Arthur Augustus Calwell KCSG was an Australian politician who served as the leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. He led the party to three federal elections without success. Calwell attended St Joseph's College. After leaving school, he began working as a clerk for the Victorian state government, he became involved in the labour movement as an officeholder in the public-sector trade union. Before entering parliament, Calwell held various positions in the Labor Party's organisation wing, serving terms as state president and as a member of the federal executive, he was elected to the House of Representatives at the 1940 federal election, standing in the Division of Melbourne. After the 1943 election, Calwell was elevated to cabinet as Minister for Information, overseeing government censorship and propaganda during World War II; when Ben Chifley became prime minister in 1945, he was made Minister for Immigration. He oversaw the creation of Australia's expanded post-war immigration scheme, at the same time enforcing the White Australia policy.
In 1951, Calwell was elected deputy leader of the Labor Party in place of H. V. Evatt, who had succeeded to the leadership upon Chifley's death; the two clashed on a number of occasions over the following decade, which encompassed the 1955 party split. In 1960, Evatt retired and Calwell was chosen as his successor, thus becoming Leader of the Opposition. Calwell and the Labor Party came close to victory at the 1961 election, gaining 15 seats and finishing only two seats shy of a majority. However, those gains were wiped out at the 1963 election. Calwell was one of the most prominent opponents of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, a stance, not electorally popular at the time. In 1966, Calwell survived a leadership challenge from his deputy Gough Whitlam, survived an assassination attempt with minor injuries, led his party to a landslide defeat at the 1966 election, winning less than one-third of the total seats, he was 70 years old by that point, resigned the leadership a few months later.
He remained in parliament until the 1972 election, which saw Whitlam become prime minister, died the following year. Calwell was born on 28 August 1896 at his parents' home in West Melbourne, he was the oldest of seven children born to Arthur Albert Calwell. His father retired as a superintendent of police. Calwell's parents were both born in Australia, his maternal grandfather was Michael McLoughlin, born in County Laois and arrived in Melbourne in 1847 after jumping ship. He married Mary Murphy, born in County Clare. Calwell's paternal grandfather Davis Calwell was an Irish American born in Union County, who arrived in Australia in 1853 during the Victorian gold rush, he married Elizabeth Lewis, a Welshwoman, settled near Ballarat becoming president of the Bungaree Shire Council. Davis Calwell's father, Daniel Caldwell, had immigrated to the United States from northern Ireland, served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in the 1820s. Calwell grew up in West Melbourne; as a young boy he contracted diphtheria, which permanently scarred his vocal chords and gave him a lifelong "raspish, nasal voice".
Although his father was an Anglican, Calwell was raised in his mother's Catholic faith. He began his education at the local Mercedarian school. In 1909, he won a scholarship to North Melbourne, a Christian Brothers school. One of his closest friends at school was a future Archbishop of Adelaide. In life he said "I owe everything I have in life, under Almighty God and next to my parents, to the Christian Brothers". Calwell's mother died in 1913, aged 40, when her oldest son was 16 and her youngest child was only three months old, his father remarried dying in 1938 at the age of 69. Calwell was an officer in the Australian Army Cadets at the outbreak of World War I, made two unsuccessful applications for a commission in the Australian Imperial Force. After his second rejection in 1916 he made no further attempts to seek active service, being unwilling to join as an enlisted man. Calwell joined the Young Ireland Society in 1914, served as the organisation's secretary until 1916, his reputation as an Irish republican brought him to the attention of the military police, which suspected him of involvement in the more radical Irish National Association.
His residence was searched on one occasion, his correspondence was examined by censors. On two occasions there were moves to have him dismissed from the military for disloyalty, but Calwell denied the accusations and there was little proof that he had been disloyal. Calwell entered the Victorian Public Service in 1913, as a junior clerk in the Department of Agriculture, he transferred to the Department of the Treasury in 1923, where he remained until winning election to parliament in 1940. As with most of his colleagues, Calwell joined the Victorian State Service Clerical Association, he served as secretary and vice-president of that organisation, which in 1925 was reorganised into the state branch of Australian Public Service Association. He was elected as the new organisation's inaugural president, serving until 1931. Calwell joined the Labor Party at about the age of 18, he was elected secretary of the Melbourne branch in 1916, from 1917 served as one of the Clerical Association's delegates to the state conference.
He was elected to the state executive in the same year, was state pres
Balmain, New South Wales
Balmain, New South Wales is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Balmain is located 6 km west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the Inner West Council, it sits on a small peninsula. It is located on the Balmain peninsula surrounded by Port Jackson, adjacent to the suburbs of Rozelle to the south-west, Birchgrove to the north-west, Balmain East to the east. Iron Cove sits on the western side of the peninsula, with White Bay on the south-east side and Mort Bay on the north-east side. Traditionally blue collar, Balmain was where the industrial roots of the trade unionist movement began, it has become established in Australian working-class culture and history, due to being the place where the Australian Labor Party formed in 1891 and its social history and status is of high cultural significance to both Sydney and New South Wales. Today, the ALP contends with the Australian Greens for political prominence in Balmain, Jamie Parker of the Greens holds the State seat of Balmain.
Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by indigenous Aboriginal Australian and Wangal people. Stories from early settlers in the area tell of how the local indigenous people used to hunt kangaroo by driving them through the bushy peninsula, down the hill to Peacock Point at the east end, where they were killed; the area now known as Balmain was part of a 550-acre grant to colonial surgeon Dr William Balmain made in 1800 by Governor John Hunter. A year Balmain transferred his entire holding to settle a debt to John Borthwick Gilchrist before returning to Scotland; the legality of the land transfer from Balmain to Gilchrist for only 5 shillings was challenged by Balmain's descendents and further development of the area was blocked. The area subsequently became known as Gilchrist's place, though court documents refer to the area as the Balmain Estate. During the many years of legal challenges, the land was leased for farming and cattle purposes. In 1814 the adjacent homestead of Birchgrove was sold to Roland Warpole Loane, a merchant and settler descended from a family of English landlords.
One hundred acres on the adjoining Balmain estate were leased to Loane. In 1833, Gilchrist transferred power of attorney to Frederick Parbury; when Loane's lease expired in 1836 and the land retrieved from his possession, Parbury commissioned surveyor John Armstrong to sub-divide the land into six parcels. Three parcels were sold to Thomas Hyndes in 1837; the area was sub-divided and developed during the 1840s and by 1861 had been divided into the well populated eastern suburb of Balmain and the sparsely populated western area, extending to the gates of Callan Park, known as Balmain West. The peninsula changed during the 1800s and became one of the premier industrial centres of Sydney. Industries clustered around Mort Bay included shipbuilding, a metal foundry, engineering and the Mort's Dock and Engineering Company works which opened in 1855—in 1958 Mort's Dock closed and is the site of Mort Bay Park. Increasing industrialisation at Balmain created a demand for cheap housing; this was satisfied by the dock owners selling small blocks of land to entrepreneurs who built tiny cottages and rented them to the workers.
Lever Brothers Factory opened in 1895. A coal mine was opened in 1897 beside. From the bottom of the shaft a decline led down to a block of coal situated under the harbour between Ballast Point and Goat Island. Balmain Power Station was erected in stages from 1909 and the Balmain Reservoir was built in 1915; the opening of the railway in the 1920s further established and Balmain gained a reputation as a rough working-class area of Sydney. The coal mine closed in 1931. A large influx of immigrants boosted Balmain's population in the 1950s. Gentrification of Balmain began in the 1960s. Balmain's desirability to the middle class was due in part to its waterfront location and proximity to Sydney's CBD; the Balmain Association was formed in 1965. Increasing property values and waterfront development continued to push the suburb's remaining industry out. In 1996, the Lever Brothers site became a series of apartment complexes with a handful of original buildings preserved; the power station was demolished in 1998 to make way for apartments.
However, many aspects of Balmain's industrial past have been retained as heritage. Balmain has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Blake Street: Ewenton Booth Street: Balmain Hospital Main Building Glassop Street: Dawn Fraser Swimming Pool 12b Grafton Street: Hampton Villa 37 Nicholson Street: Waterview Wharf Workshops Thames, College, McKell, Yeend Streets: Mort's Dock 2 Wells Street: Louisaville According to the 2016 census of population, there were 10,453 residents in Balmain. 61.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 9.1%, New Zealand 3.3%, Ireland 1.5% and United States of America 1.5%. 79.6% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian at 1.3%. The most common responses for religious affiliation were No Religion 41.2% and Catholic 22.3%. Darling Street, Balmain's main thoroughfare, features boutique shops, quality restaurants and cafes alongside old drinking establishments. Landmarks on this street include the Post Office and Court House, alongside Balmain Town Hall, the historic Westpac Bank, Balmain Fire Station and Balmain Working Men's Institute.
Other commercial developments are scattered throughout the suburb. The headquarters of the NSW Water Police moved to Cameron Cove in Balmain in late 2007. Balmain has several ferry wharves that are serviced by the Inner
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Paper Giants: The Birth of Cleo
Paper Giants: The Birth of Cleo is a 2011 Australian two part television miniseries about the beginning of Cleo magazine and its creator, Ita Buttrose. The series stars Asher Keddie as Rob Carlton as Kerry Packer. A miniseries sequel, titled Paper Giants: Magazine Wars was screened on ABC1 on 2 June, 9 June 2013, it features Rachel Griffiths, Mandy McElhinney, Lucy Holmes and Alexander England, assumes the role of a young James Packer. The series follows Buttrose as she creates the fashion magazine Cleo, as well the fashion and politics of the period. Asher Keddie as Ita Buttrose Rob Carlton as Kerry Packer Matt Day as Daniel Ritchie Jessica Tovey as Leslie Carpenter Ian Meadows as Andrew Cowell Maeve Dermody as Rachel Carr Annie Maynard as Annie Woodham Tony Barry as Sir Frank Packer Cheree Cassidy as Ivana Holbrook Octavia Barron-Martin as Pat Nigra Olivia Pigeot as Rosina O’Casey Simon Lyndon as Jack Thompson Nathan Page as "Mac", Buttrose's husband Sahara Jones as Kate, Buttrose's daughter Reviews for the show were positive.
The Sydney Morning Herald said:Biopics succeed. Invariably, they are thinly veiled hagiographies designed to push an "official" and pared-back version of history, dulled by performances that are impersonations. Thankfully, Paper Giants suffers no such problems. Australian TV blog, TV Tonight rated the series with four stars out of five, commented: Whilst Keddie may not be a dead ringer for Buttrose she has the voice down pat: the tone is pitch perfect, complete with the slight Buttrose lisp. Keddie captures the inner strength of Buttrose, forging a path in a male-dominated world, navigating through pioneer publishing and compromise; the program was the subject of defamation proceedings brought against the ABC by the former husband of Buttrose, Alasdair Macdonald, who objected to how he was portrayed in the series. The action was settled out of court in April 2012 when the ABC apologised for what it agreed was an "untrue" portrayal of Macdonald. Christopher Lee won a Queensland Premier’s Literary Award in 2011 for his screenplay.
Part one of the miniseries rated over 1.2 million viewers nationally, ranking as the fifth most watched program of the night, the eighth-most watched program of the week. Part two was watched by 1.346 million viewers in the main five Australian TV markets, ranking as the second-most watched program of the week and the most watched program of the night. The miniseries was produced by John Edwards and Karen Radzyner by Southern Star Entertainment in association with Screen NSW, Screen Australia and ABC TV; the executive producer was ABC TV head of fiction. Official website Paper Giants: The Birth of Cleo on IMDb Paper Giants: The Birth of Cleo at TV.com
Sydney Grammar School
Sydney Grammar School is an independent, fee-paying, non-denominational, day school for boys, located in Darlinghurst, Edgecliff and St Ives, which are all suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Incorporated in 1854 by Act of Parliament and opened in 1857, the school claims to offer a "classical" or "grammar" school education thought of as liberal, pre-vocational pedagogy. Sydney Grammar School has an enrolment of 1,841 students from kindergarten to Year 12, over three campuses; the two preparatory schools, are located at Edgecliff in Sydney's Eastern Suburbs, St Ives, on the Upper North Shore. The historic College Street campus caters for students from Forms I to VI, is in Darlinghurst, close to the Sydney central business district; the school is affiliated with the Association of Heads of independent schools of Australia, the Junior School Heads Association of Australia, the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference, is a founding member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales.
Sydney Grammar School is regarded for its'liberal, pre-vocational pedagogy' and is regarded as'Australia's best private school' in other aspects: including academic results, co-curricular activities, alumni. Of all Australian schools, Sydney Grammar School has educated the country's highest number of Prime Ministers, Rhodes Scholars, Justices of the High Court; as of 2018, it ranked the 5th most expensive school in Australia with an average annual school fee of $35,241 per student. The Sydney Public Free Grammar School opened in 1825 with Laurence Hynes Halloran, born County Meath, Ireland as Head Master. Halloran had operated a private school in Exeter, but fled England in 1796 due to debts and after being accused of immorality, it subsequently emerged. He returned to Britain but was arrested for forgery and transported to the penal colony of New South Wales, arriving there in 1819, he was granted a ticket-of-leave. In 1830, Sydney College was founded. Sir Francis Forbes, Chief Justice of New South Wales, became President of the College and laid the foundation stone of the present building in College Street on 26 January 1830.
In 1835, Sydney College opened in this building with W. T. Cape as Head Master. In 1842 he resigned and was succeeded by T. H. Braim. In 1850 Sydney College was closed. In 1854, Sydney Grammar School was incorporated by an Act of Parliament and acquired the land and building in College Street, temporarily occupied by the newly founded University of Sydney in 1852, it was opened on 3 August 1857 as a feeder school for the University. The preamble of the Sydney Grammar School Act 1854 states that: It is deemed expedient for the better advancement of religion and morality and the promotion of useful knowledge to establish in Sydney a public school for conferring on all classes and denominations of Her Majesty’s subjects resident in the Colony of New South Wales without any distinction whatsoever the advantages of a regular and liberal course of education; the Act provides that the Trustees of the School shall consist of twelve persons, of whom six shall be persons holding the following offices respectively: The Honourable the Attorney-General of New South Wales The Honourable the President of the New South Wales Legislative Council The Honourable the Speaker of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly The Chancellor of the University of Sydney The Principal Professor of Classics of the University of Sydney The Senior Professor of Mathematics of the University of SydneyThe Act provides that the Governor of New South Wales shall be the official Visitor of the School.
Sydney Grammar School is the oldest school still in use in the City of Sydney, is historically significant as the site on which the University of Sydney began. The School holds scientific significance as containing examples of early building materials and techniques in pre-Federation Australia; the site was founded as The Sydney College in 1830, the following year began operations in a new building in Hyde Park designed by Edward Hallen. It consisted of a single large room with basement rooms beneath. Sydney College continued despite financial difficulties until 1853, when it was taken over by the fledgling University of Sydney until such time as the present Grose Farm site was ready for occupation; the site was sold in 1856 to the Trustees of the newly incorporated Sydney Grammar School, established and endowed with a building fund by Act of Parliament. Edmund Blacket was commissioned to design extensions to the south and north of the Hallen building, which were completed in 1856 and 1857 respectively.
The "Big School" building became central to the Colonial Architect, James Barnet's vision for the cultural focus of Sydney Town. The War Memorial wing, named for its position behind Big School's monument to the Great War, was built at the northern end of Big School in 1953 by the Scott brothers, at the cost of its double staircase. In 1876, the main building was extended to the east by Mansfield Brothers, this extension was itself extended to the north and south in 1899 by John W Manson; the Science classrooms on Stanley Street were built in 1889–90. Other early buildings on the site, now demolished, included the Sergeant's Lodge, an ablutions block on Stanley Street, a former postal sorting office on Yurong Street. Sydney Grammar is a private school; each year up to 26 full scholarships are offered to boys who show academic promise and who perform well in the sc
Paddington, New South Wales
Paddington is an inner-city eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Located 3 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, Paddington lies across two local government areas; the portion south of Oxford Street lies within the City of Sydney, while the portion north of Oxford Street lies within the Municipality of Woollahra. It is colloquially referred to as "Paddo". Paddington is bordered to the west by Darlinghurst, to the east by Centennial Park and Woollahra, to the north by Edgecliff and Rushcutters Bay and to the south by Moore Park; the suburb of Paddington is considered to be part of the region associated with the stories of the Cadigal people. These people belonged to the Dharug language group, which includes what is now known as the Sydney central business district, it is known that the ridge, being the most efficient route, on which Oxford Street was built was a walking track used by Aboriginal people. Much of the Aboriginal population of Sydney died due to the smallpox outbreak of 1789, one year after the First Fleet arrived in Sydney.
Some Anthropologists maintain. At the time when Robert Cooper began to build his first house in Paddington 200 Koori people were living in Woolloomooloo in housing which Governor Macquarie had built for them. Paddington has never been a suburb with a dense indigenous population. In the 1930s, when parts of Sydney such as Redfern and Glebe became hubs for Aborigines entering the labour force, Paddington continued to be a European working-class suburb. 1788-1800In 1788 the First Fleet arrived in Sydney Harbour and established a settlement in Sydney Cove. Three kilometres to the east lay the land. With a high sandstone ridge, eroded by streams leading to a marshy rush-filled cove too shallow for ships, the area was ignored by the newcomers, except for collecting rushes for thatch. 1801-1840On a path used by local Aboriginal people, a road of some form was built by Governor Hunter to South Head as early as 1803. Governor Macquarie upgraded the road in 1811 for strategic purposes to accommodate wheeled vehicles.
The road was improved by Major Druitt in 1820 to give faster access to the signal station at South Head. It was to give access to the salubrious villas built by the colony's emerging plutocracy; the road was renamed the Old South Head Road after construction of New South Head Road along the Harbour foreshore was begun in 1831. The first land grant in the Paddington area, of 100 acres, was made to Robert Cooper, James Underwood, Francis Ewen Forbes by Governor Brisbane in 1823, allowing them to commence work on the Sydney distillery at the eastern end of Glenmore Road. A mill was located at the end of Gordon Street and run by the Gordon family grinding wheat from the early 1830s, it remained a prominent feature of the local landscape as houses were built, as wind power was replaced by steam. Cooper built his mansion, Juniper Hall, on the South Head Road ridge while Underwood built his house on Glenmore Road, between today's Soudan Lane and the former distillery; the suburb's name came about. He called his subdivision the Paddington Estate after the London Borough of that name.
It extended from Oxford Street down to present day Paddington Street.1841-1900 After the commencement in 1841 of Victoria Barracks the village of Paddington soon emerged, much of it around the cottages of the many artisans –stonemasons, quarrymen and labourers – who were working on the construction of the Barracks. What emerged was a clear class distinction. Rapid growth followed, with large estates being subdivided for speculative terrace style housing. In 1862 there were 535 houses with 2,800 residents. By 1883 the number of houses increased to 2,347. In 1871 Paddington's population density was 10.2 people per acre. By 1891 it had jumped 44.1. 1901-2000 In the first decade of the twentieth century Paddington was in its prime, with the population reaching 26,000 living in 4,800 houses. General health improved with the area being sewered; the World War I left a legacy of social problems and alcohol abuse. Paddington suffered death rates of 5 per 1000 residents in the influenza epidemic of 1919. Developers were disparaging about densely populated areas like Paddington, describing them as unhealthy, promoting sanitised garden suburbs such as Haberfield.
In Paddington the unskilled, those with a trade and those renting were hit hard during the Depression, with 30% unemployment. The post-war County of Cumberland planning scheme for metropolitan Sydney slated Paddington as a slum ripe for total redevelopment. A 1947 map titled'Paddington Replanning' proposed demolition of all existing housing to be replaced by blocks of flats. However, with the newly arrived migrants from Europe finding Paddington affordable and a convenient place to live, slum clearance faded from the political agenda. In the 1960s, a middle class'Bohemian' invasion began and Paddington became very'multi-cultural'. From 1960 many professional people, many who may have returned from living abroad, recognised Paddington's potential the suburb's close proximity to the CBD. With the restoration of derelict houses there developed a new awareness and interest in the historical and aesthetic qualities of the area. In 1968 in a complete reversal of planning and housing orthodoxy at the time, four hundred acres of terrace housing was rezoned as the first conservation area in Australia.