John James Osborne was an English playwright and actor, known for his excoriating prose and intense critical stance towards established social and political norms. The success of his 1956 play Look Back in Anger transformed English theatre, in a productive life of more than 40 years, Osborne explored many themes and genres, writing for stage, film and TV. His personal life was extravagant and iconoclastic and he was notorious for the ornate violence of his language, not only on behalf of the political causes he supported but against his own family, including his wives and children. Osborne was one of the first writers to address Britains purpose in the post-imperial age and he was the first to question the point of the monarchy on a prominent public stage. Osborne was born on 12 December 1929 in London, the son of Thomas Godfrey Osborne, a commercial artist and advertising copywriter of South Welsh extraction, and Nellie Beatrice, a Cockney barmaid. Thomas Osborne died in 1941, leaving the boy an insurance settlement which he used to finance a private education at Belmont College.
He entered the school in 1943, but was expelled in the term of 1945, after whacking the headmaster. A School Certificate was the formal qualification he acquired. After school, Osborne went home to his mother in London, a job tutoring a touring company of junior actors introduced him to the theatre. He soon became involved as a manager and acting, joining Anthony Creightons provincial touring company. Osborne tried his hand at writing plays, co-writing his first, The Devil Inside Him, with his mentor Stella Linden, around this time he married Pamela Lane. His second play Personal Enemy was written with Anthony Creighton, Personal Enemy was staged in regional theatres before he submitted Look Back in Anger. It was submitted to all over London and returned with great rapidity. In his autobiography, Osborne writes, The speed with which it had returned was not surprising. It was like being grasped at the arm by a testy policeman. Finally it was sent to the newly formed English Stage Company at Londons Royal Court Theatre, formed by actor-manager and artistic director George Devine, the company had seen its first three productions flop and urgently needed a success if it was to survive.
Devine was prepared to gamble on this play because he saw in it a ferocious, Osborne was living on a leaky houseboat on the River Thames at the time with Creighton, stewing up nettles from the riverbank to eat. So keen was Devine to contact Osborne that he rowed out to the boat to tell him he would like to make the play the fourth production to enter repertory, the play was directed by Tony Richardson and starred Kenneth Haigh, Mary Ure and Alan Bates
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
The Avengers (TV series)
The Avengers is an espionage British television series created in 1961. The Avengers initially focused on Dr. David Keel and his assistant John Steed, Hendry left after the first series and Steed became the main character, partnered with a succession of assistants. Steeds most famous assistants were intelligent and assertive women, Cathy Gale, Emma Peel, the Avengers ran from 1961 until 1969, screening as one-hour episodes its entire run. The pilot episode, Hot Snow, aired on 7 January 1961, the final episode, aired on 21 May 1969. The Avengers was produced by Associated British Corporation, a contractor within the ITV network, after a merger in July 1968 ABC Television became Thames Television, which continued production of the series although it was still broadcast under the ABC name. By 1969 The Avengers was shown in more than 90 countries, ITV produced a sequel series The New Avengers with Patrick Macnee returning as John Steed, and two new partners. In 2007 The Avengers was ranked #20 on TV Guides Top Cult Shows Ever, the Avengers was marked by different eras as co-stars came and went.
The only constant was John Steed, played by Patrick Macnee, the Associated British Corporation produced a single series of Police Surgeon, in which Ian Hendry played police surgeon Geoffrey Brent, from September through December 1960. While Police Surgeon did not last long, viewers praised Hendry, and ABC Television cast him for their new series, The Avengers, which replaced Police Surgeon in January 1961. The Avengers began with episode Hot Snow, in which medical doctor Dr David Keel investigates the murder of his fiancée, a stranger named John Steed, who was investigating the ring and together they set out to avenge her death in the first two episodes. Afterwards, Steed asked Keel to partner him as needed to solve crimes, Hendry was considered the star of the new series, receiving top billing over Macnee, and Steed did not appear in two episodes. As the first series of The Avengers progressed, Steeds importance increased, while Steed and Keel used wit while discussing crimes and dangers, the series depicted the interplay—and often tension—between Keels idealism and Steeds professionalism.
