Sidney, British Columbia
Sidney is a town located at the northern end of the Saanich Peninsula, on Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is one of the 13 Greater Victoria municipalities, it has a population of 11,583. Sidney is located just east of Victoria International Airport, about 6 km south of BC Ferries' Swartz Bay Terminal; the town is the only Canadian port-of-call in the Washington State Ferries system, with ferries running from Sidney to the San Juan Islands and Anacortes. Sidney is located along Highway 17, it is considered part of the Victoria metropolitan area. The town west of Highway 17 has a mixture of light industry; the majority of the town is located east of Highway 17. Single-family units are present east of the highway, but the eastern sector has many condominium-type buildings, plus most of the service and retail outlets; the island-studded Haro Strait, part of the Salish Sea forms Sidney's eastern boundary. There is a large boating and marine industry in the area, ranging from marinas to boatbuilders and marine suppliers.
According to Statistics Canada, Sidney had a population of 11,583 in 2011—a reduction of −0.1% from 2010. Sidney is well known for having an abundance of senior citizens, producing a median age of 50.7 in 2001 as compared with the British Columbia median age of 38.4. The population density per square kilometre was 2,167. In 2006 Sidney had more than 35% of their population over the age of 65. Sidney is an industrial town, with most people working in the construction and warehousing fields. Retail accounts for 10% of the employment. Healthcare and social assistance employs 13%. There are over 4,000 people employed in Sidney, with an unemployment rate of 6.1%. It should be taken into consideration that some of this labour force commutes from neighbouring municipalities, such as Saanich or Victoria; the median income is $24,638. The median income for a household in the town is $56,334. Renting costs in Sidney have increased over the past few years, with a Standard 2 Bedroom Suite reaching as much as $1200 a month.
The average cost of a house in Sidney in August 2016 is $609,450. The Town of Sidney is a municipality governed by an elected Council; the elected Council, 2015–2018 consists of one Mayor and six Councillors. Mayor Steve Price, Councillor Erin Bremner-Mitchell, Councillor Tim Chad, Councillor Barbara Fallot, Councillor Mervyn Lougher-Goodey, Councillor Cam McLennan, Councillor Peter Wainwright. Public schools serving Sidney residents are operated by School District 63 Saanich; these include Sidney Elementary School, North Saanich Middle School, Parkland Secondary School. On June 30, 2008 the Sidney Sister Cities Association and the town of Sidney, BC declared the twinning of Sidney and Niimi, Japan; this was Sidney's third sister city, following Cairns, Queensland and Anacortes, United States. Sidney's main attraction is its position on the Salish Sea. Sidney-by-the-Sea is the gateway to the southern Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, is an eco-tourist destination, with whale-watching, bird-watching and scuba-diving.
It is home to the new Shaw Ocean Discovery Centre. Shoal Harbour Migratory Bird Sanctuary is located within Sidney and the adjoining Sidney Channel Important Bird Area, an internationally recognized site important to a variety of seabirds and waterfowl. Sidney has its own local history museum, the Sidney Museum and Archives, which features displays about the history of the surrounding Peninsula as well as temporary exhibits; as home to the Victoria International Airport Sidney hosts the British Columbia Aviation Museum which features displays, restored historical aircraft and a vintage aircraft restoration workshop. During the summer, Sidney hosts a street market on Thursday evenings on the main street. "Sidney days" is another event. To celebrate, Sidney has a parade, a build-a-boat contest, a small fair and fireworks in the evening. In the winter, Sidney has a holiday parade as well as a lighted sailpast boat parade. Sidney has many dining places including Greek, Chinese and west-coast restaurants.
With 12 bookstores, Sidney is one of Canada's 2 book towns, the other being St. Martins, New Brunswick, it has as many coffee joints and cafes to sit and read in. Sidney has a well maintained boat ramp for trailerable boats with a dock for queuing up, it is located next to the Washington state ferry terminal. All of the land within Sidney's boundary is either flat or gently sloping, providing a topography, favourable for the town's elderly people. Most soils are clayey, poorly drained in their natural state. In some parts of town, this clay is overlain by deposits of gravel which are well drained. Sidney enjoys a cool Mediterranean climate with moderate rainfall. Most years see little snow. Daily temperatures climb above 31 °C, or dip below −7 °C. In the mildest winters, minimum temperatures stay above −3 °C. Damaging winds are less frequent than in most other maritime areas of Canada; the environs of Sidney provides habitat for a diverse array of fish and wildlife, both terrestrial and marine and going with the seasons.
For this reason it is a growing mecca for bird watchers, whale watchers, scuba-divers and eco-tourism. Sidney's most famous inhabitant is the bufflehead featured prominently on its coat of arms; the bufflehead is just one of many species of waterfowl that overwi
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Antigua known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies. It is one of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region and the main island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981. Antigua means "ancient" in Spanish after an icon in Seville Cathedral, "Santa Maria de la Antigua" — St. Mary of the Old Cathedral; the name Waladli comes from the indigenous inhabitants and means "our own". The island's circumference is 87 km and its area 281 km2, its population was 80,161. The economy is reliant on tourism, with the agricultural sector serving the domestic market. Over 32,000 people live in the capital city, St. John's; the capital is situated in the north-west and has a deep harbour, able to accommodate large cruise ships. Other leading population settlements are All Liberta, according to the 2001 census. English Harbour on the south-eastern coast is famed for its protected shelter during violent storms.
It is the site of a restored British colonial naval station called "Nelson's Dockyard" after Captain Horatio Nelson. Today English Harbour and the neighbouring village of Falmouth are known as a yachting and sailing destination and provisioning centre. During Antigua Sailing Week, at the end of April and beginning of May, an annual regatta brings a number of sailing vessels and sailors to the island to play sports. On 6 September 2017, the Category 5 Hurricane Irma destroyed 90 percent of the buildings on the island of Barbuda. Residents were evacuated to Antigua; the first residents were the Guanahatabey people. The Arawak migrated from the mainland, followed by the Carib. Prior to European colonialism, Christopher Columbus was the first European to visit Antigua, in 1493; the Arawak were the first well-documented group of indigenous people to settle Antigua. They paddled to the island by canoe from present-day Venezuela, pushed out by the Carib, another indigenous people; the Arawak introduced agriculture to Barbuda.
Among other crops, they cultivated. They cultivated: Corn Sweet potatoes Chili peppers Guava Tobacco CottonSome of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, still are staples of Antiguan cuisine. Colonists took them to Europe, from there, they spread around the world. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, dukuna, is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes and spices. Another staple, fungi, is a cooked paste made of water. Most of the Arawak left Antigua about A. D. 1100. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies, they enslaved cannibalised others. Watson points out; the indigenous people of the West Indies made excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean. As a result, the Arawak and Carib populated much of the Caribbean islands, their descendants live throughout South America Brazil and Colombia.
Christopher Columbus named the island "Antigua" in 1493 in honour of the "Virgin of the Old Cathedral" found in Seville Cathedral in southern Spain. On his 1493 voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary, including Montserrat and Guadaloupe. In 1632, a group of English colonists left St. Kitts to settle on Antigua. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent European settlement. From that point on, Antigua history took a dramatic turn. Codrington guided development on the island as a profitable sugar colony. For a large portion of Antigua history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean", it was located on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies. Lord Horatio Nelson, a major figure in Antigua history, arrived in the late 18th century to preserve the island's commercial shipping prowess. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, European diseases and slavery destroyed the vast majority of the Caribbean's native population.
There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes. In fact, some historians believe that the abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition of the "Indians" who were used to a diet fortified with protein from sealife. Others believe that the psychological stress of slavery may have played a part in the massive number of native deaths while in servitude. Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about 1674, when Christopher Codrington settled at Betty's Hope plantation, he came from Barbados. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar; this resulted in their importing slaves to work the sugar cane crops. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, many West Indian colonists tried to use locals as slaves; these groups succumbed to disease and/or malnutrition, died by the thousands. The enslaved Africans adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour.
However, according to a Smith
Hello Summer, Goodbye
Hello Summer, Goodbye is a science fiction novel by British author Michael G. Coney, regarded as one of his best and most representative works, it offers an unusually sympathetic portrayal of an alien race on a strange planet. A fear of cold, embedded in the race consciousness plays a significant part in the story, together with the semi-sentient lorin and other creatures; the protagonist is a precocious youth, Alika-Drove, whom Coney manages nonetheless to make engaging through Drove's struggles with the forces around him. In the story, Drove learns about his world, about what drives the adults of his species to make the choices they do, he falls in love, he grows up; the story begins in Alika-Drove's home town of Alika. The narrative moves to Pallahaxi, a small coastal village where fishing and tourism are the main sources of income. At first it seems that, in spite of "the war with Asta" and other hints of disturbance, this is going to be their usual summer holiday by the seaside. Drove encounters Browneyes once more, for the first time since they met the previous summer, together with some other youngsters and local characters.
As a result of the planet's global geography and eccentric orbit, the sea undergoes a strange transformation in which it becomes a semi-solid. This phenomenon is called the'grume'; some creatures are specially adapted to take advantage of this. Politics and a global climatic crisis drive the unexpected denouement, in which Coney allows readers some latitude in how to view the conclusion; the narrator Drove, is in the end driven by love for his girlfriend Browneyes, grief for his friends who have perished in the killing cold, to abandon his refuge and find whatever waits for him outside. To humans, Drove is strangely isolated from his parents, there seems to be little love lost either way. In spite of this, a parent-child relationship exists; the tavern owners' daughter, thus a permanent resident of Pallahaxi, Drove's first love: in the end he staggers out into the killing cold to try to find her, if she is still alive. A physically attractive young girl with a rather abrasive arrogant, yet with many good qualities, so that Drove, the hero, remembers her in the end with love and pity: "I was always in love with you, just a little".
The son of a colleague of Drove's father. He is portrayed as an arrogant know-it-all who has bought into his parent's status and concomitantly their view of life, of other people: yet in the end Drove feels pity for him, as Wolff seems doomed to die in the killing cold. Ribbon's baby brother, whom Drove regards as a annoying presence, yet remembers with pity "very long ago a small boy woke safe and happy". Mutant, smuggler & boatyard owner. Does not appear as a character, but is important as the subject of a story within the story, which illustrates the potential impact of excessive exposure to cold, or of the fear of cold, on a person's sanity: Drove, her nephew, comes to believe that her fatal mistake was to refuse help from the kindly lorin. A semi-sentient species covered in long white fur and which in Drove's experience are used only for dumb labour in an agricultural setting. There are hints that not everyone has the same limited relationship with them which Drove at first believes to be the universal rule: in the end he embraces them as his hope of salvation.
In this book Coney deals with the impact of a varying ecology upon an intelligent species, both physically and psychologically. It is a book about coming of age, examining what that might mean both in terms humans would understand, what it might mean in the resident dominant species; the physical impact on evolution is given significant weight. The sun is a source of enough radiation to promote mutations in all species, the extreme climatic cycles have evolved creatures which are specialised to endure extreme cold, or which have evolved to take advantage of events like the grume, such as the grume-riders. In Hello Summer, Coney writes much in the first person and exclusively through Drove's eyes, he uses this to assist further in drawing the reader into sympathy with his friends. The ending is poignant, as Drove remembers with pity and affection his friends Ribbon, who are dead, goes into the cold to see if his first love Browneyes is still alive; the novel was published by Gollancz in June 1975 in the UK as Hello Summer, Goodbye.
The first US publication followed in November 1975 under the variant title Rax. The book was published in Canada in 1990 under the title of Pallahaxi Tide. DAW Books released a paperback version for publication in the United States with the title Rax. All other issues used the original title of Hello Summer, Goodbye