University of Michigan Solar Car Team
The University of Michigan Solar Car Team is a 501 non-profit organization at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. It is the most successful solar car team in North America, having won the North American Solar Challenge eight times; the team has placed third in the World Solar Challenge five times. Six of its former vehicles are on display in museums in the United States, including the Henry Ford Museum, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, the Boston Museum of Science. Founded in 1989 by Bill Kaliardos, an undergraduate student in Aerospace Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, the University of Michigan Solar Car Team is one of the largest and most successful student projects at the University; the inaugural 1990 team, which formed in 1989, was managed by Susan Fancy, with Professor and Dean Gene Smith serving as the team's Faculty Advisor. Gene Smith was Advisor for many other U-M Solar Car Teams to follow; the teams competed in 15 major races. Although it draws on undergraduate students from the College of Engineering, students from any academic discipline or year of study are allowed to join the team.
Students have come from the College of LS&A, the Ross School of Business, the Stamps School of Art & Design. In 1990, the team's first car, finished in first place in the inaugural GM Sunrayce USA, third place overall in the 1990 World Solar Challenge in Australia. Core team members of the 1990 team included Susan Fancy, Paula Finnegan, David Noles, Chetan Maini, David Bell, Jef Pavlat, Andy Swiecki, Chris Gregory, many more; the second generation team built its car, Maize & Blue, competed in Sunrayce 93 finishing in first place in the national race, 11th in the World Solar Challenge. After 1993's races, all projects have run on a 2-year cycle. During those two years, the team is anywhere from 50 to 100 students; the vast majority of these students volunteer their time although in the past a small percentage opt to receive credit via the University's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program. A race crew of 20 students is selected to race the vehicle in competition; these students' function is similar to that of a pit crew in professional auto racing.
As of 2016, UM's solar car project has won the North American championship nine times. 1990: Sunrunner - Driven by Paula Finnegan and David Noles for GM Sunrayce: 1st place. On permanent display at The Henry Ford. 1993: Maize & Blue - Sunrayce USA: 1st place. On permanent display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. 1995: Solar Vision - GM Sunrayce: DNF. On permanent display at the Great Lakes Science Center. 1997: Wolverine - GM Sunrayce: 6th place. 1999: MaizeBlaze - GM Sunrayce: 17th place. 2001: M-Pulse - ASC: 1st place. On display at the Peterson Automotive Museum 2003: Spectrum - ASC: DNQ 2005: Momentum - NASC: 1st place. 2007: Continuum - WSC: 7th place in the Challenge class after recovering from a crash on the first day of racing. 2008: Continuum - NASC: 1st place. 2009: Infinium - WSC: 3rd place. 2010: Infinium - ASC: 1st place. 2011: Quantum - WSC: 3rd place. 2012: Quantum - ASC: 1st place. 2013: Generation - WSC: 9th place. 2014: Quantum - ASC: 1st place. 2015: Quantum - Abu Dhabi Solar Challenge: 1st place.
2015: Aurum - WSC: 4th place. 2016: Aurum - ASC: 1st place. 2017: Novum - WSC: 2nd place. 2018: Novum - ASC: 2nd place. The team has been featured in the following local and international media: IEEE Spectrum: "Sun Kings Cross the Outback." G. Zorpette, Feb 2002, pp 40–46. Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International MSNBC 1,2, 3 NHRA article: Grubnic compares kinetics with the U. of Michigan solar car team Cars.com Russian Automobile magazine Lakeshore Weekly News U-M News Service Popular Mechanics SAE International The New York Times Wired Discovery Channel UMSolar UMSolar Race Blog North American Solar Challenge World Solar Challenge
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
World Solar Challenge
The World Solar Challenge, or the Bridgestone World Solar Challenge since 2013, tied to the sponsorship of Bridgestone Corporation is the world's most well-known solar-powered car race event. A biennial road race covering 3,022 km through the Australian Outback, from Darwin, Northern Territory, to Adelaide, South Australia, created to foster the development of experimental, solar-powered vehicles; the race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations, although some are fielded by high schools. The race has a 32-year history spanning fourteen races, with the inaugural event taking place in 1987. Held once every three years, the event became biennial from the turn of the century. Since 2001 the World Solar Challenge was won seven times out of nine efforts by the Nuna team and cars of the Delft University of Technology from the Netherlands, with only the Tokai Challenger, built by the Tokai University of Japan able to take the crown in 2009 and 2011.
Starting in 2007, the WSC has been raced in multiple classes. After the German team of Bochum University of Applied Sciences competed with a four-wheeled, multi-seat car, the BoCruiser, in 2013 a radically new "Cruiser Class" was introduced and stimulating the technological development of usable, ideally road-legal, multi-seater solar vehicles. Since its inception, Solar Team Eindhoven's four- and five-seat Stella solar cars from Eindhoven University of Technology won the Cruiser Class in all three races sofar. Remarkable technological progress has been achieved since the GM led experimental, single-seat Sunraycer prototype first won the WSC with an average speed of 66.9 km/h. Once competing cars became more capable to match or exceed legal maximum speeds on the Australian highway, the race rules were made more demanding and challenging — for instance after Honda's Dream car first won the race with an average speed exceeding 55 mph in 1996. In 2005 the Dutch Nuna team were the first to beat an average speed of 100 km/h.
The 2017 Cruiser class winner, the five-seat Stella Vie vehicle, was able to carry an average of 3.4 occupants at an average speed of 69 km/h. Like its two predecessors, the 2017 Stella Vie vehicle was road registered by the Dutch team, further emphasizing the great progress in real world compliance and practicality, achieved; the World Solar Challenge held its 30th anniversary event on October 8–15, 2017. The objective of this competition is to promote research on solar-powered cars. Teams from universities and enterprises participate. In 2015, 43 teams from 23 countries competed in the race. Efficient balancing of power resources and power consumption is the key to success during the race. At any moment in time the optimal driving speed depends on the weather forecast and the remaining capacity of the batteries; the team members in the escort cars will continuously remotely retrieve data from the solar car about its condition and use these data as input for prior developed computer programs to work out the best driving strategy.
It is important to charge the batteries as much as possible in periods of daylight when the car is not racing. To capture as much solar energy as possible, the solar panels are directed such that these are perpendicular to the incident sun rays. Sometimes the whole solar array is tilted for this purpose; the timed portion of the race stops at the outskirts of 2998 km from Darwin. However, for the timings recorded at that point to count, competitors must reach the official finish line in the centre of the city under solar power alone; as the race is over public roads, the cars have to adhere to the normal traffic regulations. After midday when the sun is in the west, it would be advantageous to drive on the right side of the highway, provided, of course, there is no traffic in opposite direction. A minimum of 2 and maximum 4 drivers have to be registered. If the weight of a driver is less than 80 kg, ballast will be added to make up the difference. Driving time is between 8:00 and 17:00. In order to select a suitable place for the overnight stop it is possible to extend the driving period for a maximum of 10 minutes, which extra driving time will be compensated by a starting time delay the next day.
At various points along the route there are checkpoints. Only limited maintenance tasks are allowed during these compulsory stops; the capacity of the batteries is limited to a mass for each chemistry equivalent to 5 kWh maximum. At the start of the race, the batteries may be charged. Batteries may not be replaced except in the situation of a breakdown. However, in that case a penalty time will apply. Except for the maximum outer dimensions, there are no further restrictions on the design and construction of the car; the deceleration of the dual braking system must be at least 3.8 m/s². By 2005, several teams were handicapped by the South Australian speed limit of 110 km/h, as well as the difficulties of support crews keeping up with 130 km/h race vehicles, it was agreed that the challenge of building a solar vehicle capable of crossing Australia at vehicular speeds had been met and exceeded. A new challenge was set: to build a new generation of solar car, with little modification, could be the basis for a practical proposi
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was
Liberal Party of Australia (South Australian Division)
The Liberal Party of Australia known as the South Australian Liberals, is the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia, formed in 1974, succeeding the Liberal and Country League. It is one of two major parties in the bicameral Parliament of South Australia, the other being the Australian Labor Party; the party has been led by Premier of South Australia Steven Marshall since the 2018 state election. The party has won only 4 of the 13 state elections since their formation: 1979, 1993, 1997 and 2018; the 1970 election marked the beginning of democratic proportional representation, which ended decades of pro-rural electoral malapportionment known as the Playmander. The Liberal Party of Australia was formed in 1974 as a reorganisation and rebranding of the Liberal and Country League. Bruce Eastick, the last leader of the LCL, became the first leader of the new party; the LCL was preceded by the Liberal Federation and the Liberal Union with the latter created from a tri-merger between the Liberal and Democratic Union, the Farmers and Producers Political Union and the National Defence League.
In the LCL's 42-year existence, it spent a cumulative total of 34 years in government led by Thomas Playford IV. Playford's long rule was due to a pro-rural electoral malapportionment known as the Playmander, introduced by the LCL government in 1936. Under the Playmander, a vote in a low-population rural seat had anywhere from double to ten times the value of a vote in a high-population metropolitan seat, allowing the LCL to win sufficient parliamentary seats when it lost the two-party vote by comprehensive margins at several elections: 1944, 1953, 1962 and 1968. Playford had become synonymous with the LCL over his record 27-year tenure as Premier of South Australia. However, the first sign of trouble came at the 1962 election, with the refounding of a separate Country Party. Labor beat the Playmander against the odds at the 1965 election. Playford retired from politics shortly afterward; the LCL became moribund and divided, a trend that accelerated after the LCL won back government at the 1968 election.
The LCL lost the 1970 election, marking an end to the Playmander and the beginning of democratic proportional representation electoral systems in South Australia. Since Labor have won 11 of the 15 elections; the divisions in the once-dominant party culminated when much of its progressive, or "small-l liberal" wing broke away to form the Liberal Movement under the leadership of former LCL leader and Premier Steele Hall in 1972. The reorganisation and rebranding of the LCL came two years while the New Liberal Movement merged with the Australia Party in 1977 to become the Australian Democrats. To this day, ongoing division has continued based on both ideologies and personalities, with sides forming between the moderate Chapman and conservative Evans family dynasties, complicated further by the moderate Brown and conservative Olsen rifts. Five of the ten parliamentary Liberal leaders have served as Premier of South Australia: David Tonkin, Dean Brown, John Olsen, Rob Kerin, Steven Marshall. Six parliamentary Liberal deputy leaders have served as Deputy Premier of South Australia: Roger Goldsworthy, Stephen Baker, Graham Ingerson, Rob Kerin, Dean Brown, Vickie Chapman.
Bruce Eastick David Tonkin John Olsen Dale Baker Dean Brown John Olsen Rob Kerin Iain Evans Martin Hamilton-Smith Isobel Redmond Steven Marshall Christopher Pyne – Sturt MP since 1993 Rowan Ramsey – Grey MP since 2007 Tony Pasin – Barker MP since 2013 Nicolle Flint – Boothby MP since 2016 Simon Birmingham – Senator since 2008 David Fawcett – Senator since 2011 Anne Ruston – Senator since 2012 Lucy Gichuhi - Senator since 2017, Liberal since 2018 Members of the South Australian House of Assembly, 2018–2022 Members of the South Australian Legislative Council, 2018–2022 Australian Labor Party Playmander, the 1936–1968 electoral malapportionment South Australian state election, 2018 South Australian state election, 2022 List of elections in South Australia Policies: saliberal.org.au Media Releases: saliberal.org.au