The other regular in the first series was Carol Wilson, the nurse, Carol assisted Keel and Steed in cases, and in at least one episode being very much in the thick of the action, but without being part of Steeds inner circle. Hafner had played opposite Hendry as a nurse in one episode of Police Surgeon, the series was shot on 405-line videotape using a multicamera setup. There was little provision for editing and virtually no location footage, as was standard practice at the time, videotapes of early episodes of The Avengers were reused. Keel and Lucy Briggs-Owen as Carol Wilson, production of the first series was cut short by a strike. By the time production could begin on the series, Hendry had quit to pursue a film career. Macnee was promoted to star and Steed became the focus of the series, Dr Martin King, a thinly disguised rewriting of Keel, saw action in only three episodes produced from scripts written for the first series
Horror film is a film genre that seeks to elicit a negative emotional reaction from viewers by playing on their fears. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction and thriller genres, Horror films often deal with viewers nightmares, fears and terror of the unknown. Plots within the genre often involve the intrusion of an evil force, event. Another of his projects was 1898s La Caverne maudite. Japan made early forays into the genre with Bake Jizo and Shinin no Sosei. The era featured a slew of literary adaptations, with the works of Poe and Dante, in 1908, Selig Polyscope Company produced Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In 1910, Edison Studios produced the first filmed version of Frankenstein, the macabre nature of the source materials used made the films synonymous with the horror film genre. Before and during the Weimar Republic era, German Expressionist filmmakers would significantly influence productions, the first vampire-themed movie, was made during this period, though it was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stokers Dracula.
Other European countries also, contributed to the genre during this period, though the word horror to describe the film genre would not be used until the 1930s, earlier American productions often relied on horror themes. Some notable examples include The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Phantom of the Opera, The Cat and the Canary, The Unknown, and The Man Who Laughs. Many of these films were considered dark melodramas because of their stock characters and emotion-heavy plots that focused on romance, suspense. The trend of inserting an element of macabre into American pre-horror melodramas continued into the 1920s, directors known for relying on macabre in their films during the 1920s were Maurice Tourneur, Rex Ingram, and Tod Browning. Ingrams The Magician contains one of the first examples of a mad doctor and is said to have had a influence on James Whales version of Frankenstein. The Unholy Three is an example of Brownings use of macabre and unique style of morbidity, he remade the film in 1930 as a talkie, during the early period of talking pictures, Universal Pictures began a successful Gothic horror film series.
Tod Brownings Dracula was quickly followed by James Whales Frankenstein and The Old Dark House, some of these films blended science fiction with Gothic horror, such as Whales The Invisible Man and featured a mad scientist, mirroring earlier German films. Frankenstein was the first in a series of remakes which lasted for years, the Mummy introduced Egyptology as a theme, Make-up artist Jack Pierce was responsible for the iconic image of the monster, and others in the series. Universals horror cycle continued into the 1940s with B-movies including The Wolf Man, the once controversial Freaks, based on the short story Spurs, was made by MGM, though the studio disowned the completed film, and it remained banned, in the UK, for thirty years
Timothy Walter Tim Burton is an American film director, artist and animator. Burton has worked repeatedly with Johnny Depp, who has become a friend of Burton since their first film together. He has worked with musician Danny Elfman, who has composed scores for all, actress Helena Bonham Carter, Burtons former domestic partner, has appeared in many of his films. Both compilations were published by Steeles Publishing, as a preteen, Burton would make short films in his backyard on Evergreen Street using crude stop motion animation techniques or shoot them on 8 mm film without sound. Burton studied at Burbank High School, but he was not a good student. He was a very introspective person, and found his pleasure in painting and watching films and his future work would be heavily influenced by the works of such childhood heroes as Dr. Seuss and Roald Dahl. After graduating from Burbank High School with Jeff Riekenberg, Burton attended the California Institute of the Arts in Valencia, California, as a student at CalArts, Burton made the shorts Stalk of the Celery Monster and King and Octopus.
Stalk of the Celery Monster attracted the attention of Walt Disney Productions animation division and he worked as an animator, storyboard artist and concept artist on films such as The Fox and the Hound, The Black Cauldron and Tron. His concept art never made it into the finished films, the film was produced by Rick Heinrichs, whom Burton had befriended while working in the concept art department at Disney. The film was shown at the Chicago Film Festival and released, alongside the teen drama Tex, for two weeks in one Los Angeles cinema. Having aired once in 1983 at 10,30 pm on Halloween and promptly shelved, prints of the film are difficult to locate. The short would finally go on display in 2009 at the Museum of Modern Art. It was again shown at the Seoul Museum of Art in 2012, Burtons next live-action short, was released in 1984. It tells the story of a boy who tries to revive his dog after it is run over by a car. Filmed in black-and-white, it stars Barret Oliver, Shelley Duvall, after Frankenweenie was completed, Disney fired Burton, under the pretext of him spending the companys resources on doing a film that would be too dark and scary for children to see.
Pursuing an opportunity to make a film, he was approached by Griffin Dunne to direct the black comedy film After Hours. However, after Martin Scorseses project The Last Temptation of Christ was cancelled, not long after, actor Paul Reubens saw Vincent and chose Burton to direct the cinematic spin-off of his popular character Pee-wee Herman. Pee-wee Herman gained mainstream popularity with a stage show at The Groundlings
Sleepy Hollow (film)
Sleepy Hollow is a 1999 American gothic horror film directed by Tim Burton. The plot follows police constable Ichabod Crane sent from New York City to investigate a series of murders in the village of Sleepy Hollow by a mysterious Headless Horseman. Development began in 1993 at Paramount Pictures with Kevin Yagher originally set to direct Andrew Kevin Walkers script as a slasher film. Disagreements with Paramount resulted in Yagher being demoted to prosthetic makeup designer, filming took place from November 1998 to May 1999, and the film was released to generally favorable reviews from critics, and grossed approximately $206 million worldwide. Sleepy Hollow won the Academy Award for Best Art Direction, Crane learns that locals believe the killer is the undead apparition of a headless Hessian mercenary from the American Revolutionary War who rides a black steed in search of his missing head. Crane begins his investigation, remaining skeptical about the elements until he actually encounters the Headless Horseman.
Boarding at the home of the towns richest family, the Van Tassels and Young Masbath, the son of one of the Horsemans victims, go to the cave dwelling of a reclusive witch. She reveals the location of the Tree of the Dead, which marks the Horsemans grave, as well as his portal into the natural, Crane discovers that the ground is freshly disturbed and the Horsemans skull is missing. That night, the family of the midwife is killed by the Horseman and Katrinas suitor. Crane starts to believe that a conspiracy links all the deaths together, Van Garrett had made a new will just before he died, leaving all his possessions to his secret new bride, Emily Winship, whom Crane discovers was pregnant with Van Garretts child. Katrina, finding out that Crane suspects her father, burns all the evidence that Crane has accumulated, a council is held in the church. The Horseman seemingly kills Katrinas stepmother, Lady Van Tassel, Crane realizes the Horseman cant enter the church due to it being holy ground. The next day, Crane believes Katrina to be the one who controls the Headless Horsemen, the corpse is revealed as that of a servant when Lady Van Tassel emerges alive to ambush Katrina.
She sends the Horseman after Katrina to remove the last obstacle to inheriting Van Garretts land. Following a fight and a chase, Crane eventually thwarts Lady Van Tassel by throwing the skull to the Horseman. The Horseman, no longer under her control, hoists Van Tassel up on his horse and he rides to Hell, taking her with him, fulfilling her end of the deal with the Devil. Crane returns home to New York City with Katrina and Young Masbath, Rudin optioned the project to Paramount Pictures in a deal that had Yagher set to direct, with Walker scripting, the pair would share story credit. Following the completion of Hellraiser, Yahger had planned Sleepy Hollow as a low-budget production—a pretentious slasher film with a murder every five minutes or so
A conscientious objector is an individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is considered only in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to a civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist and this was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that persons performing military service may develop conscientious objections. A number of organizations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objectors Day, the term has been extended to objecting to working for the military–industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience. Historically, many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or otherwise penalized when their beliefs led to conflicting with their societys legal system or government.
The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years, Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for legally granting conscientious objector status. An early recognition of conscientious objection was granted by William the Silent to the Dutch Mennonites in 1575 and they could refuse military service in exchange for a monetary payment. Formal legislation to exempt objectors from fighting was first granted in mid-18th century Great Britain following problems with attempting to force Quakers into military service. In the United States, conscientious objection was permitted from the countrys founding, in 1948, the issue of the right to conscience was dealt with by the United Nations General Assembly in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour,0 against and it is The Right to Refuse to Kill. In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and it was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was originally created in 1966.
Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it and its Article 18 begins, Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought and religion. Some states argue that such limitations would permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, even that it is a moral duty to serve the state in its military. In 2006, the Committee has found for the first time a right to conscientious objection under article 18, in 1998, the Human Rights Commission reiterated previous statements and added states should. Refrain from subjecting conscientious objectors. to repeated punishment for failure to perform military service, the Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees states,171. Not every conviction, genuine though it may be, will constitute a sufficient reason for claiming refugee status after desertion or draft-evasion and it is not enough for a person to be in disagreement with his government regarding the political justification for a particular military action.
Air Commodore Lionel Charlton, of the British Royal Air Force, in 1923 he selectively refused to serve in the RAF Iraq Command
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, was an English actor who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles, late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles. His family had no connections, but Oliviers father, a clergyman. After attending a school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Cowards Private Lives, in 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Peggy Ashcroft, and by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, there his most celebrated roles included Shakespeares Richard III and Sophocless Oedipus. From 1963 to 1973 he was the director of Britains National Theatre.
His own parts there included the role in Othello and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Oliviers films are Wuthering Heights, and a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director, Henry V, Hamlet and his films included Sleuth, Marathon Man, and The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Days Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited, Oliviers honours included a knighthood, a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards. The National Theatres largest auditorium is named in his honour, and he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Olivier was born in Dorking, the youngest of the three children of the Revd Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden.
Their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres Dickie and his great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, and Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England and he practised extremely high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as Father Olivier. This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, and the church posts he was offered were temporary. This meant a nomadic existence, and for Laurences first few years, in 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant priest at St Saviours, Pimlico. He held the post for six years, and a family life was at last possible
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire and the only city within the county. It is the third-largest settlement in the county, after Swindon and Chippenham, with a population of 40,302, the city is located in the southeast of Wiltshire, near the edge of Salisbury Plain. Its cathedral was located to the north at Old Sarum, following its relocation. The new town received its city charter in 1227 under the name New Sarum, which continued to be its name until 2009. It sits at the confluence of five rivers, the Nadder, Ebble and Bourne are tributary to the Hampshire Avon, which flows to the south coast and into the sea at Christchurch in Dorset. Salisbury railway station serves the city and is a regional interchange, Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is about 8 miles northwest of Salisbury and greatly aids the local economy. The city itself, Old Sarum, the present cathedral and the ruins of the one attract visitors. The first part of the name is of obscure origin, the form Sarum is a Latinization of Sar, a medieval abbreviation for Sarisberie.
Salisbury appeared in the Welsh Chronicle of the Britons as Caer-Caradog, Caer-Gradawc, cair-Caratauc, one of the 28 British cities listed in the History of the Britons, has been identified with Salisbury. The hilltop at Old Sarum lies near the Neolithic sites of Stonehenge and Avebury and it commanded a salient between the River Bourne and the Hampshire Avon near a crossroads of several early trade routes. During the Iron Age, a hillfort was constructed around it sometime between 600 and 300 BC, the Romans may have occupied the site or left it in the hands of an allied tribe. Amid the Saxon invasions, Old Sarum fell to King Cynric of Wessex in 552, preferring settlements in bottomland like nearby Wilton, the Saxons largely ignored Old Sarum until the Viking invasions led King Alfred to restore its fortifications. Along with Wilton, however, it was abandoned by its residents to be sacked and burned by the Dano-Norwegian king Sweyn Forkbeard in 1003 and it subsequently became the site of Wiltons mint.
Following the Norman invasion, a castle was constructed by 1070. The castle was directly by the Norman kings, its castellan was generally the sheriff of Wiltshire. Hermann and his successor Saint Osmund began the construction of the first Salisbury cathedral, the cathedral was consecrated on 5 April 1092 but suffered extensive damage in a storm, traditionally said to have occurred only five days later. Bishop Roger was an ally of Henry I who served as his viceroy during the kings absence to Normandy and directed the royal administration. He refurbished and expanded Old Sarums cathedral in the 1110s and began work on a palace during the 1130s
Durham School is an English independent boarding school for pupils aged between 3 and 18 years. Founded by the Bishop of Durham, Thomas Langley, in 1414 and it is the citys oldest institution of learning. The School is located in Durham, North East England and was an institution until becoming fully coeducational in 1985. A member of The Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference, it enrolls 650 day and its preparatory institution, known as Bow, Durham School, enrolls a further 160 pupils. Durham and Bows former pupils include politicians and British aristocracy, former students are known as Old Dunelmians. The school celebrated its 600th Anniversary in 2014, the history of Durham School can be divided into three sections. The school is referred to in histories and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as Durham Grammar School. It should not be confused with the Chorister School, Durham School was founded by Thomas Langley in 1414, which was the foundation date accepted by the Clarendon Commission into public schools in 1861, making it the 18th oldest in Britain.
The school was in Langleys time situated on the east side of Palace Green to the north of the cathedral, at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries during the Protestant Reformation in 1541, the school was refounded by Henry VIII. It remained in the location, indeed the Headmaster Henry Stafford remained in post. Homeless due to the burning down of its buildings, the school continued in various houses in the city and it was in 1661 that the school moved to the building currently occupied by the Durham University Music School to the north west of Palace Green. There was some zeal for education in Durham during the 18th century, Durham School, rebuilt in 1661, on the Palace Green, soon became, instead of a local grammar school, a north-country public school of repute and wide influence. We can trace from the Restoration onwards not only the city names such as Salvin, Hutchinson, Fawcett, Calverley. One of the distinctions of the school is the succession of local historians. Most famous of these is James Mickleton, without whom no history of mediaeval or 17th-century Durham would be possible, than these comes Thomas Randall, who made a large collection of manuscript material for local history books.
From its location on Palace Green outside Durham Cathedral, whilst Edward Elder was Headmaster the school moved to its present site in 1844, the School has been steadily expanded and updated since then. For example, Henry Holden, Headmaster 1853 to 1882, instigated new classrooms, kitchens, sickroom a sanatorium, bell tower and library. William Fearon, Headmaster 1882 to 1884, introduced the three term system used today and enlarged the playing fields and built an open air swimming pool
Batman Returns is a 1992 American superhero film and produced by Tim Burton, based on the DC Comics character Batman. It is the installment of Warner Bros. initial Batman film series. The film introduces the characters of Max Shreck, a business tycoon who teams up with the Penguin to take over Gotham City. Burton originally did not want to direct another Batman film because of his mixed emotions toward the film in 1989. Warner Bros. developed a script with writer Sam Hamm which had the Penguin, Burton agreed to return after they granted him more creative control and replaced Hamm with Daniel Waters. Wesley Strick did a rewrite, removing the characters of Harvey Dent and Robin. Annette Bening was originally cast as Catwoman but became pregnant and was replaced with Pfeiffer, filming for Batman Returns started in June 1991 at Warner Bros. Batman Returns was released on June 19,1992, the film was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects and Best Makeup, as well as two BAFTA awards. Batman Returnss budget was $80 million and it grossed $266.8 million worldwide, on a snowy Christmas night and Esther Cobblepot throw their deformed infant child Oswald into Gotham River, fearing he would become a menace to society after attacking their pet cat.
His crib floats to a zoo and is found by a flock of penguins who raise him as one of their own. 33 years later, three years after the defeat of the Joker, during the lighting of Gotham Citys Christmas tree, a former sideshow freak, Cobblepot explains his desire to become a respected citizen of Gotham and blackmails Shreck into helping him. Meanwhile, Shrecks secretary, Selina Kyle, inadvertently discovers her bosss plan to illegally monopolize Gothams supply of electricity, to protect his secrets, Shreck pushes her out of his office window. Falling through several canopies, Kyle miraculously survives but lies unconscious in an alley, a group of cats swarm around her and she suddenly regains consciousness. Shreck arranges for one of Cobblepots men to kidnap the Mayors infant son, as a reward, Cobblepot is given access to the Gotham City Archives, where he learns his real name, and that he is the last surviving member of his family. Meanwhile, the Mayor, persuaded by Wayne, refuses to give Shreck a construction permit for his power plant, Cobblepot orders his gang to attack downtown Gotham, ruining the Mayors reputation and giving Shreck the opportunity to propose Cobblepot as a replacement.
Batman confronts Cobblepot, but Catwoman appears while firebombing Shrecks department store, after a fight in which Batman knocks her off a building, Catwoman survives by landing in a truck full of kitty litter. While traversing the rooftops to find the Ice Princess, Penguins goons disassemble the Batmobile, distracted by Catwoman, Batman is unable to stop Cobblepot from attacking the Princess using a swarm of captive bats. She falls to her death before Batman tries to save her, when Catwoman rejects Cobblepots amorous advances, he responds by attacking her with his motorized helicopter umbrella
Batman in film
The fictional superhero Batman, who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics, has appeared in various films since his inception. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger, the character first starred in two films in the 1940s, Batman and Batman and Robin. The character appeared in the 1966 film Batman, which was a film adaptation of the 1960s Batman TV series starring Adam West and Burt Ward. Toward the end of the 1980s, the Warner Bros. studio began producing a series of films starring Batman, beginning with the 1989 film Batman, directed by Tim Burton. Burton and Keaton returned for the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, and in 1995, Schumacher directed the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, which starred George Clooney. Batman & Robin was poorly received by critics and fans, leading to the cancellation of Batman Unchained. Nolan returned to two further installments in the trilogy, The Dark Knight in 2008 and The Dark Knight Rises in 2012 with Bale reprising his role in both films. The two sequels both earned over $1 billion worldwide, making Batman the second franchise to have two of its films earn more than $1 billion worldwide.
Batman has appeared in animated films, both as a starring character and as an ensemble character. While most animated films were released direct-to-video, the 1993 animated feature Batman, Mask of the Phantasm, based on the 1990s Batman, The Animated Series, was released theatrically. Having earned a total of U. S. $1,900,844,295, Batman was a 15-chapter serial film released in 1943 by Columbia Pictures. The serial starred Lewis Wilson as Batman and Douglas Croft as Robin, J. Carrol Naish played the villain, an original character named Dr. Daka. Rounding out the cast were Shirley Patterson as Linda Page, the plot is based on Batman, a US government agent, attempting to defeat the Japanese agent Dr. Daka, at the height of World War II. The film is notable for being the first filmed appearance of Batman, the film introduced The Bats Cave and the Grandfather clock entrance. The name was altered to the Batcave for the comic, William Austin, who played Alfred, had a trim physique and sported a thin mustache, while the contemporary comic book version of Alfred was overweight and clean-shaven prior to the serials release.
The comics version of Alfred was altered to match that of Austins and Robin was another 15-chapter serial film released in 1949 by Columbia Pictures. Robert Lowery played Batman, while Johnny Duncan played Robin, Supporting players included Jane Adams as Vicki Vale and veteran character actor Lyle Talbot as Commissioner Gordon. The plot dealt with the Dynamic Duo facing off against the Wizard, Batman is a 1966 film adaptation of the popular Batman television series, and was the first full-length theatrical adaptation of the DC Comics character