David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, acclaimed by critics and musicians for his innovative work during the 1970s, his career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million albums worldwide, made him one of the world's best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, released eleven number-one albums. In the US, he received nine gold certifications, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child studying art and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. "Space Oddity" became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969.
After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie's style shifted radically towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul" alienating many of his UK devotees but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, released Station to Station; the following year, he further confounded musical expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Heroes" and Lodger followed. After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes", its parent album Scary Monsters, "Under Pressure", a 1981 collaboration with Queen.
He reached his commercial peak in 1983 with Let's Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle, he continued acting. He stopped touring after 2004 and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006. In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with The Next Day, he remained musically active until he died of liver cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. Bowie was born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 in London, his mother, Margaret Mary "Peggy", was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Kent. Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, she worked as a waitress at a cinema in Royal Tunbridge Wells. His father, Haywood Stenton "John" Jones, was from Doncaster, worked as a promotions officer for the children's charity Barnardo's; the family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth. Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler.
In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to Bromley. Two years he started attending Burnt Ash Junior School, his voice was considered "adequate" by the school choir, he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. At the age of nine, his dancing during the newly-introduced music and movement classes was strikingly imaginative: teachers called his interpretations "vividly artistic" and his poise "astonishing" for a child; the same year, his interest in music was further stimulated when his father brought home a collection of American 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Little Richard. Upon listening to Little Richard's song "Tutti Frutti", Bowie would say that he had "heard God". Bowie was first impressed with Presley when he saw his cousin dance to "Hound Dog". By the end of the following year, he had taken up the ukulele and tea-chest bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, had started to play the piano. Like someone from another planet".
After taking his eleven-plus exam at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School. It was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote: Despite its status it was, by the time David arrived in 1958, as rich in arcane ritual as any public school. There were houses named after eighteenth-century statesmen like Wilberforce. There was a uniform, an elaborate system of rewards and punishments. There was an accent on languages and design, where a collegiate atmosphere flourished under the tutorship of Owen Frampton. In David's account, Frampton led through force of persona
Robert Leroy Johnson was an American blues singer and musician. His landmark recordings in 1936 and 1937 display a combination of singing, guitar skills, songwriting talent that has influenced generations of musicians. Johnson's poorly documented life and death have given rise to much legend; the one most associated with his life is that he sold his soul to the devil at a local crossroads to achieve musical success. He is now recognized as a master of the blues as a progenitor of the Delta blues style; as an itinerant performer who played on street corners, in juke joints, at Saturday night dances, Johnson had little commercial success or public recognition in his lifetime. He only participated in two recording sessions, one in San Antonio in 1936, one in Dallas in 1937, that produced recordings of 29 distinct songs; these songs, recorded at low fidelity in improvised studios, were the totality of his recorded output. About half of these were released as 10-inch, 78 rpm singles from 1937–1939, many after his death at the age of 27.
Other than these recordings little was known of him during his life outside of the small musical circuit in the Mississippi Delta where he spent most of his life. His music had only a small, but influential, following during his life and in the years after his death; as early as 1938, his music was being sought by influential producers such as John Hammond, who tried to recruit him to record and tour without knowing of his death. Brunswick Records, which owned the original recordings, was bought by Hammond's Columbia Records, which would release the recordings to a wider audience. Musicologist Alan Lomax went to Mississippi in 1941 to record Johnson not knowing of his death. A compilation album, titled King of the Delta Blues Singers, was released by Columbia in 1961, which brought his work to a wider audience; the album would become an influential record on the nascent British blues movement, just getting started at the time. Musicians as diverse as Bob Dylan, Keith Richards, Robert Plant have cited both Johnson's lyricism and musicianship has key influences on their own work.
Many of Johnson's songs have been covered over the years, becoming hits for other artists, his guitar licks and lyrics have been borrowed and repurposed by a many musicians. Renewed interest in Johnson's work and life led to a burst of scholarship starting in the 1960s. Much of what we know about him today was reconstructed by researchers such as Gayle Dean Wardlow; the 1991 documentary The Search for Robert Johnson by John Hammond, Jr. was another attempt to document his life, demonstrated the difficulties arising from the scant historical record and conflicting oral accounts. Johnson was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first induction ceremony, in 1986, as an early influence on rock and roll, he was awarded a posthumous Grammy Award in 1991 for The Complete Recordings, a 1990 compilation album. His single "Cross Road Blues" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1998, he was given a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2006. In 2003, David Fricke ranked Johnson fifth in Rolling Stone magazine's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".
Johnson was born in Hazlehurst, Mississippi on May 8, 1911, to Julia Major Dodds and Noah Johnson. Julia was married to Charles Dodds, a prosperous landowner and furniture maker, with whom she had ten children. Charles Dodds had been forced by a lynch mob to leave Hazlehurst following a dispute with white landowners. Julia left Hazlehurst with baby Robert, but after two years sent the boy to Memphis to live with her husband, who had changed his name to Charles Spencer. Robert rejoined his mother around 1919 near Tunica and Robinsonville, they lived on the Leatherman Plantation. Julia's new husband, known as Dusty Willis, was 24 years her junior. Robert was remembered by some residents as "Little Robert Dusty", but he was registered at Tunica's Indian Creek School as Robert Spencer. In the 1920 census, he is listed as Robert Spencer, living in Lucas, with Will and Julia Willis. Robert was at school in 1924 and 1927; the quality of his signature on his marriage certificate suggests that he was well educated for a boy of his background.
A school friend, Willie Coffee, interviewed and filmed in life, recalled that as a youth Robert was noted for playing the harmonica and jaw harp. Coffee recalled that Robert was absent for long periods, which suggests that he may have been living and studying in Memphis. After school, Robert adopted the surname of his natural father, signing himself as Robert Johnson on the certificate of his marriage to sixteen-year-old Virginia Travis in February 1929, she died in childbirth shortly after. Surviving relatives of Virginia told the blues researcher Robert "Mack" McCormick that this was a divine punishment for Robert's decision to sing secular songs, known as "selling your soul to the Devil". McCormick believed that Johnson himself accepted the phrase as a description of his resolve to abandon the settled life of a husband and farmer to become a full-time blues musician. Around this time, the blues musician Son House moved to Robinsonville, where his musical partner Willie Brown lived. Late in life, House remembered Johnson as a "little boy", a competent harmonica player but an embarrassingly bad guitarist.
Soon after, Johnson left Robinsonville for the area around Ma
The Who are an English rock band formed in London in 1964. Their classic line-up consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitarist John Entwistle and drummer Keith Moon, they are considered one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century, selling over 100 million records worldwide. The Who developed from an earlier group, the Detours, established themselves as part of the pop art and mod movements, featuring auto-destructive art by destroying guitars and drums on stage, their first single as the Who, "I Can't Explain", reached the UK top ten, followed by a string of singles including "My Generation", "Substitute" and "Happy Jack". In 1967, they performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and released the US top ten single "I Can See for Miles", while touring extensively; the group's fourth album, 1969's rock opera Tommy, included the single "Pinball Wizard" and was a critical and commercial success. Live appearances at Woodstock and the Isle of Wight Festival, along with the live album Live at Leeds, cemented their reputation as a respected rock act.
With their success came increased pressure on lead songwriter Townshend, the follow-up to Tommy, was abandoned. Songs from the project made up 1971's Who's Next, which included the hit "Won't Get Fooled Again"; the group released the album Quadrophenia in 1973 as a celebration of their mod roots, oversaw the film adaptation of Tommy in 1975. They continued to tour to large audiences before semi-retiring from live performances at the end of 1976; the release of Who Are You in 1978 was overshadowed by the death of Moon shortly after. Kenney Jones replaced Moon and the group resumed activity, releasing a film adaptation of Quadrophenia and the retrospective documentary The Kids Are Alright. After Townshend became weary of touring, the group split in 1983; the Who re-formed for live appearances such as Live Aid in 1985, a 25th anniversary tour in 1989 and a tour of Quadrophenia in 1996–1997. They resumed regular touring with drummer Zak Starkey. After Entwistle's death in 2002, plans for a new album were delayed.
Townshend and Daltrey continued as the Who, releasing Endless Wire in 2006, continue to play live with Starkey, bassists Pino Palladino and Jon Button, guitarist Simon Townshend serving as touring players. A tour with a complete symphony orchestra, along with a planned studio album, are both scheduled for 2019; the Who's major contributions to rock music include the development of the Marshall stack, large PA systems, use of the synthesizer and Moon's lead playing styles, Townshend's feedback and power chord guitar technique, the development of the rock opera. They are cited as an influence by hard rock, punk rock and mod bands, their songs still receive regular exposure; the founder members of the Who, Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend and John Entwistle, grew up in Acton and went to Acton County Grammar School. Townshend's father, played saxophone and his mother, had sung in the entertainment division of the Royal Air Force during World War II, both supported their son's interest in rock and roll.
Townshend and Entwistle became friends in their second year of Acton County, formed a trad jazz group. Both were interested in rock, Townshend admired Cliff Richard's début single, "Move It". Entwistle moved to guitar, but struggled with it due to his large fingers, moved to bass on hearing the guitar work of Duane Eddy, he built one at home. After Acton County, Townshend attended Ealing Art College, a move he described as profoundly influential on the course of the Who. Daltrey, in the year above, had moved to Acton from Shepherd's Bush, a more working-class area, he had trouble fitting in at the school, discovered gangs and rock and roll. He found work on a building site. In 1959 he started the Detours, the band, to evolve into the Who; the band played professional gigs, such as corporate and wedding functions, Daltrey kept a close eye on the finances as well as the music. Daltrey spotted Entwistle by chance on the street carrying a bass and recruited him into the Detours. In mid-1961, Entwistle suggested Townshend as a guitarist, Daltrey on lead guitar, Entwistle on bass, Harry Wilson on drums, Colin Dawson on vocals.
The band played instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, a variety of pop and trad jazz covers. Daltrey was considered the leader and, according to Townshend, "ran things the way he wanted them". Wilson was fired in mid-1962 and replaced by Doug Sandom, though he was older than the rest of the band, a more proficient musician, having been playing semi-professionally for two years. Dawson left after arguing with Daltrey and after being replaced by Gabby Connolly, Daltrey moved to lead vocals. Townshend, with Entwistle's encouragement, became the sole guitarist. Through Townshend's mother, the group obtained a management contract with local promoter Robert Druce, who started booking the band as a support act; the Detours were influenced by the bands they supported, including Screaming Lord Sutch, Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, Johnny Kidd and the Pirates. The Detours were interested in the Pirates as they only had one guitarist, Mick Green, who inspired Townshend to combine rhythm and lead guitar in his style.
Entwistle's bass became more of a lead instrument. In February 1964, the Detours became aware of the group Johnny Devlin and the Detours and changed their name. Townshend and his room-mate Richard Barnes spent a night c
New York Daily News
The New York Daily News titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most circulated daily newspaper in the United States, it was founded in 1919, was the first U. S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation at 2.4 million copies a day. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. Patterson and his cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune Company founder Joseph Medill; when Patterson and McCormick could not agree on the editorial content of the Chicago paper, the two cousins decided at a meeting in Paris that Patterson would work on the project of launching a Tribune-owned newspaper in New York. On his way back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 26, 1919; the Daily News was not an immediate success, by August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625.
Still, New York's many subway commuters found the tabloid format easier to handle, readership grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over 100,000 and by 1925, over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. The Daily News carried the slogan "New York's Picture Newspaper" from 1920 to 1991, for its emphasis on photographs, a camera has been part of the newspaper's logo from day one; the paper's slogan, developed from a 1985 ad campaign, is "New York's Hometown Newspaper", while another has been "The Eyes, the Ears, the Honest Voice of New York". The Daily News continues to include large and prominent photographs, for news and sports, as well as intense city news coverage, celebrity gossip, classified ads, comics, a sports section, an opinion section. News-gathering operations were, for a time, organized using two-way radios operating on 173.3250 MHz, allowing the assignment desk to communicate with its personnel who utilized a fleet of "radio cars".
Prominent sports cartoonists have included Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor; the paper published a Monday-Friday afternoon counterpart, Daily News Tonight, between August 19, 1980 and August 28, 1981. Occasional "P. M. Editions" were published as extras in 1991, during the brief tenure of Robert Maxwell as publisher. In 1982, again in the early 1990s during a newspaper strike, the Daily News went out of business. In the 1982 instance, the parent Tribune Company offered the tabloid up for sale. In 1991, millionaire Robert Maxwell offered financial assistance to the News to help it stay in business; when Maxwell died shortly thereafter, the News seceded from his publishing empire, which splintered under questions about whether Maxwell had the financial backing to sustain it. After Maxwell's death in 1991, the paper was held together in bankruptcy by existing management, led by editor James Willse, who became interim publisher after buying the paper from Tribune.
Mort Zuckerman bought the paper in 1993. From its founding until 1991, the Daily News was owned by the Tribune Company. In 1948, the News established WPIX, whose call letters were based on the News's nickname of "New York's Picture Newspaper"; the television station became a Tribune property outright in 1991, remains in the former Daily News Building. The News maintains local bureaux in the Bronx and Queens, at City Hall, within One Police Plaza, at the various state and federal courthouses in the city. In January 2012, former News of the World and New York Post editor Colin Myler was appointed editor-in-chief of the Daily News. Myler was replaced by his deputy Jim Rich in September 2015. On September 4, 2017, the publishing operations of the former Tribune Company, announced that it had acquired the Daily News. Tronc had bought the Daily News for $1, assuming "operational and pension liabilities". By the time of purchase, circulation had dropped to 200,000 on 260,000 on Sundays. In July 2018, tronc fired half of the paper's editorial staff, including the editor-in-chief, Jim Rich.
Rich was replaced by Robert York and Editor-in-Chief of tronc-owned The Morning Call in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The paper's social media staff were included in the cut. New York Times journalist Alan Feuer said the Daily News focuses on "deep sourcing and doorstep reporting", providing city-centered "crime reportage and hard-hitting coverage of public issues rather than portraying New York through the partisan divide between liberals and conservatives". According to Feuer, the paper is known for "speaking to and for the city’s working class" and for "its crusades against municipal misconduct"; the New York Times has described the Daily News's editorial stance as "flexibly centrist" with a "high-minded, if populist, legacy". The News endorsed Rep
A cautionary tale is a tale told in folklore, to warn its listener of a danger. There are three essential parts to a cautionary tale, though they can be introduced in a large variety of ways. First, a taboo or prohibition is stated: some location, or thing is said to be dangerous; the narrative itself is told: someone disregarded the warning and performed the forbidden act. The violator comes to an unpleasant fate, related in expansive and grisly detail. Cautionary tales are ubiquitous in popular culture. Like horror fiction the cautionary tale exhibits an ambivalent attitude towards social taboos; the narrator of a cautionary tale is momentarily excused from the ordinary demands of etiquette that discourages the use of gruesome or disgusting imagery because the tale serves to reinforce some other social taboo. Cautionary tales are frequently utilised to spread awareness of moral issues, for this reason are told to children to make them conform to rules that either protect them or are for their own safety.
Those whose job it is to enforce conformity therefore resort to cautionary tales. The German language anthology, contains tales such as "Die gar traurige Geschichte mit dem Feuerzeug". Social guidance films such as Boys Beware or Reefer Madness are deliberately patterned after traditional cautionary tales, as were the notorious driver's education films of the 1960s, or military films about syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases; the framework of the cautionary tale became a cliché in the slasher films of the 1980s, in which adolescents who had sex, drank alcoholic beverages, or smoked marijuana ended up as the victims of the serial killer villain. On the other hand, in the adolescent culture of the United States, for more than a hundred years the traditional cautionary tale gave rise to the phenomenon of legend tripping, in which a cautionary tale is turned into the basis of a dare that invites the hearer to test the taboo by breaking it; the genre of the cautionary tale has been satirized by several writers.
Hilaire Belloc in his Cautionary Tales for Children presented such moral examples as "Jim, Who ran away from his Nurse, was eaten by a Lion", "Matilda, Who told lies, was Burned to Death". Lewis Carroll, in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, says that Alice: "had read several nice little histories about children who had got burnt, eaten up by wild beasts and other unpleasant things, all because they would not remember the simple rules their friends had taught them: such as, that a red-hot poker will burn you if you hold it too long. In The Complete Tribune Printer, Eugene Field gave cautionary tales an ironic inversion, as in The Gun: This is a gun. Is the Gun loaded? I do not know. Let us Find out. Put the Gun on the table, you, blow down one barrel while you, blow down the other. Bang! Yes, it was loaded. Run quick and pick up Susie's head and Charlie's lower Jaw before the Nasty Blood gets over the New carpet; some films, such as Gremlins, satirized this framework by imposing arbitrary rules whose violation results in horrendous consequences for the community by not taking responsibility.
Cautionary tales are sometimes criticized for their ham-fisted approach to ethics. The Cold Equations is a well-known example. In the story, a man has to eject a young woman out of the airlock, otherwise his rocket will not have enough fuel to deliver some badly needed serum, without which everyone at a small outpost would perish, her death is justified because she ignored a'no entry' sign, "when the laws of physics say no, they don't mean maybe", no other solution would reduce the weight of the ship enough to complete the trip safely. Clover, Carol J. Men and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film.. Jones, Steven Swann. "On Analyzing Fairy Tales:'Little Red Riding Hood' Revisited", in Western Folklore, vol. 46, no. 2 KLEIN Norman M.: 7 Minutes, The Life and Death of the American Animated Cartoon, New York, 1993, Ch. 7, “Depression Melodrama”, pp. 130-134. Schmidt, Gary D. "Secrets beyond the Door: The Story of Bluebeard and His Wives", in The Lion and the Unicorn, v. 30, no. 1, - Discusses the traditional folktale of Bluebeard as a cautionary tale.
Smith, Ken. Mental Hygiene: Classroom Films 1945 - 1970. White, Beatrice, "A Persistent Paradox", in Folklore, vol. 83, no. 2 - the tale of King Yunan from One Thousand and One Nights as a cautionary tale. Morphology Darwin Awards
Neil Percival Young, is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After embarking on a music career in the 1960s, he moved to Los Angeles, where he formed Buffalo Springfield with Stephen Stills, Richie Furay and others. Young had released two solo albums and three as a member of Buffalo Springfield by the time he joined Crosby, Stills & Nash in 1969. From his early solo albums and those with his backing band Crazy Horse, Young has recorded a steady stream of studio and live albums, sometimes warring with his recording company along the way. Young's guitar work personal lyrics and signature tenor singing voice transcend his long career. Young plays piano and harmonica on many albums, which combine folk, rock and other musical styles, his distorted electric guitar playing with Crazy Horse, earned him the nickname "Godfather of Grunge" and led to his 1995 album Mirror Ball with Pearl Jam. More Young has been backed by Promise of the Real. Young directed films using the pseudonym Bernard Shakey, including Journey Through the Past, Rust Never Sleeps, Human Highway, CSNY/Déjà Vu.
He contributed to the soundtracks of the films Philadelphia and Dead Man. Young has received several Grammy and Juno awards; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted him twice: as a solo artist in 1995 and in 1997 as a member of Buffalo Springfield. In 2000, Rolling Stone named Young the 34th greatest rock'n roll artist, he retains Canadian citizenship. He was awarded the Order of Manitoba on July 14, 2006, was made an Officer of the Order of Canada on December 30, 2009. Neil Young was born on November 1945, in Toronto, Ontario, his father, Scott Alexander Young, was a journalist and sportswriter who wrote fiction. His mother, Edna Blow Ragland "Rassy" Young was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Although Canadian, his mother had French ancestry. Young's parents married in 1940 in Winnipeg and their first son, Robert "Bob" Young, was born in 1942. Shortly after Young's birth in 1945, his family moved to rural Omemee, which Young described fondly as a "sleepy little place". Young suffered from polio in 1951 during the last major outbreak of the disease in Ontario.
After his recovery, the Young family vacationed in Florida. During that period, Young attended Chisolm Elementary School in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. In 1952, upon returning to Canada, Young moved from Omemee to Winnipeg for a year, before relocating to Toronto and Pickering. Young became interested in popular music; when Young was twelve, his father, who had had several extramarital affairs, left his mother. His mother asked for a divorce, granted in 1960. Young went to live with his mother, who moved back to Winnipeg, while his brother Bob stayed with his father in Toronto. During the mid-1950s, Young listened to rock'n roll, doo-wop, R&B, western pop, he idolized Elvis Presley and referred to him in a number of his songs. Other early musical influences included Link Wray, Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs, The Ventures, Cliff Richard and the Shadows, Chuck Berry, Hank Marvin, Little Richard, Fats Domino, The Chantels, The Monotones, Ronnie Self, the Fleetwoods, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison and Gogi Grant.
Young first began to play music himself on a plastic ukulele, before, as he would relate, going on to "a better ukulele to a banjo ukulele to a baritone ukulele – everything but a guitar."Young and his mother settled into the working-class area of Fort Rouge, where the shy, dry-humoured youth enrolled at Earl Grey Junior High School. It was there that he formed his first band, the Jades, met Ken Koblun. While attending Kelvin High School in Winnipeg, he played in several instrumental rock bands dropping out of school in favour of a musical career. Young's first stable band was the Squires, with Ken Koblun, Jeff Wuckert and Bill Edmondson on drums, who had a local hit called "The Sultan"; the band played in Fort William, where they recorded a series of demos produced by a local producer, Ray Dee, who Young called "the original Briggs". While playing at The Flamingo, Young met Stephen Stills, whose band the Company were playing the same venue, they became friends; the Squires played in several dance clubs in Winnipeg and Ontario.
After leaving the Squires, Young worked folk clubs in Winnipeg. Mitchell recalls Young as having been influenced by Bob Dylan at the time. Here he wrote some of his earliest and most enduring folk songs such as "Sugar Mountain", about lost youth. Mitchell wrote "The Circle Game" in response; the Winnipeg band The Guess Who had a Canadian Top 40 hit with Young's "Flying on the Ground is Wrong", Young's first major success as a songwriter. In 1965 Young toured Canada as a solo artist. In 1966, while in Toronto, he joined the Rick James-fronted Mynah Birds; the band managed to secure a record deal with the Motown label, but as their first album was being recorded, James was arrested for being AWOL from the Navy Reserve. After the Mynah Birds disbanded and the bass player Bruce Palmer decided to pawn the group's musical equipment and buy a Pontiac hearse, which they used to relocate to Los Angeles. Young admitted in a 2009 interview that he was in the United States illegally until he received a "green card" in 1970.
Once they reached Lo
EMusic is an online music and audiobook store that operates by subscription. In exchange for a monthly subscription eMusic users can download a fixed number of tracks to their MP3 players per month. EMusic was established in 1998, is headquartered in New York City with an office in London, is owned by TriPlay. EMusic is a digital music store, founded in 1998 as one of the first sites to sell DRM-free MP3s; the site features original editorial content and was expanded in March 2014 to include Wondering Sound, an online music publication which includes eMusic's archived music features, news and new long-form articles and interviews. EMusic's music store, as of March 2011, had more than 12 million tracks, up from 9 million tracks in September 2010. New subscribers can take out a seven-day trial before taking a full subscription. Refunds are possible, under certain circumstances, by contacting eMusic customer support. Subscriptions allow users to download a number of tracks per 30-day period. EMusic offers a number of Membership plans, including Basic, Plus and Fan in exchange for a monthly fee.
Every 30 days the download limit is reset. EMusic offers "booster packs" to subscribers, which expire after 90 days rather than after a month, are consumed when subscribers download tracks beyond their monthly allotments. Earlier business models prior to Dimensional Associates' ownership supported an "all-you-can-eat" download subscription. For a monthly fee, customers were able to download as many tracks. EMusic was one of the first sites to sell music in the MP3 format, beginning in 1998, it differs from other well-known music download services in that it is a download-to-own subscription service. However, in 2011 eMusic took its first, limited step into streaming in an effort to help users discover unfamiliar tracks and artists more easily. In 2006, eMusic added two European versions of its online store:'eMusic UK' and'eMusic Europe'. Current subscribers to the global site that were within the European Union had their membership transferred to the appropriate European store. EMusic UK and eMusic Europe have higher prices compared to their North American counterpart due to the extra sales taxes which these stores are now subject to.
However, the changeover included access to labels unavailable to non-European customers, notably London-based Domino Records and artists such as The White Stripes and Mogwai. It is notable that the European version of the store is for customers within the European Union, not customers within Europe. EMusic's early growth may have been due to its early support of the MP3 format, lack of digital rights management encoding and low prices. Devin Leonard of CNN attributed eMusic's growth to its being the only online music store aside from iTunes that sold tracks that could be played on an iPod. In 2009, eMusic changed its pricing structure, raising prices for most existing users; the move was unpopular with some, but tracks from the Sony catalogue over two years old were made available to eMusic customers. Prior to July 2009, eMusic sold music from independent labels.eMusic shares the revenue with artists who have submitted music via digital distribution service providers such as CD Baby, TuneCore, State 51 and EmuBands.
EMusic has not had significant growth in subscribers - maintaining over 400,000 subscribers since 2007.eMusic was the first digital retailer to sell DRM-free downloadable audiobooks in the MP3 format beginning in 2007. Audible.com, its largest competitor, offers audiobooks with digital rights management in the.aa format. EMusic launched a Canadian version of its store in 2008. On July 14, 2016, eMusic launched eStories, an audiobook service that will offer 80,000 titles at a cost of $11.95 per title to use, plus 33 percent off additional purchases. Due to the contentious nature of DRM encoding, used by competing download services, eMusic won early praise for not including any in their own files, despite the fact that it cost them contracts with the major record labels. EMusic stated that this was a business move that has aided the site's popularity. While the site sells music from the four major record labels, the company has stated that it will remain true to its independent roots and build new product features that are geared towards members who are independent-minded, not mainstream pop-culturists.eMusic stores a record of user purchases on its internal servers, but does not place any purchaser information inside the tracks that are sold.
The service uses the LAME mp3 encoder to produce variable bit rate MP3 files. Analysis on the files show that the preset used is alt-preset-standard, a high quality VBR preset aiming at an average bit rate around 192kbit/s. However, contrary to the information published on the web site, files can sometimes be found in lower quality bit rates, including for recent releases; the preview streams provided for each song match the bit rate quality of the full download files. EMusic has had contracts with both the independent labels and the four major music labels in the United States. Most of eMusic's contracts are with independent labels, giving the service a reputation for offering indie rock, indie pop, heavy metal, punk rock and classical music. EMusic highlights its offerings through a host of exclusive editorial content, along the lines of monthly "editor's picks", columns and guides; the site's alternative rock selection has been aided by the rise in widely