Frank Owen Gehry, FAIA is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles. A number of his buildings, including his private residence, have become world-renowned attractions, his works are cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as "the most important architect of our age". Gehry's best-known works include the titanium-clad Guggenheim Museum in Spain, it was his private residence in Santa Monica, that jump-started his career. Gehry is the designer of the future National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldberg on February 28, 1929, in Toronto, Ontario, to parents Sadie Thelma and Irving Goldberg, his father was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish parents, his mother was a Polish Jewish immigrant born in Łódź. A creative child, he was encouraged by his grandmother, Leah Caplan, with whom he would build little cities out of scraps of wood. With these scraps from her husband's hardware store, she entertained him for hours, building imaginary houses and futuristic cities on the living room floor.
His use of corrugated steel, chain-link fencing, unpainted plywood and other utilitarian or "everyday" materials was inspired by spending Saturday mornings at his grandfather's hardware store. He would spend time drawing with his father. "So the creative genes were there", Gehry says. "But my father thought I was a dreamer, I wasn't gonna amount to anything. It was my mother, she would push me."He was given the Hebrew name "Ephraim" by his grandfather, but only used it at his bar mitzvah. In 1947, his family immigrated to the United States settling in California. Gehry got a job driving a delivery truck, studied at Los Angeles City College to graduate from the University of Southern California's School of Architecture. During that time, he became a member of Alpha Epsilon Pi. According to Gehry, "I was a truck driver in L. A. going to City College, I tried radio announcing, which I wasn't good at. I tried chemical engineering, which I wasn't good at and didn't like, I remembered. You know, somehow I just started wracking my brain about,'What do I like?'
Where was I? What made me excited? And I remembered art, that I loved going to museums and I loved looking at paintings, loved listening to music; those things came from my mother, who took me to museums. I remembered Grandma and the blocks, just on a hunch, I tried some architecture classes." Gehry graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture degree from USC in 1954. After graduating from college, he spent time away from the field of architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the United States Army. In the fall of 1956, he moved his family to Cambridge, where he studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, he left before completing the program and underwhelmed. Gehry's left-wing ideas about responsible architecture were under-realized, the final straw occurred when he sat in on a discussion of one professor's "secret project in progress"—a palace that he was designing for right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Gehry returned to Los Angeles to work for Victor Gruen Associates, to whom he had been apprenticed while at the USC School of Architecture.
In 1957 he was given the chance to design his first private residence at the age of 28, with friend and old classmate Greg Walsh. Construction was done by another neighbor across the street from Charlie Sockler. Built in Idyllwild, for his wife Anita's family neighbor Melvin David, "The David Cabin", shows features that were to become synonymous with work; the over 2,000 sq ft mountain retreat has unique design features with strong Asian influences, stemming from his earliest inspirations at the time like Shosoin Treasure House in Nara, among others. Beams protrude from the exterior sides, vertical grain douglas fir detail, exposed, unfinished ceiling beams are prominent features. In 1961, he moved to Paris. In 1962, Gehry established a practice in Los Angeles which became Frank Gehry and Associates in 1967 and Gehry Partners in 2001. Gehry's earliest commissions were all in Southern California, where he designed a number of innovative commercial structures such as Santa Monica Place and residential buildings such as the eccentric Norton House in Venice, California.
Among these works, Gehry's most notable design may be the renovation of his own Santa Monica residence. Built in 1920 and purchased by Gehry in 1977, the house features a metallic exterior wrapped around the original building that leaves many of the original details visible. Gehry still resides there. Other completed buildings designed by Gehry during the 1980s include the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in San Pedro and the California Aerospace Museum at the California Museum of Science and Industry in Los Angeles. In 1989, Gehry was awarded the
James Turrell is an American artist concerned with Light and Space. Turrell was a MacArthur Fellow in 1984. Turrell is best known for his work in progress, Roden Crater, a natural cinder cone crater located outside Flagstaff, that he is turning into a massive naked-eye observatory. James Turrell was born in California, his father, Archibald Milton Turrell, was educator. His mother, Margaret Hodges Turrell, trained as a medical doctor and worked in the Peace Corps, his parents were Quakers. Turrell obtained a pilot's license. Registered as a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War, he ended up flying Buddhist monks out of Chinese-controlled Tibet; some writers have suggested. For years he restored antique airplanes to support his "art habit", he received a BA degree from Pomona College in perceptual psychology in 1965 and studied mathematics and astronomy there. Turrell enrolled in the graduate Studio Art program at the University of California, Irvine in 1966, where he began making work using light projections.
