H. G. Wells
Herbert George Wells was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, writing dozens of novels, short stories, works of social commentary, satire and autobiography, including two books on recreational war games, he is now best remembered for his science fiction novels and is called a "father of science fiction", along with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback. During his own lifetime, however, he was most prominent as a forward-looking prophetic social critic who devoted his literary talents to the development of a progressive vision on a global scale. A futurist, he wrote a number of utopian works and foresaw the advent of aircraft, space travel, nuclear weapons, satellite television and something resembling the World Wide Web, his science fiction imagined time travel, alien invasion and biological engineering. Brian Aldiss referred to Wells as the "Shakespeare of science fiction". Wells rendered his works convincing by instilling commonplace detail alongside a single extraordinary assumption – dubbed “Wells’s law” – leading Joseph Conrad to hail him in 1898 as "O Realist of the Fantastic!".
His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds and the military science fiction The War in the Air. Wells was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times. Wells's earliest specialised training was in biology, his thinking on ethical matters took place in a and fundamentally Darwinian context, he was from an early date an outspoken socialist sympathising with pacifist views. His works became political and didactic, he wrote little science fiction, while he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of journalist. Novels such as Kipps and The History of Mr Polly, which describe lower-middle-class life, led to the suggestion that he was a worthy successor to Charles Dickens, but Wells described a range of social strata and attempted, in Tono-Bungay, a diagnosis of English society as a whole. A diabetic, Wells co-founded the charity The Diabetic Association in 1934. Herbert George Wells was born at Atlas House, 162 High Street in Bromley, Kent, on 21 September 1866.
Called "Bertie" in the family, he was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells and his wife, Sarah Neal. An inheritance had allowed the family to acquire a shop in which they sold china and sporting goods, although it failed to prosper: the stock was old and worn out, the location was poor. Joseph Wells managed to earn a meagre income, but little of it came from the shop and he received an unsteady amount of money from playing professional cricket for the Kent county team. Payment for skilled bowlers and batsmen came from voluntary donations afterwards, or from small payments from the clubs where matches were played. A defining incident of young Wells's life was an accident in 1874 that left him bedridden with a broken leg. To pass the time he began to read books from the local library, brought to him by his father, he soon became devoted to the other lives to which books gave him access. That year he entered Thomas Morley's Commercial Academy, a private school founded in 1849, following the bankruptcy of Morley's earlier school.
The teaching was erratic, the curriculum focused, Wells said, on producing copperplate handwriting and doing the sort of sums useful to tradesmen. Wells continued at Morley's Academy until 1880. In 1877, his father, Joseph Wells, suffered a fractured thigh; the accident put an end to Joseph's career as a cricketer, his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary source of family income. No longer able to support themselves financially, the family instead sought to place their sons as apprentices in various occupations. From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium, Hyde's, his experiences at Hyde's, where he worked a thirteen-hour day and slept in a dormitory with other apprentices inspired his novels The Wheels of Chance, The History of Mr Polly, Kipps, which portray the life of a draper's apprentice as well as providing a critique of society's distribution of wealth. Wells's parents had a turbulent marriage, owing to his mother's being a Protestant and his father's being a freethinker.
When his mother returned to work as a lady's maid, one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living space for her husband and children. Thereafter and Joseph lived separate lives, though they never divorced and remained faithful to each other; as a consequence, Herbert's personal troubles increased as he subsequently failed as a draper and later, as a chemist's assistant. However, Uppark had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself, reading many classic works, including Plato's Republic, Thomas More's Utopia, the works of Daniel Defoe; this would be the beginning of Wells's venture into literature. In October 1879, Wells's mother arranged through a distant relative, Arthur Williams, for him to join the National School at Wookey in Somerset as a pupil–teacher, a senior pupil who acted as a teacher of younger children. In December that year, Williams was dismissed for irregularities in his qualifications and Wells was returned to Uppark. After a short apprenticeship at a chemist in nearby Midhurst and an
The New York Times Book Review
The New York Times Book Review is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to The New York Times in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. It is one of the most influential and read book review publications in the industry; the offices are located near Times Square in New York City. The New York Times has published a book review section since October 10, 1896, announcing: We begin today the publication of a Supplement which contains reviews of new books... and other interesting matter... associated with news of the day. The target audience is an general-interest adult reader; the Times publishes two versions each week, one with a cover price sold via subscription and newsstands. Each week the NYTBR receives 750 to 1000 books from authors and publishers in the mail, of which 20 to 30 are chosen for review. Books are selected by the "preview editors"; the selection process is based on finding books that are important and notable, as well as discovering new authors whose books stand above the crowd.
Self-published books are not reviewed as a matter of policy. Books not selected for review are stored in a "discard room" and sold; as of 2006, Barnes & Noble arrived about once a month to purchase the contents of the discard room, the proceeds are donated by NYTBR to charities. Books that are reviewed are donated to the reviewer; as of 2015, all review critics are freelance. In prior years, the NYTBR did have a mix of in-house and freelance. For freelance critics, they are assigned an in-house "preview editor" who works with them in creating the final review. Freelance critics might be employees of The New York Times whose main duties are in other departments, they include professional literary critics, novelists and artists who write reviews for the NYTBR on a regular basis. Other duties on staff include a number of a chief editor. In addition to the magazine there is an Internet site that offers additional content, including audio interviews with authors, called the "Book Review Podcast"; the book review publishes each week the cited and influential New York Times Best Seller list, created by the editors of the Times "News Surveys" department.
Pamela Paul was named senior editor in spring 2013. Sam Tanenhaus was senior editor from the spring of 2004 to spring 2013; each year, around the beginning of December, a "100 Notable Books of the Year" list is published. It contains fiction and non-fiction titles of books reviewed, 50 of each. From the list of 100, 10 books are awarded the "Best Books of the Year" title, five each of fiction and non-fiction. Other year-end lists include the Best Illustrated Children's Books, in which 10 books are chosen by a panel of judges. In 2010, Stanford professors Alan Sorenson and Jonah Berger published a study examining the effect on book sales from positive or negative reviews in The New York Times Book Review, they found all books benefited from positive reviews, while popular or well-known authors were negatively impacted by negative reviews. Lesser-known authors benefited from negative reviews. A study published in 2012, by university professor and author Roxane Gay, found that 90 percent of the New York Times book reviews published in 2011 were of books by white authors.
Gay said, "The numbers reflect the overall trend in publishing where the majority of books published are written by white writers." At the time of the report, the racial makeup of the United States was 72 percent white, according to the 2010 census. Books in the United States The New York Times Book Review, home page; the New York Times, October 10, 1896. Inaugural book review issue Interviews with senior editors and writers at the NYTBR, by Michael Orbach, The Knight News, Issue date: 2/8/07 Section: Knight Life The Man Behind the Criticism: Sam Tanenhaus Question and Answer: Dwight Garner Question and Answer: Liesl Schillinger Question and Answer: Rachel Donadio "Are The New York Times Book Reviews Fair?", Tell Me More, National Public Radio, August 20, 2010 "Secret Workings Of Times Book Review Exposed!", February 24, 2007
Delhi, New York
Delhi is a town in Delaware County, New York, United States. The population was 5,117 at the 2010 census; the town contains the village of Delhi. The State University of New York at Delhi is located in the town; the town is named after the city of the capital territory of India. The name was in honor of founder Ebenezer Foote, known as "The Great Mogul". Another founder, Erastus Root, a rival of Foote, is responsible for the pronunciation. Root preferred the name "Mapleton"; when he learned the town was to be named Delhi, he exclaimed, "Delhi, Hell-high! Might as well call it Foote-high." The town is the setting for the classic 1959 novel My Side of the Mountain by Jean Craighead George. Delhi was formed from the towns of Kortright and Walton, March 23, 1798, it was named after Delhi in India. The town is in the center of Delaware County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 64.6 square miles, of which 64.2 square miles is land and 0.39 square miles, or 0.62%, is water.
The West Branch Delaware River flows through the center of the town. The Little Delaware River enters the West Branch from the just south of Delhi village; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,629 people, 1,493 households, 928 families residing in the town. The population density was 71.7 people per square mile. There were 1,818 housing units at an average density of 28.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 91.90% White, 4.23% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.25% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.68% of the population. There were 1,493 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.84.
In the town, the population was spread out with 16.0% under the age of 18, 27.5% from 18 to 24, 18.0% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,861, the median income for a family was $48,125. Males had a median income of $31,136 versus $25,542 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,842. About 5.9% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Delhi – a village in the center of the town East Delhi – a hamlet northeast of Delhi village; the Christian Church and Fitches Covered Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Fraser – a hamlet southwest of Delhi village on NY 10 West Delhi – a hamlet west of Delhi village. Located here is the West Delhi Presbyterian Church and Cemetery, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008.
Delaware County Courthouse Gideon Frisbee House, where Delaware County was formed in 1797, now the site of the Delaware County Historical Association Soldiers Monument, erected to honor Civil War veterans, on the Courthouse Square Delhi Village Hall the Delaware County Courthouse, where trials were held during the Anti-Rent War Fitches Covered Bridge, built in 1870 The Judge Gideon Frisbee House, Murray Hill, Sherwood Family Estate are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Delaware Academy State University of New York at Delhi Town of Delhi official website Delaware County Chamber of Commerce Centennial History of Delaware County
Elizabeth Becker is an American author and journalist who covered national and international affairs as a New York Times correspondent and was a member of the staff that won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. She was the Senior Foreign Editor of National Public Radio where she received two DuPont-Columbia Awards as executive producer for reporting of South Africa’s first democratic elections and the Rwanda genocide, she began her career as a war correspondent for The Washington Post covering Cambodia. She is the author of When the War Was Over, a modern history of Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge, for which she won a Robert F. Kennedy book citation. In December 1978 Becker was a member—along with Malcolm Caldwell and Richard Dudman—of the last group of Western journalists and writers invited to visit Cambodia since the Khmer Rouge had taken power in April 1975; the three visitors were given a structured tour of the country: "We traveled in a bubble," wrote Becker, "No one was allowed to speak to me freely."
On 22 December, Caldwell had a private audience with the leader of Cambodia. After the meeting, he came back in a mood described as "euphoric" to the guest house in Phnom Penh where the three were staying. About 11:00 p.m. that night Becker was awakened by the sound of gunfire. She stepped out of her bedroom and saw a armed Cambodian man who pointed a pistol at her, she heard people moving and more gunshots. An hour a Cambodian came to her bedroom door and told her that Caldwell was dead, she and Dudman went to his room. He had been shot in the chest and the body of a Cambodian man was in the room the same man who had pointed the pistol at Becker; the Financial Times said of her book that "Becker writes history as history should be written." Rithy Panh made the documentary film "Bophana" based on an excerpt of the book. She was the 2008 Edelman fellow at Harvard’s Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press and Public Policy at the Kennedy School of Government, she is the author of "Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism,", named one of Amazon's top non-fiction books of the year.
She is the author of "America's Vietnam War: A Narrative History for young adults" and "Bophana,", only available in Cambodia. Her early investigation of the Khmer Rouge was detailed in "A Problem from Hell. Becker holds a degree in Indian studies from the University of Washington and did language studies at the Kendriya Hindi Sansthaan in Agra, India; when the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1986. ISBN 0-671-41787-8. OCLC 13334079. America's Vietnam War: A Narrative History. New York: Clarion Books. 1992. ISBN 0-395-59094-9. OCLC 24795769. Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism. New York: Simon & Schuster. 2013. ISBN 9781439160992. OCLC 800024781. Official website Appearances on C-SPAN
A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. They were called special correspondents, their jobs bring war correspondents to the most conflict-ridden parts of the world. Once there, they attempt to get close enough to the action to provide written accounts, photos, or film footage. Thus, this is considered the most dangerous form of journalism. On the other hand, war coverage is one of the most successful branches of journalism. Newspaper sales increase in wartime, television news ratings go up. News organizations have sometimes been accused of militarism because of the advantages they gather from conflict. William Randolph Hearst is said to have encouraged the Spanish–American War for this reason. Only some conflicts receive extensive worldwide coverage, however. Among recent wars, the Kosovo War received a great deal of coverage. In contrast, the largest war in the last half of the 20th century, the Iran–Iraq War, received far less substantial coverage; this is typical for wars among less-developed countries, as audiences are less interested and the reports do little to increase sales and ratings.
The lack of infrastructure makes reporting more difficult and expensive, the conflicts are far more dangerous for war correspondents. Written war correspondents have existed as long as journalism. Before modern journalism it was more common for longer histories to be written at the end of a conflict; the first known of these is Herodotus's account of the Persian Wars, however he did not himself participate in the events. Thucydides, who some years wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War was a commander and an observer to the events he described. In the eighteenth century the Baroness Frederika Charlotte Riedesel's Letters and Journals Relating to the War of the American Revolution and the Capture of the German Troops at Saratoga is regarded as the first account of war by a woman, her description of the events that took place in the Marshall House are poignant because she was in the midst of battle. The first modern war correspondent is said to be Dutch painter Willem van de Velde, who in 1653 took to sea in a small boat to observe a naval battle between the Dutch and the English, of which he made many sketches on the spot, which he developed into one big drawing that he added to a report he wrote to the States General.
A further modernization came with the development of magazines. One of the earliest war correspondents was Henry Crabb Robinson, who covered Napoleon's campaigns in Spain and Germany for The Times of London. Another early correspondent was William Hicks whose letters describing the Battle of Trafalgar were published in The Times. Early film and television news had war correspondents. Rather, they would collect footage provided by other sources the government, the news anchor would add narration; this footage was staged as cameras were large and bulky until the introduction of small, portable motion picture cameras during World War II. The situation changed with the Vietnam War when networks from around the world sent cameramen with portable cameras and correspondents; this proved damaging to the United States as the full brutality of war became a daily feature on the nightly news. The discourse in mediated conflicts is influenced by its public character. By forwarding information and arguments to the media, conflict parties attempt to use the media influence to gain support from their constituencies and persuade their opponents.
The continued progress of technology has allowed live coverage of events via satellite up-links. The rise of twenty-four hour news channels has led to a heightened demand for coverage. William Howard Russell, who covered the Crimean War for The Times, is described as the first modern war correspondent; the stories from this era, which were as lengthy and analytical as early books on war, took numerous weeks from being written to being published. Another renowned journalist, Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, Italian correspondent of European newspapers such as La Presse, Journal des débats, Indépendance Belge and The Daily News, was known for his gory style in his articles but involving at the same time. Jules Claretie, critic of Le Figaro, was amazed about his correspondence of the Battle of Custoza, during the Third Italian War of Independence. Claretie wrote, "Nothing could be cruelly true than this tableau of agony. Reportage has never given a superior artwork." It was not until the telegraph was developed that reports could be sent on a daily basis and events could be reported as they occurred that the short descriptive stories of today became common.
Press coverage of the Russo-Japanese War was affected by restrictions on the movement of reporters and strict censorship. In all military conflicts which followed this 1904-1905 war, close attention to more managed reporting was considered essential; the First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire, the Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and its former allies Serbia and Greece, was covered by a large number of foreign newspapers, news agencies, movie companies. An estimated 200-300 war correspondents, war photographers, war artists, war cinematographers were active during these two nearly sequential conflicts; the First World War was characterized by rigid censorship. British Lord Kitchener hated reporters, they were banned from the Front at the start of the war, but reporters such as Basil Clarke and Philip Gibbs lived as fugitives near the Front, sending back their reports. The Government allowed s
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Truman Garcia Capote was an American novelist, short story writer, screenwriter and actor. Several of his short stories and plays have been praised as literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's and the true crime novel In Cold Blood, which he labeled a "nonfiction novel". At least 20 films and television dramas have been produced from his work. Capote rose above a childhood troubled by divorce, a long absence from his mother, multiple migrations, he had discovered his calling as a writer by the age of 8, for the rest of his childhood he honed his writing ability. Capote began his professional career writing short stories; the critical success of one story, "Miriam", attracted the attention of Random House publisher Bennett Cerf, resulted in a contract to write the novel Other Voices, Other Rooms. Capote earned the most fame with In Cold Blood, a journalistic work about the murder of a Kansas farm family in their home. Capote spent four years writing the book aided by his lifelong friend Harper Lee, who wrote To Kill a Mockingbird.
A milestone in popular culture, In Cold Blood was the peak of Capote's literary career. In the 1970s, he maintained his celebrity status by appearing on television talk shows. Born in New Orleans, Capote was the son of 17-year-old Lillie Mae Faulk and salesman Archulus Persons, his parents divorced when he was 4, he was sent to Monroeville, where, for the following four to five years, he was raised by his mother's relatives. He formed a fast bond with his mother's distant relative, Nanny Rumbley Faulk, whom Truman called "Sook". "Her face is remarkable – not unlike Lincoln's, craggy like that, tinted by sun and wind", is how Capote described Sook in "A Christmas Memory". In Monroeville, he was a neighbor and friend of author Harper Lee, who based the character Dill on Capote; as a lonely child, Capote taught himself to read and write before he entered his first year of school. Capote was seen at age 5 carrying his dictionary and notepad, began writing fiction at age 11, he was given the nickname "Bulldog" around this age.
On Saturdays, he made trips from Monroeville to the nearby city of Mobile on the Gulf Coast, at one point submitted a short story, "Old Mrs. Busybody", to a children's writing contest sponsored by the Mobile Press Register. Capote received recognition for his early work from The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards in 1936. In 1933, he moved to New York City to live with his mother and her second husband, José García Capote, a Canarian-born textile broker from La Palma, who adopted him as his stepson and renamed him Truman García Capote. However, José was convicted of embezzlement and shortly afterwards, when his income crashed, the family was forced to leave Park Avenue. Of his early days, Capote related, "I was writing sort of serious when I was about eleven. I say in the sense that like other kids go home and practice the violin or the piano or whatever, I used to go home from school every day, I would write for about three hours. I was obsessed by it." In 1935, he attended the Trinity School in New York City.
He attended St. Joseph Military Academy. In 1939, the Capote family moved to Greenwich and Truman attended Greenwich High School, where he wrote for both the school's literary journal, The Green Witch, the school newspaper; when they returned to New York City in 1942, he attended the Franklin School, an Upper West Side private school now known as the Dwight School, graduated in 1943. That was the end of his formal education. While still attending Franklin in 1943, Capote began working as a copyboy in the art department at The New Yorker, a job he held for two years before being fired for angering poet Robert Frost. Years he reflected, "Not a grand job, for all it involved was sorting cartoons and clipping newspapers. Still, I was fortunate to have it since I was determined never to set a studious foot inside a college classroom. I felt that either one was or wasn't a writer, no combination of professors could influence the outcome. I still think I was correct, at least in my own case." He left his job to live with relatives in Alabama and began writing his first novel, Summer Crossing.
Capote based the character of Idabel in Other Voices, Other Rooms on his Monroeville neighbor and best friend, Harper Lee. Capote once acknowledged this: "Mr. and Mrs. Lee, Harper Lee's mother and father, lived near, she was my best friend. Did you read her book, To Kill a Mockingbird? I'm a character in that book, her father was a lawyer, she and I used to go to trials all the time as children. We went to the trials instead of going to the movies." After Lee was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 and Capote published In Cold Blood in 1966, the authors became distant from each other. Capote began writing short stories from around the age of 8. In 2013, the Swiss publisher Peter Haag discovered 14 unpublished stories, written when Capote was a teenager, in the New York Public Library Archives. Random House published these under the title The Early Stories of Truman Capote. Between 1943 and 1946, Capote wrote a continual flow of short fiction, including "Miriam", "My Side of the Matter", "Shut a Final Door".
His stories were published in both literary quarterlies and well-known popular magazines, including The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Bazaar, Harper's Magazine, The New Yorker, Prairie Schooner, Story. In June 1945, "Miriam" was published by Mademoiselle and went on to win a prize