Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
60 metres, or 60-meter dash, is a sprint event in track and field. It is a championship event for indoor championships dominated by the best outdoor 100 metres runners. At outdoor venues it is a rare distance, at least for senior athletes; the 60 metres was an Olympic event in the 1900 and 1904 Summer Games but was removed from the schedule thereafter. American Christian Coleman holds the men's world record in the 60 metres with a time of 6.34 seconds, while Russian Irina Privalova holds the women's world record at 6.92. In the past, it was common for athletes to compete in the 60 yards race; this is the predecessor of the 55 metres race. 60 metres is 65.6168 yards. Updated 4 January 2019. Indoor results only Updated February 2019. Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense: Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.47 seconds: Christian Coleman ran 6.37, 6.42 A, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47. Maurice Greene ran 6.40, 6.41, 6.42, 6.43, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47.
Su Bingtian ran 6.43, 6.47. Ronnie Baker ran 6.44, 6.45 A, 6.46, 6.47. Tim Harden ran 6.44, 6.47. Andre Cason ran 6.45, 6.46. Bruny Surin ran 6.46. Jon Drummond ran 6.46, 6.47. Jason Gardener ran 6.46. Terrence Trammell ran 6.46. Justin Gatlin ran 6.46, 6.47. Marcus Brunson ran 6.46. Dwain Chambers ran 6.46. + = en route to 100m mark Updated February 2019. Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense: Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.99 seconds: Irina Privalova ran 6.93, 6.94, 6.95, 6.96, 6.97, 6.98, 6.99. Merlene Ottey ran 6.97, 6.99. Gail Devers ran 6.98, 6.99. Ekaterini Thanou ran 6.99. Murielle Ahouré ran 6.99. + = en route to 100m mark Notes: A Known as the World Indoor Games The original winner in 1987 was Ben Johnson, disqualified in 1989 after admitting long term drug use. Notes: A Known as the World Indoor Games The original silver medal winner in 1987 was Angella Issajenko, disqualified in 1989 after admitting long term drug use.
The original winner in 2003 was Zhanna Block, disqualified in 2011, had her results from November 2002 onwards annulled. All-time men's best 60 metres from alltime-athletics.com All-time women's best 60 metres from alltime-athletics.com
Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running as a way of reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis. In athletics and track and field, sprints are races over short distances, they are among the oldest running competitions, being recorded at the Ancient Olympic Games. Three sprints are held at the modern Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres. At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained; the set position differs depending on the start. Body alignment is of key importance in producing the optimal amount of force.
Ideally the athlete should begin in a 4-point stance and push off using both legs for maximum force production. Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events, with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed. All sprints beyond this distance incorporate an element of endurance; the first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, a spriting race from one end of the stadium to the other. The Diaulos was a double-stadion race, c. 400 metres, introduced in the 14th Olympiad of the ancient Olympic Games. The modern sprinting events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100-yard dash, the 200 m distance came from the furlong, the 400 m was the successor to the 440-yard dash or quarter-mile race. Biological factors that determine a sprinter's potential include: The 60 metres is run indoors, on a straight section of an indoor athletic track.
Since races at this distance can last around six or seven seconds, having good reflexes and thus getting off to a quick start is more vital in this race than any other. This is the distance required for a human to reach maximum speed and can be run with one breath, it is popular for testing in other sports. The world record in this event is held by American sprinter Christian Coleman with a time of 6.34 seconds. 60-metres is used as an outdoor distance by younger athletes. Note: Indoor distances are less standardized as many facilities run shorter or longer distances depending on available space. 60m is the championship distance. The 100 metres sprint takes place on one length of the home straight of a standard outdoor 400 m track; the world-record holder in this race is considered "the world's fastest man/woman." The current world record of 9.58 seconds is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica and was set on 16 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The women's world record was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner.
World class male sprinters need 41 to 50 strides to cover the whole 100 metres distances. The 200 metres begins on the curve of a standard track, ends on the home straight; the ability to "run a good bend" is key at the distance, as a well conditioned runner will be able to run 200 m in an average speed higher than their 100 m speed. Usain Bolt, ran 200 m in the world-record time of 19.19 sec, an average speed of 10.422 m/s, whereas he ran 100 m in the world-record time of 9.58 sec, an average speed of 10.438 m/s. Indoors, the race is run as one lap of the track, with only slower times than outdoors. A shorter race, the stadion, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games and the oldest known formal sports event in history; the world record in this event is 19.19 seconds, held by Usain Bolt and was set on 20 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The 400 metres is one lap around the track on the inside lane. Runners are staggered in their starting positions to ensure.
While this event is classified as a sprint, there is more scope to use tactics in the race. The world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk with a time of 43.03 seconds in Rio Olympic 2016 in 400m final The 4×100 metres relay is another prestigious event, with an average speed, quicker than the 100 m, as the runners can start moving before they receive the baton. The world record in this event is 36.84 seconds, held by the Jamaican team as set 11 August 2012 at the Games of the XXX Olympiad held in London. The 4x400 metres relay is held at track and field meetings, is by tradition the final event at major championships; the event was a common event for most American students, because it was one of the standardized test events as part of the President's Award on Physical Fitness. The 50 metres is an uncommon alternative to the 60 metres. Donovan Bailey holds the men's world record with a time of 5.56 seconds and Irina Privalova holds the women's world record with a time of 5.96 seconds. A run sprinting event, once more commonplace.
The world record
Athletics at the 1994 Commonwealth Games
At the 1994 Commonwealth Games, the athletics event were held in Victoria, BC, Canada, at the Centennial Stadium on the grounds of the University of Victoria. A total of 44 events were contested, of which 22 by male 19 by female athletes. Furthermore, 2 men's disability events were held within the programme. There were 126 medals decided in total with England topping the table with 36 medals in total. Australia were second with 22 and the host nation Canada came third with 15; the competition saw both the fall of Horace Dove-Edwin, a sprinter from Sierra Leone. He became his country's first Commonwealth medallist with an unexpected silver medal behind Linford Christie in the 100 metres, he had not attended the opening ceremony as his country did not have enough money for a uniform and his story attracted much public sympathy and attention from the press. His meteoric rise was swiftly punctured as he was banned for two years after his doping test came back positive for the steroid stanozolol. * Host nation Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics 1994 in athletics 1995 World Championships in Athletics General1994 Commonwealth Games at Archive.today Commonwealth Games Medallists - Men.
GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-07-21. Commonwealth Games Medallists - Women. GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-07-21. Specific
William Knibb, OM was an English Baptist minister and missionary to Jamaica. He is chiefly known today for his work to free slaves. On the 150th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the British Empire, Knibb was posthumously awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit, he was the first white male to receive the country's highest civil honour. Knibb's elder brother Thomas was a missionary-schoolmaster in Jamaica; when Thomas died at 24, William volunteered to replace him. A dedication service was held in Bristol on 7 October 1824, two days after he had married Mary Watkins; the newly-weds sailed to Jamaica on 5 November 1824. William was aged just 21. Knibb found six English Baptist missionaries, African-Caribbean Baptist deacons, thriving congregations in Jamaica when he arrived. Together they were following the pioneering work of the African preacher George Lisle, a former slave from Virginia who had arrived in 1782 and founded a Baptist church in Kingston. Knibb began work as the schoolmaster of the Baptist mission school in Kingston and worked with fellow missionaries Thomas Burchell and James Phillippo, who formed a trio.
In 1828 he moved to Savanna-la-Mar. In 1830 he became the minister responsible for the Baptist church at Falmouth, which had regular congregations of 600 when he arrived, he remained there as minister. The Baptists in Jamaica were founded by freed slaves, notably George Lisle, who sought support and finance for schools and chapels from nonconformists abroad from the English Baptist movement, which William Knibb contributed to. Jamaica had become a major sugar exporter. Knibb sided with the cause of emancipation; the cursed blast of slavery has, like a pestilence, withered every moral bloom. I know not how any person can feel a union with such a child of hell. I feel a burning hatred against it and look upon it as one of the most odious monsters that disgraced the earth; the iron hand of oppression daily endeavours to keep the slaves in the ignorance to which it has reduced them. Knibb made his feelings clear; when Sam Swiney, a black slave, was unjustly accused of a minor offence, Knibb spoke for him in court.
In a gross miscarriage of justice, the colonial authorities had him flogged. But Knibb refused to let the matter drop, published details in an island newspaper, for which he was threatened with a prosecution for libel, his account reached the Secretary of State in London, who dismissed from office the two responsible magistrates. Knibb and his Baptist colleagues were instrumental in opposing the repeated attempts by the House of Assembly to enact draconian legislation in Jamaica during the 1820s, the Consolidated Slave Law, in persuading the British parliament to disallow it. Not Knibb was popular with the slaves. Not long afterwards the church in Falmouth needed Knibb's name was put forward; the missionary who chaired the meeting recorded that when he proposed Knibb should be their new minister and asked for a show of hands, the entire membership stood up, held up both hands, wept. At this time pressure was growing in Britain for the abolition of slavery in the British colonies; the colonial authorities exerted all their political power to halt this movement, while the slaves' excitement and anticipation grew.
This unstable mix resulted in the Great Jamaican Slave Revolt, led by Samuel Sharpe. The colonialists put down the revolt with great violence, treating the missionaries with great suspicion. Knibb himself was placed under armed guard and only obtained bail through the intervention of two prominent colonialists. In the mayhem Bridges, an Anglican clergyman, formed an association of colonialists to oppose the anti-slavery movement by all necessary means. This'Colonial Church Union' used the cover of martial law to carry out terrorist acts. White settlers burned down a dozen Baptist chapels, including Knibb's at Falmouth, they forced many missionaries to leave Jamaica, but not Knibb. The planters plotted to murder him, but the plot became known and Knibb's family found refuge with one of the leading islanders. After his release, for three successive nights a group of 50 white planters stoned his lodging. In 1832 the Baptist slaves of Jamaica decided to send Knibb back to England to plead their cause.
Once home he toured Scotland, speaking at public meetings. He told the truth about the good work being done by the nonconformist churches in Jamaica, about the colonial oppression of the slaves. Knibb's public addresses had a power altogether overwhelming. Sceptics were convinced, waverers became decided, apathetic people were roused, great numbers of hearts everywhere kindled to irrepressible support. Knibb himself recalled his efforts. I was forced from the den of infamy and from a gloomy prison, with my congregation scattered, many of the members of my church murdered, multitudes of the faithful lashed. I came home and I shall never forget the three years of struggle, the incessant anxiety upon my spirit as I passed through the length and breadth of the country detailing the slaves' wrongs. Knibb was summoned to appear before committees of both Houses of Parliament, convened to investigate the state of the West Indian colonies. Knibb's evidence...was so authentic and unassailable that it contributed more than that of any other witness to the conviction of all, that slavery must be speedily abolished.
At last in May 1833 a Bill for the Abolition of Slavery in the Colonies was introduced. This was enacted that year; the date for the termination of slavery was 1 August 1834, but slaves had to endure a further six-year'apprenticeship' before they were granted full
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC