SAP SE is a German multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. SAP is headquartered in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with regional offices in 180 countries; the company has over 425,000 customers in over 180 countries and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. When Xerox exited the computer hardware manufacturing industry in 1971, it asked IBM to migrate its business systems to IBM technology; as part of IBM's compensation for the migration, IBM was given the rights to the Scientific Data Systems /SAPE software for a contract credit of $80,000. Five IBM engineers from the AI department were working in an enterprise-wide system based on this software, only to be told that it would no longer be necessary. Rather than abandoning the project, they decided to start another company. In June 1972, they founded the SAP Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung company, as a private partnership under the German Civil Code.
Their first client was the German branch of Imperial Chemical Industries in Östringen, where they developed mainframe programs for payroll and accounting. Instead of storing the data on punch cards mechanically, as IBM did, they stored it locally in the Electronic System while using common Logical database for all activities of Organization. Therefore, they called their software a real-time system, since there was no need to process the punch cards overnight; this first version was a standalone software that could be offered to other interested parties. In 1973, the first commercial product was launched. SAP completes its first financial accounting system - RF; this system serves as the cornerstone in the ongoing development of other software modules of the system that will bear the name SAP R/1. This offered a common system for multiple tasks; this permitted the use of a centralized data storage. From a technical point of view, therefore, a database was necessary. In 1976, SAP GmbH Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung is founded as a sales and support subsidiary.
Five years the private partnership is dissolved and its rights are passed on to SAP GmbH. The headquarters moved the following year to Germany. Three years in 1979, SAP launched SAP R/2, expanding the capabilities of the system to other areas, such as material management and production planning. In 1981, SAP brought a re-designed product to market. However, SAP R/2 did not improve until the period between 1985 and 1990. SAP released the new SAP R/3 in 1992. SAP developed and released several versions of R/3 through 1995. By the mid-1990s, SAP followed the trend from mainframe computing to client/server architectures; the development of SAP's internet strategy with mySAP.com redesigned the concept of business processes. As a result, R/3 was replaced with the introduction of SAP ERP Central Component 5.0 in 2004. Architectural changes were made to support an enterprise service architecture to transition customers to a services-oriented architecture; the latest version, SAP ERP 6.0, was released in 2006.
SAP ERP 6.0 has since been updated through SAP enhancement packs, the most recent: SAP enhancement package 8 for SAP ERP 6.0 in 2016. In August 1988, SAP GmbH became SAP AG, public trading started on 4 November 1988. Shares were listed on the Stuttgart stock exchanges. In 1995, SAP was included in the German stock index DAX and, on 22 September 2003, SAP was included in the STOXX Europe 50; the company's official name became SAP AG after the 2005 annual general meeting. In 2014, SAP changed from an AG to a European Company. Since 2012, SAP has acquired several companies that sell cloud-based products, with several multibillion-dollar acquisitions seen by analysts as an attempt to challenge competitor Oracle. In 2014 SAP bought Concur Technologies, a provider of cloud-based travel and expense management software, for $8.3 billion, SAP's most expensive purchase to that date. Analysts' reactions to the purchase were mixed, with Thomas Becker of Commerzbank questioning whether Concur was the right choice for SAP, while Credit Suisse called the acquisition an "aggressive" move.
In 2014, IBM and SAP began a partnership to sell cloud-based services. In 2015, SAP partnered with HPE to provide secure hybrid cloud-based services running the SAP platform. Both HPE and IBM provide infrastructure services to SAP, SAP runs its SAP HANA cloud solution on top. SAP has announced additional partnerships with Microsoft in order to give customers tools for data visualization, as well as improved mobile applications. SAP exceeded its revenue projections due to the expansion in its cloud business and the success of SAP HANA; the growth can be attributed to the acquisitions of Concur and Fieldglass. The company announced plans in 2016 to invest into technology relating to Internet of Things as part of a strategy to capitalize on the growth in that market. For that purpose, €2 billion is planned for investment in relevant sectors by the end of 2020. SAP will launch a new product line called SAP IoT, which "will combine large amounts of data from things connected to the Internet with machine learning and SAP's real-time databas
Dell EMC is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Hopkinton, United States. Dell EMC sells data storage, information security, analytics, cloud computing and other products and services that enable organizations to store, manage and analyze data. Dell EMC's target markets include large companies and small- and medium-sized businesses across various vertical markets; the company's stock was added to the New York Stock Exchange on April 6, 1986, was listed on the S&P 500 index. EMC was acquired by Dell in 2016, it was renamed to Dell EMC. Dell uses the EMC name with some of its products. EMC, founded in 1979 by Richard Egan, Roger Marino & John Curly, introduced its first 64-kilobyte memory boards for the Prime Computer in 1981 and continued with the development of memory boards for other computer types. In the mid-1980s the company expanded beyond memory to other computer data storage types and networked storage platforms. EMC began shipping its flagship product, the Symmetrix, in 1990.
