the ship was sunk by the second, larger explosion. A murder inquiry began and two French agents were tracked and arrested; the revelations of French involvement caused a political scandal and the French Minister of Defence Charles Hernu resigned. The captured French agents were imprisoned, but transferred to French custody, they were confined to the French military base on the Island of Hao for a brief period before being released.
After facing international pressure, France agreed to pay compensation to Greenpeace, admissions from the former head of the DGSE revealed that three teams had carried out the bombings. In addition to those prosecuted, two DGSE divers, Jacques Camurier and Alain Tonel, had carried out the actual bombing, but their identities have never been confirmed. On 22 September 1985, the French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius summoned journalists to his office to read a 200-word statement in which he said: "The truth is cruel," and acknowledged there had been a cover-up, he went on to say that "Agents of the French secret service sank this boat, they were acting on orders."Following the sinking and the French Republic entered into an agreement to submit Greenpeace's claims against France to international arbitration. The arbitral tribunal, seated in Geneva, was composed of three members and rendered an award in 1987 in favour of Greenpeace, ordering France to pay it USD$8.1 million. David McTaggart, Greenpeace's chairman, described the award as "a great victory for those who support the right of peaceful protest and abhor the use of violence."
Greenpeace was represented by Gary Born of Wilmer Cutler & Pickering. The wreck of Rainbow Warrior was refloated on 21 August 1985 and moved to a naval harbour for forensic examination. Although the hull had been recovered, the damage was too extensive for repair and the vessel was scuttled in Matauri Bay in the Cavalli Islands, New Zealand, on 12 December 1987, to serve as a dive wreck and artificial reef to promote marine life; the hull is now covered with a large colony of vari-coloured sea anemones. The masts were salvaged and now stand outside the Dargaville Museum. A second ship named Rainbow Warrior, was acquired in 1989 whilst a third ship of the same name was built from scratch and launched in October 2011. Several books have been written about both the history of Greenpeace and the genesis of Rainbow Warrior. A Bonfire in my Mouth: Life and the Rainbow Warrior by Susi Newborn was published in 2003 and Rex Wyler's Greenpeace: An Insider's Account. How a Group of Ecologists and Visionaries Changed the World in 2004.
In 2014, Pete Wilkinson's book From Deptford to Antarctica – The Long Way Home was published. Books that have been published about the bombing of Rainbow Warrior include Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior, produced the year after the sinking and written by shipboard author David Robie. Books in French include L'affaire Greenpeace, in Les grands énigmes de notre temps, Jacques Derogy, Éditions de Cremille, Geneva, 1990, which n
Paul Franklin Watson is a Canadian-American marine wildlife conservation and environmental activist, who founded the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, an anti-poaching and direct action group focused on marine conservation and marine conservation activism. He is a citizen of the United States; the Toronto native joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing in 1969. He was a co-founder of Greenpeace and skippered for it and a founding board member in 1972, he has been credited by The New York Times, The New Yorker, other publications with being a founder of Greenpeace. The documentary How to Change the World shows that Watson was indeed one of the original founding members of Greenpeace; because Watson argued for a strategy of direct action that conflicted with the Greenpeace interpretation of nonviolence, he was ousted from the board in 1977 and subsequently left the organization. That same year, he formed the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society; the group is the subject of a reality show named Whale Wars.
He promotes veganism, a biocentric, rather than anthropocentric, worldview. Watson's activities have led to legal action from authorities in countries including the United States, Norway, Costa Rica and Japan, he was detained in Germany on an extradition request by Costa Rica in May 2012. The Interpol red notice was issued on September 2012, at the request of Japan and Costa Rica. After staying at sea for 15 months, he returned to Los Angeles late October 2013, going through customs and "was not arrested", he appeared before a US appeals court on November 6, 2013, stating that neither he nor Sea Shepherd violated a 2012 order requiring them to leave whaling vessels alone. Although the United States is a signatory member of Interpol, Watson has not been detained for extradition to Japan or Costa Rica, he was living in Vermont. He has resided in Paris since July 1, 2014. According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, Paul Watson was born in Toronto to Anthony Joseph Watson and Annamarie Larsen, grew up in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, along with two sisters and three brothers.
As a child he was a member of the Kindness Club, which he has credited with teaching him to "respect and defend animals". After working as a tour guide at Expo 67, the World's Fair that took place in Montreal in 1967, Watson moved to Vancouver. According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, in 1968 and the early 1970s, he joined the Canadian Coast Guard, where he served aboard weatherships and rescue hovercraft, buoy tenders, he signed up as a merchant seaman in 1969 with the Norwegian Consulate in Vancouver and shipped out on the 35,000 ton bulk carrier Bris as a deck hand. The Bris was registered in Oslo and manifested for the Indian Ocean and Pacific trade. Watson has one daughter Lilliolani with his first wife, Starlet Lum, a founding director of Greenpeace Quebec, Earthforce!, Project Wolf, Sea Shepherd. His second wife, Lisa Distefano, a former Playboy model, was Sea Shepherd's Director of Operations during the Makah anti-whaling campaigns in Friday Harbor, his third wife, Allison Lance, is an animal rights activist and a volunteer crew member of Sea Shepherd.
Watson has two grandchildren. Watson married his fourth wife Yana Rusinovich on February 14, 2015, in France. Watson and Rusinovich had a son, Tiger, on September 29, 2016. In October 1969, Watson joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing at Amchitka Island; the group which formed as a result of that protest was the Don't Make a Wave Committee, which evolved into the group known today as Greenpeace. In the early 1970s, Watson was active with the Vancouver Liberation Front and the Vancouver Yippies. Watson sailed as a crew member aboard the Greenpeace Too! Ship in 1971 and skippered the Greenpeace boat Astral in 1972. Paul Watson continued as a crew member and officer aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s. According to The New Yorker, The New York Times, other sources, Watson was a founding member of Greenpeace, but the organization denies this stating he "was an influential early member but not, as he sometimes claims, a founder." Greenpeace claims that Watson joined Greenpeace on its Amchitka expedition, which they claim to be their second expedition, but Paul Watson claims that this was Greenpeace's first meeting.
The first Sea Shepherd vessel, the Sea Shepherd, was purchased in December 1978 with assistance from the Fund for Animals and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Sea Shepherd soon established itself as one of the more controversial environmental groups, known for provocative direct action tactics; these tactics have included throwing objects onto the decks of whaling ships, the use of "prop foulers" in an attempt to sabotage the ships, boarding whaling vessels, the scuttling of two ships in an Icelandic harbor. In January 2013, Watson relinquished captaincy of the Steve Irwin; the organization and its activities to halt whaling are the focus of a reality TV series, Whale Wars, airing on Animal Planet. In 2010, Watson received more than $120,000 from Sea Shepherd; because of mounting legal complications, Watson has stepped down as head of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society in 2013, to abide by an injunction barring him from proximity with Japanese whaling ships. After the resolution of legal issues involving the Japanese Institute for Cetacean Research, Watson returned as President of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and Commander of the Sea Shepherd fleet.
Watson was a field correspondent for Defenders of Wildlife from 1976 to 1980 and a field representative for the Fund for Animals from 1978 to 1981. Watson was a co-founde