His studies at the University of California, Irvine were interrupted in 1966, when he was arrested for coaching young men to avoid the Vietnam draft. He spent about a year in jail, he received an MA degree in art from Claremont Graduate University. In 2004, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Haverford College. In 1966, Turrell began experimenting with light in his Santa Monica studio, the Mendota Hotel, at a time when the so-called Light and Space group of artists in Los Angeles, including Robert Irwin, Mary Corse and Doug Wheeler, was coming into prominence. By covering the windows and only allowing prescribed amounts of light from the street outside to come through the openings, Turrell created his first light projections. In Shallow Space Constructions he used screened partitions, allowing a radiant effusion of concealed light to create an artificially flattened effect within the given space; that same year, he participated in the Los Angeles County Museum's Art and Technology Program, investigating perceptual phenomena with the artist Robert Irwin and psychologist Edward Wortz.
In 1969, he made sky drawings with Sam Francis, using colored skywriting smoke and cloud-seeding materials. A pivotal environment Turrell developed from 1969 to 1974, The Mendota Stoppages, used several rooms in the former Mendota Hotel in Santa Monica which were sealed off, with the window apertures controlled by the artist to allow natural and artificial light to enter the darkened spaces in specific ways. Turrell is best known for his work in progress, Roden Crater, he acquired an extinct cinder cone volcano located outside Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1979. Since he has spent decades moving tons of dirt and building tunnels and apertures to turn this crater into a massive naked-eye observatory for experiencing celestial phenomena. Although he works in the American desert, Turrell does not consider himself an earthworks artist like Robert Smithson or Michael Heizer: "You could say I'm a mound builder: I make things that take you up into the sky, but it's not about the landforms. I'm working to bring celestial objects like the sun and moon into the spaces that we inhabit."
He added: "I apprehend light — I make events that shape or contain light."The completion date for the Crater has been pushed back several times for funding and construction reasons, with the artist missing early targets in the 1990s. The last time Turrell or his team went on record talking about a completion date, the goal was 2011. During May 2015, Roden Crater was open to a select group of 80 people, as part of a fund raiser, by allowing visits of 20 people per day during the course of four days, at a cost of $6,500 per person; as Roden Crater has been long shrouded in secrecy, fans have attempted to sneak in without the artist's permission. Some have succeeded. In the 1970s, Turrell began his series of "skyspaces" enclosed spaces open to the sky through an aperture in the roof. A Skyspace is an enclosed room large enough for 15 people. Inside, the viewers sit on benches along the edge to view the sky through an opening in the roof; as a lifelong Quaker, Turrell designed the Live Oak Meeting House for the Society of Friends, with an opening or skyhole in the roof, wherein the notion of light takes on a decidedly religious connotation..
His work Meeting at P. S. 1, which consists of a square room with a rectangular opening cut directly into the ceiling, is a recreation of such a meeting house. In 2013, Turrell created another Quaker skyspace, Greet the Light, at the newly rebuilt Chestnut Hill Friends Meeting in Philadelphia. In a New York Times article on L. A. collectors building skyspaces in their backyards, Jori Finkel describes a skyspace as a " celestial viewing room designed to create the rather magical illusion that the sky is within reach -- stretched like a canvas across an opening in the ceiling."In 1992, James Turrell's Irish Sky Garden opened at the Liss Ard Estate, Skibbereen, Co Cork, Ireland. The giant earth and stoneworks has a crater at its center. A visitor enters through a doorway in the perimeter of the rim, walks through a passage and climbs stairs to enter lies on the central plinth and looks upwards to experience the sky framed by the rim of the crater. "The most important thing i
Robert Irwin (artist)
Robert W. Irwin is an American installation artist who has explored perception and the conditional in art through site-specific, architectural interventions that alter the physical and temporal experience of space, he began his career as a painter in the 1950s, but in the 1960s shifted to installation work, becoming a pioneer whose work helped to define the aesthetics and conceptual issues of the West Coast Light and Space movement. His early works employed light and veils of scrim to transform gallery and museum spaces, but since 1975, he has incorporated landscape projects into his practice. Irwin has conceived over fifty-five site-specific projects, at institutions including the Getty Center, Dia:Beacon, the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles mounted the first retrospective of his work in 1993. Irwin received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1976, a MacArthur Fellowship in March, 1984, was elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 2007.
He works in San Diego, California. Robert Irwin was born in 1928 in California, to Robert Irwin and Goldie Anderberg Irwin. After serving in the United States Army from 1946 to 1947, he attended several art institutes: Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles from 1948 to 1950, Jepson Art Institute in 1951, Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles from 1952 to 1954, he spent the next two years living in North Africa. Between the years 1957-1958, he taught at the Chouinard Art Institute. In 1977, Robert Irwin wrote the following about himself: "I began as a painter in the middle of nowhere with few questions… My first real question concerned the arbitrariness of my paintings… I used my paintings as a step-by-step process, each new series of works acting in direct response to those questions raised by the previous series. I first questioned the mark as meaning and even as focus. How is it that a space could come to be considered empty when it is filled with real and tactile events?" Robert Irwin's notion of art derived from a series of experiential perceptions.
As an abstract, open-minded thinker, he presented experience first as sense. He concluded that ability to identify, helped to clarify perception. For example, "We know the sky's blueness before we know it as "blue", let alone as "sky." He explained that the conception of an abstract thought occurs in the mind, through the concept of self. Following, the physical form is recognized, communicating the form to the community; the Objective compound occurs, delineating behavioral norms and artistic norms, becoming identifiable. The boundaries and axioms introduce logic and reasoning and decisions can be made: either inductive or deductive. Formalism follows and convincing a decision about the object being perceived; the study done by Irwin suggested that: "…all ideas and values have their roots in experience,… they can be held separate at any point and developed directly on the grounds of function and use, both that they in fact remain relative to the condition of both our subjective and objective being."
Robert Irwin's philosophy defined his idea of art as a series of aesthetic inquiries, an opportunity for cultural innovation, a communicative interaction with society, as compounded historical development. In his book Seeing is Forgetting the Name of the Thing One Sees, Lawrence Weschler documents Irwin's process from his early days as a youngster in Southern California to his emergence as a leader in the post-abstraction art world. Weschler describes the mystifying and enchanting quality of these works in his book's cover notes: In May 1980, Robert Irwin returned to Market Street in Venice, California to the block where he had kept a studio until 1970, the year he abandoned studio work altogether. Melinda Wyatt was opening a gallery in the building next door to his former work space and invited Irwin to create an installation, he cleaned out the large rectangular room, adjusted the skylights, painted the walls an white, knocked out the wall facing the street, replacing it with a sheer, semi-transparent white scrim.
The room seemed to change its aspect with the passing day: people came and sat on the opposite curb, sometimes for hours at time. The piece was up for two weeks in one of the more derelict beachfront neighborhoods of Los Angeles: no one so much as laid a hand on it; because of the ephemeral or subtle nature of his work, this book became not just an introduction but, for many artists and art students, the primary way that Robert Irwin's work was experienced. He told Jori Finkel of the New York Times in 2007 that people still come up to him at lectures for book autographs. In that article, Michael Govan, the director of LACMA who commissioned Irwin to "design our experience" of Dia:Beacon said he believes the book "has convinced more young people to become artists than the Velvet Underground has created rockers." Irwin's early work began with painting. In 1959, he painted a series of hand-held objects and exhibited for the second time, as an individual exhibitor, at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles.
The following year, 1960, he was asked to exhibit there again as well as at the Pasaden
John Anthony Baldessari is an American conceptual artist known for his work featuring found photography and appropriated images. He works in Santa Monica and Venice, California. A painter, Baldessari began to incorporate texts and photography into his canvases in the mid-1960s. In 1970 he began working in printmaking, video, installation and photography, he has created thousands of works that demonstrate—and, in many cases, combine—the narrative potential of images and the associative power of language within the boundaries of the work of art. His art has been featured in more than 200 solo exhibitions in the U. S. and Europe. His work influenced Cindy Sherman, David Salle, Annette Lemieux, Barbara Kruger among others. 1949-53 B. A. San Diego State College, California. 1954-55 University of California, Berkeley. 1955 University of California, Los Angeles. 1955-57 M. A. San Diego State College, California. 1957-59 Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles. Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles. Baldessari was born in National City, California to Hedvig Jensen, a Danish nurse, Antonio Baldessari, an Italian salvage dealer.
Baldessari and his elder sister were raised in Southern California. He attended San Diego State College. Between 1960 and 1984, he was married to Montessorian teacher Carol Ann Wixom. In 1959, Baldessari began teaching art in the San Diego school system, he kept teaching for nearly three decades, in schools and junior colleges and community colleges, at the university level. When the University of California decided to open up a campus in San Diego, the new head of the Visual Art Department, Paul Brach, asked Baldessari to be part of the originating faculty in 1968. At UCSD he shared an office with David Antin. In 1970, Baldessari moved to Santa Monica, where he met many artists and writers, began teaching at CalArts, his first classes included David Salle, Jack Goldstein, Mike Kelley, Ken Feingold, Tony Oursler, James Welling, Barbara Bloom, Matt Mullican, Troy Brauntuch. While at CalArts, Baldessari taught "the infamous Post Studio class", which he intended to "indicate people not daubing away at canvases or chipping away at stone, that there might be some other kind of class situation."
The class, which operated outside of medium-specificity, was influential in informing the context for addressing a student's art practice at CalArts, established a tradition of conceptual critique at CalArts, carried on by artists such as Michael Asher. He quit teaching at CalArts in 1986, moving on to teach at UCLA, which he continued until 2008. At UCLA, his students included Analia Saban. By 1966, Baldessari was using photographs and text, or text, on canvas, his early major works were canvas paintings that were empty but for painted statements derived from contemporary art theory. An early attempt of Baldessari's included the hand-painted phrase "Suppose it is true after all? WHAT THEN?" on a worked painted surface. However, this proved disappointing because the form and method conflicted with the objective use of language that he preferred to employ. Baldessari decided the solution was to remove his own hand from the construction of the image and to employ a commercial, lifeless style so that the text would impact the viewer without distractions.
The words were physically lettered by sign painters, in an unornamented black font. The first of this series presented the ironic statement "A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE WITHOUT ANY ARTICULATION IS A DEAD EXPERIENCE". Another work, Painting for Kubler presented the viewer theoretical instructions on how to view it and on the importance of context and continuity with previous works; this work referenced art historian George Kubler's seminal book, The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things. The legitimate art concerns were intended by Baldessari to become hollow and ridiculous when presented in such a purely self-referential manner. In 1970, Baldessari and five friends burnt all of the paintings he had created between 1953 and 1966 as part of a new piece, titled The Cremation Project; the ashes from these paintings were baked into cookies and placed into an urn, the resulting art installation consists of a bronze commemorative plaque with the destroyed paintings' birth and death dates, as well as the recipe for making the cookies.
Through the ritual of cremation Baldessari draws a connection between artistic practice and the human life cycle. Thus the act of disavowal becomes generative as with the work of auto-destructive artist Jean Tinguely. Baldessari is best known for works that blend photographic materials, take them out of their original context and rearrange their form including the addition of words or sentences. Related to his early text paintings were his Wrong series, which paired photographic images with lines of text from an amateur photography book, aiming at the violation of a set of basic "rules" on snapshot composition. In one of the works, Baldessari had himself photographed in front of a palm so that it would appear that the tree were growing out of his head, his photographic California Map Project created physical forms that resembled the letters in "California" geographically near to the spots on the map that they were printed. In the Binary Code Series, Baldessari used images as information holders by alternating photographs to stand in for the on-off state of binary code.
Another of Baldessari's series juxtaposed an image of an object such as a glass, or a block of wood, the phrase "A glass is a glass" or "Wood
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar
Christopher Lee Burden was an American artist working in performance and installation art. Burden was born in Boston in 1946 to Robert Burden, an engineer, Rhoda Burden, a biologist, he grew up in Cambridge, Massachusetts and Italy. At the age of 12, Burden had emergency surgery, performed without anesthesia, on his left foot after having been injured in a motor-scooter crash on Elba. During the long convalescence that followed, he became interested in visual art in photography. Burden studied for his B. A. in visual arts and architecture at Pomona College and received his MFA at the University of California, Irvine – where his teachers included Robert Irwin – from 1969 to 1971. Burden began to work in performance art in the early 1970s, he made a series of controversial performances in which the idea of personal danger as artistic expression was central. His first significant performance work, Five Day Locker Piece, was created for his master's thesis at the University of California and involved him being locked in a locker for five days.
His best-known act from that time is the 1971 performance piece Shoot, in which he was shot in his left arm by an assistant from a distance of about sixteen feet with a.22 rifle. Other performances from the 1970s included Deadman, in which Burden lay on the ground covered with a canvas sheet and a set of road flares until bystanders assumed he was dead and called emergency services. C. Mexico, in which he kayaked to a desolate beach in Baja Mexico where he lived for 11 days with no food and only water. One of Burden's most reproduced and cited pieces, Trans-Fixed took place on April 23, 1974, at Speedway Avenue in Venice, California. For this performance, Burden lay face up on a Volkswagen Beetle and had nails hammered into both of his hands, as if he were being crucified on the car; the car was pushed out of the garage and the engine revved for two minutes before being pushed back into the garage. That year, Burden performed his piece White Light/White Heat at the Ronald Feldman Gallery in New York.
For this work of experiment performance and self-inflicting danger, Burden spent twenty-two days lying on a triangular platform in the corner of the gallery. He was out of sight from all viewers and he could not see them either. According to Burden, he did not talk, or come down the entire time. Several of Burden's other performance pieces were considered controversial at the time: another "danger piece" was Doomed, in which Burden lay motionless in a gallery at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago under a 5 ft × 8 ft slanted sheet of glass near a running wall clock. Burden planned to remain in that position until a museum employee prioritized his well-being over the artistic integrity of the piece. After 40 hours, the museum staff consulted physicians. 5 hours and 10 minutes after that, museum employee Dennis O'Shea placed a pitcher of water within Burden's reach, at which point Burden rose, smashed the glass, took a hammer to the clock, thus ending the piece. By the end of the 1970s, Burden turned instead to vast engineered sculptural installations.
In 1975, he created the operational B-Car, a lightweight four-wheeled vehicle that he described as being "able to travel 100 miles per hour and achieve 100 miles per gallon". Some of his other works from that period are DIECIMILA, a facsimile of an Italian 10,000 Lira note the first fine art print, printed on both sides of the paper. B. T. V. A reconstruction of the first made Mechanical television. In 1978, he became a professor at University of California, Los Angeles, a position from which he resigned in 2005 due to a controversy over the university's alleged mishandling of a student's classroom performance piece that echoed one of Burden's own performance pieces. Burden cited the performance in his letter of resignation, saying that the student should have been suspended during the investigation into whether school safety rules had been violated; the performance involved a loaded gun, but authorities were unable to substantiate this. In 1979, Burden first exhibited his no
Purple Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Purple Line is a heavy rail subway line operating in Los Angeles, running between downtown and the Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown districts. It is one of six lines on the Metro Rail System, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Metro Purple Line is one of the city's two subway lines. Although they separate west of Downtown Los Angeles, the two subway lines were branded as two branches of the Red Line; the Purple Line was instituted as its own line, separate from the Red Line, in 2006. As of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Out of the eight stations served, only two of them are exclusive to the Purple Line, with the other six shared with the Red Line. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the D Line while retaining its purple coloring; the Metro Purple Line is a 6.4-mile line. At Union Station, passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line, the Metro Gold Line; the Purple Line travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District.
Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line at Civic Center Station. At Pershing Square Station, passengers can board the northbound Metro Silver Line bus at Olive Street/5th Street. At 7th St/Metro Center Station, travelers can connect to the Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line and the Metro Silver Line. From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, track is shared with the Metro Red Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge; the Purple Line continues west for one additional mile, terminates at Wilshire/Western. The Purple Line runs underground, below Wilshire Boulevard, served on the surface by Metro Local route 20 and Metro Rapid route 720. Despite the duplicate service, Metro considers the redundant bus service justified because both bus routes run from Downtown Los Angeles. Unlike the Purple Line, they run along the entire Wilshire corridor, west to Beverly Hills and Santa Monica.
Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. daily, with late night weekend service running until 2:00 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Wilshire/Western Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:41 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 11:42 p.m. Westbound First Train to Wilshire/Western: 4:56 a.m. Last Train to Wilshire/Western: 11:27 p.m. During the evenings Purple Line trains sometimes run as shuttles. Passengers must transfer to a Red Line train at Wilshire/Vermont; this will change. Trains on the Purple Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service can range between 20–30 minutes; the Purple Line is utilized as a downtown shuttle on its shared segment with the Red Line. The stub between Vermont and Western has a low ridership. According to Metro Service Coordinator Conan Cheung, the stub is operating 11% full during peak hours, lower at other times.
The current Purple Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunnelling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. However, a short one-mile branch down Wilshire from Vermont to Western was allowed to remain in the system; the service designated as the Purple Line opened in two minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993. MOS-2A, including three new stations between Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Western, opened in 1996; the Vermont branch began service in 1999.
Both branches were designated as part of the Red Line, but in 2006 trains travelling between Union Station and Wilshire/Western were rebranded the Purple Line for greater clarity. Metro is now aiming to complete the subway to the Westside; the new project is called the Purple Line Extension and the first phase broke ground on November 7, 2014. Metro released the Final Environmental Impact Report on March 19, 2012, the first phase of the project was approved by Metro's Board of Directors on April 26, 2012. Notice to proceed was issued to Tutor Perini on April 26, 2017 for phase two from Wilshire/La Cienega Station to Century City Station. Pre-construction has commenced. Metro is still attempting to obtain funding for phase 3 to Westwood/UCLA; the following table lists the stations of the Purple Line, from east to west: The Purple Line is operated out of the Division 20 Yard located at 320 South Santa Fe Avenue Los Angeles. This yard stores the fleet used on the Purple Line, it is where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet.
Subways get to this yard by continuing on after Union Statio