Symmetrix was the main reason for EMC's rapid growth in the 1990s, both in size and value, from a company valued in the hundreds of millions of dollars to a multi-billion dollar company. Michael Ruettgers joined EMC in 1988 and served as CEO from 1992 until January 2001. Under Ruettgers' leadership, EMC revenues grew from $120 million to nearly $9 billion 10 years and the company shifted its focus from memory boards to storage systems. Ruettgers was named one of BusinessWeek's "World's Top 25 Executives"; some of EMC's growth was via acquisitions of small companies. On October 12, 2015, Dell Inc. announced its intent to acquire EMC in a cash-and-stock deal valued at $67 billion, considered the largest-ever acquisition in the technology sector. This would combine Dell's enterprise server, personal computer, mobile businesses with EMC's enterprise storage business. Dell would pay $24.05 per share of EMC, $9.05 per share of tracking stock in VMware. On September 7, 2016, Dell Inc. completed the merger with EMC Corp. which involved the issuance of $45.9 billion in debt and $4.4 billion common stock.
In addition to those of the majority-owned Pivotal company, Dell EMC sells products and services, including products from other Dell Technologies companies, designed to allow IT departments to move to a cloud computing model and to analyze big data. The following table includes the listing and timeline of EMC Corporation's major acquisitions of other companies since 1996. In 2012, EMC sponsored The Human Face of Big Data, a globally crowd-sourced media project focusing on the ability to collect, analyze and visualize vast amounts of data in real time; the Human Face of Big Data, produced by Rick Smolan and Jennifer Erwitt, includes "a number of fascinating stories... represent some of the most innovative applications of data that are shaping our future". Official website
Republic Steel is an American steel manufacturer, once the country's third largest steel producer. It was founded as the Republic Iron and Steel Company in Youngstown, Ohio in 1899. After rising to prominence during the early 20th Century, Republic suffered heavy economic losses and was bought out before re-emerging in the early 2000s as a subsidiary; the company manufactures Special Bar Quality steel bars and employs around 2,000 people. It is owned by Grupo Simec, based in Guadalajara, Mexico. In 1927, Cyrus S. Eaton acquired and combined Republic with several other small steel companies, with the goal of becoming large enough to rival U. S. Steel; the newly named Republic Steel Corporation was headquartered in Cleveland and became America's third largest steel company, trailing only U. S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel after acquiring Bourne-Fuller Company and the Central Alloy Steel Company in the 1930s. Tom M. Girdler became the first chairman of the board of directors. Eaton hired Girdler from Laughlin Steel Company, where he had served as president.
Girdler modernized Republic Steel with the introduction of better alloys such as "light steel". During World War II, while still chairman of Republic Steel, Girdler relocated to California to serve as chief executive officer of Consolidated Aircraft, a military aircraft manufacturer. Following the war, Girdler left Consolidated to run Republic's aviation department. Republic Steel was known for its labor problems during the Depression. On Memorial Day, May 26, 1937, a strike escalated into the Memorial Day massacre of 1937, in which Chicago police fired into an unarmed group of protesters, killed ten, four outright; this was documented by the 1937 short film Republic Steel Strike Riot Newsreel Footage. Girdler never signed the labor contract; when Girdler retired in 1945, Charles M. White was named chairman of the company. White was a protegé of Girdler's at Jones & Laughlin Steel, was appointed assistant vice president in charge of operations at Republic Steel in May 1930. Five years when Girdler was appointed president of Republic Steel, White was promoted to take over Girdler's role as vice president of operations.
In 1945, White was elected president of Republic Steel by the company's board of directors. He replaced Rufus Wysor. In 1960, at the age of 70, Charles M. White retired as chairman of Republic Steel, he remained on the board of directors until 1966, was given the title of honorary chairman. Thomas Patton, a private attorney who worked on the merger that formed Republic Steel was hired in 1936 to form Republic's internal legal department; as general counsel in the 1930s and 1940s, he negotiated with workers on behalf of management during the steel strikes. He went on to become president chief executive and chairman. Republic Steel built a steel rolling mill in 1958 in Cuba. Plant manager Ernest Breedlove fled Cuba with his new Cuban bride when Fidel Castro confiscated the plant and shipped the newly installed machinery to the Soviet Union. Breedlove built another modern plant for Compania Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, S. A. in Monterrey Mexico and pioneered the mini-mill concept at Nucor Steel.
Republic Steel was one of the last major steel firms to use low-phosphorus Adirondack magnetites, operating the Chateaugay Ore & Iron Company in Lyon Mountain, New York from 1939 to 1967. The Chateaugay mine was one of the deepest commercial iron ore mines in the United States, with stopes as much as 3,500 feet below the surface. Republic Steel remained prosperous until the 1970s, when rising foreign imports, labor costs, other factors caused severe stress at Republic and throughout the steel industry in the U. S. In 1984, Republic merged into the Jones and Laughlin Steel subsidiary of the LTV Corporation, with the new entity being known as LTV Steel. An employee stock ownership plan bought LTV's steel bar division and renamed it Republic Engineered Steels in 1989. In 1998, Republic Engineered Steels merged with Bar Technologies to become Republic Technologies International. Republic Engineered Products was established in December 2003 with the purchase of operating assets from Republic Engineered Products LLC.
In July 2005 RES was acquired by Industrias CH, S. A de C. V.. In September 2011 RES changed its name to Republic Steel. In April 2014, the company agreed to pay a $2.4 million fine to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and agreed to "settle alleged health and safety violations" at four Republic Steel facilities—in Canton and Massillon in Ohio, in Blasdell, New York. OSHA said they found over 100 violations of safety at the facilities run by Republic. Memorial Day massacre of 1937 Little Steel strike Western Reserve Historical Society history Ruminski, Clayton J. Iron Valley: The Transformation of the Iron Industry in Ohio’s Mahoning Valley, 1802—1913
The Hewlett-Packard Company or Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government and education sectors; the company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and David Packard, produced a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world's leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, at which time Lenovo ranked ahead of HP. HP specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP directly marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors.
HP had services and consulting business around its products and partner products. Hewlett-Packard company events included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. Hewlett-Packard spun off its enterprise products and services business as Hewlett Packard Enterprise on November 1, 2015. Hewlett-Packard held onto the PC and printer businesses, was renamed to HP Inc. Bill Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935; the company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression.
They considered Terman a mentor in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1938, Packard and Hewlett begin part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. In 1939 Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership, they tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, went public on November 6, 1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their first financially successful product, was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A, their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued production until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.
One of the company's earliest customers was Walt Disney Productions, which bought eight Model 200B oscillators for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia. They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard to be exempt from the draft. HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "traitorous eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices. During the 1960s, HP partnered with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products; the products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan.
HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment; the name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo "dy" of the new company. Dynac changed to Dymec, was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers; these had a simple accumulator-based design, with two accumulator registers and, in the HP 1000 models, two index registers. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers; the HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server redesigned with RISC technology.
The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, introduced screen labeled functio
William Redington Hewlett was an American engineer and the co-founder, with David Packard, of the Hewlett-Packard Company. Hewlett was born in Ann Arbor, where his father taught at the University of Michigan Medical School. In 1916 the family moved to San Francisco after his father, Albion Walter Hewlett, took a similar position at Stanford Medical School, located at the time in San Francisco, he attended Lowell High School and was accepted at Stanford University as a favor to his late father who had died of a brain tumor in 1925. Hewlett received his Bachelor's degree from Stanford University in 1934, a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering from MIT in 1936, the degree of Electrical Engineer from Stanford in 1939, he joined the Kappa Sigma fraternity during his time at Stanford. Hewlett attended undergraduate classes taught by Fred Terman at Stanford and became acquainted with David Packard. Packard and he began discussing forming a company in August 1937, founded Hewlett-Packard Company as a partnership on January 1, 1939.
A flip of a coin decided the ordering of their names. Their first big breakthrough came when Disney purchased multiple audio oscillators designed by Hewlett for use in the production of the film Fantasia; the company incorporated in 1947 and tendered an initial public offering in 1957. Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard were proud of their company culture which came to be known as the HP Way; the HP Way is a corporate culture that claimed to be not only centered on making money but respecting and nurturing its employees. Hewlett was president of the Institute of Radio Engineers in 1954, he was president of HP from 1964 to 1977, served as CEO from 1968 to 1978, when he was succeeded by John A. Young, he remained chairman of the executive committee until 1983, served as vice chairman of the board until 1987. A young Steve Jobs age 12, called Hewlett and requested any available parts for a frequency counter he was building. Hewlett, impressed with Jobs' initiative, offered him a summer job assembling frequency counters.
Jobs considered HP one of the companies that he admired, regarding it among the handful of companies that were built “to last, not just to make money”. Hewlett served in the Army during World War II as a Signal Corps Officer, he led the electronics section of the Development Division, a new part of the War Department Special Staff. After the war he was part of a special team. Hewlett was a Director for Hexcel Products Incorporated from 1956-1965, worked on their executive committee. Hewlett served as a Director of Chase Manhattan Bank from 1969-1980. Hewlett was elected to the Board of Directors for Chrysler Corporation in 1966, a position he held until 1983. Starting in the 1960s Hewlett committed much of his time and wealth towards numerous philanthropic causes. In 1966, William Hewlett and his wife Flora founded the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, which became one of the largest private foundations in the United States. Aside from the foundation Hewlett gave millions of dollars to universities, museums, non-profits organisations and other organizations.
Stanford University was a large recipient of his philanthropy. In 1939 he married Flora Lamson, the couple had 5 children: Eleanor, James and Mary. There are 12 grandchildren, his wife died in 1977. In 1978, Hewlett married Rosemary Kopmeier Bradford. Hewlett was avid outdoorsman; as an amateur photographer and botanist he took many samples of wildflowers. Some of these were donated to the California Academy of Sciences, he died of heart failure in Palo Alto, California, on January 12, 2001, was interred at Los Gatos Memorial Park, San Jose, California. In 1999, the William R. Hewlett Teaching Center at Stanford was named in his honor; the building is located in the Science and Engineering Quad, adjacent to the David Packard Electrical Engineering Building. IEEE Founders Medal Vermilye Medal National Medal of Science National Inventors Hall of Fame Lemelson-MIT Prize Lifetime Achievement Award The 3rd Annual Heinz Award Chairman's Medal Entrepreneur Walk of Fame Bill Hewlett Remembered by Bob Lewis Thoemmes Encyclopedia article on William Hewlett Official biography at HP website Official biography at Hewlett Foundation website The HP Way Bill Hewlett at Find a Grave National Academy of Sciences Biographical MemoirCollectionsWilliam Hewlett Papers housed at Stanford University Libraries Hewlett Collection at Agilent Technologies Company Archives Office Files, record boxes and subject files
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. The company specializes in developing and marketing database software and technology, cloud engineered systems, enterprise software products — its own brands of database management systems. In 2018, Oracle was the third-largest software maker by revenue, after Alphabet; the company develops and builds tools for database development and systems of middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software, customer relationship management software, supply chain management software. Larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks." He heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates.
Ellison wanted to make Oracle's product compatible with System R, but failed to do so as IBM kept the error codes for their DBMS a secret. SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc in 1979 again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982, to align itself more with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the company's senior programmer. On March 12, 1986, the company had its initial public offering. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, the name of the holding company. Part of Oracle Corporation's early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products; this eased porting to different operating systems. 1979: offers the first commercial SQL RDBMS 1983: offers a VAX-mode database 1984: offers the first database with read-consistency 1986: offers a client-server DBMS 1987: introduces UNIX-based Oracle applications 1988: introduces PL/SQL.
1992: offers full applications implementation methodology 1995: offers the first 64-bit RDBMS 1996: moves towards an open standards-based, web-enabled architecture 1999: offers its first DBMS with XML support 2001: becomes the first to complete 3 terabyte TPC-H world record 2002: offers the first database to pass 15 industry standard security evaluations 2003: introduces what it calls "Enterprise Grid Computing" with Oracle10g 2005: releases its first free database, Oracle Database 10g Express Edition 2006: acquires Siebel Systems 2007: acquires Hyperion Solutions 2008: Smart scans in software improve query-response in HP Oracle Database Machine / Exadata storage 2010: acquires Sun Microsystems 2013: begins use of Oracle 12c, capable of providing cloud services with Oracle Database 2014: acquires Micros Systems 2016: acquires NetSuite Inc. Oracle ranked No. 82 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. According to Bloomberg, Oracle's CEO-to-employee pay ratio is 1,205:1.
The CEO's compensation in 2017 was $108,295,023. Meanwhile, the median employee compensation rate was $89,887. Oracle designs and sells both software and hardware products, as well as offering services that complement them. Many of the products have been added to Oracle's portfolio through acquisitions. Oracle's E-delivery service provides documentation. Oracle Database Release 10: In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g as the latest version of Oracle Database. Release 11: Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007. Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009; this version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, Personal Edition—and in one free edition—the Express Edition. The licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that were called complex by licensing expert Freirich Florea; the Enterprise Edition, the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions — but has complex licensing.
Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition and Standard Edition One with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. Release 12: Release 12c became available on July 1, 2013. Oracle Corporation has acquired and developed the following additional database technologies: Berkeley DB, which offers embedded database processing Oracle Rdb, a relational database system running on OpenVMS platforms. Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation. Oracle has since made many enhancements to this product and development continues as of 2008. TimesTen, which features in-memory database operations Oracle Essbase, which continues the Hyperion Essbase tradition of multi-dimensional database management MySQL, a relational database management system licensed under the GNU General Public License developed by MySQL AB Oracle NoSQL Database, a scalable, distributed key-value NoSQL database Oracle Fusion Middleware is a family of middleware
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol