Architectural Association School of Architecture
The Architectural Association School of Architecture in London referred to as the AA, is the oldest independent school of architecture in the UK and one of the most prestigious and competitive in the world. Its wide-ranging programme of exhibitions, lectures and publications have given it a central position in global discussions and developments within contemporary architectural culture; the foundation of the Architectural Association was as an alternative to the practice where young men were articled to established architects. This practise offered no guarantee for educational professional standards; the AA believed it was open to vested interests, abuse and incompetence. This situation led two articled pupils, Robert Kerr and Charles Gray, to propose a systematic course of training provided by the students themselves. Following a merger with the existing Association of Architectural Draughtsmen, the first formal meeting under the name of the Architectural Association took place in May 1847 at Lyons Inn Hall, London.
Kerr became the first president, 1847–48. From 1859 the AA shared premises at 9 Conduit Street with the Royal Institute of British Architects renting rooms in Great Marlborough Street; the AA School was formally established in 1890. In 1901, it moved premises to the former Royal Architectural Museum in Westminster. In 1917, it moved again, to its current premises in Bedford Square, central London; the school has acquired property on Morwell Street behind Bedford Square. Women were first admitted as students to the AA School during the First World War in 1917. AA is one of the world's most international and prestigious schools of architecture and selecting students and staff from more than 60 countries worldwide, with a long list of visiting critics and other participants from around the world each year; the students of the AA have been addressed by many eminent figures, from John Ruskin and George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century, to more Richard Rogers, an alumnus of the school. In November 2017, the AA was reported to be planning to make 16 staff redundant, including the whole of its publications and exhibitions departments.
Shortly before, the AA had announced it was seeking a new director, to be appointed by March 2018, following the departure of Brett Steele announced in December 2016. Courses are divided into two main areas – undergraduate programmes, leading to the AA Diploma, postgraduate programmes, which include specialised courses in landscape urbanism and urbanism, sustainable environmental design and theories, emergent technologies, design research lab, as well as day-release course in building conservation, garden conservation, environmental access. Launched programmes include projective cities, design + make, interprofessional studio. Since its foundation, the school has continued to draw its teaching staff from progressive international practices, they are reappointed annually, allowing a continual renewal of the exploration of architectural graphics and polemical formalism; the school sits outside the state-funded university system and UCAS application system, with tuition fees comparable to those of a private school.
As an independent school, the AA does not feature in university rankings. Since non-EU students are charged higher fees to attend state universities, the AA is competitively priced by comparison, with a higher proportion of overseas students enrolled than many other UK architecture schools. At undergraduate/first degree level direct application is the norm, it is not included in many books. The school has a bookshop, containing a range of architectural books; the bookshop is used as a platform for the AA's own books. AA Publications has a long tradition of publishing architects and theorists early in their careers, as well as publishing figures who have gained notoriety in other fields of expertise, such as Salman Rushdie. AA Publications publishes the journal AA Files and the AA Book, known as the Projects Review, which annually documents the work undertaken by members of the school from Foundation to Graduate programmes. AA publications are designed and edited by the AA Print Studio established in 1971 as part of the Communications Unit directed by Dennis Crompton of Archigram.
The school had its own independent radio station. Howard Robertson Alvin Boyarsky Alan Balfour Roger Zogolovitch Mohsen Mostafavi Brett Steele Samantha Hardingham Eva Franch i Gilabert John Summerson: The Architectural Association 1847–1947, Pleiades Books, London 1947. Official website Bedford Press AA Publications
High-tech architecture known as Structural Expressionism, is a type of Late Modern architectural style that emerged in the 1970s, incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology into building design. High-tech architecture appeared as revamped modernism, an extension of those previous ideas helped by more technological advances; this category serves as a bridge between post-modernism. In the 1980s, high-tech architecture became more difficult to distinguish from post-modern architecture; some of its themes and ideas were absorbed into the style of Neo-Futurism art and architectural movement. Like Brutalism, Structural Expressionist buildings reveal their structure on the outside as well as the inside, but with visual emphasis placed on the internal steel and/or concrete skeletal structure as opposed to exterior concrete walls. In buildings such as the Pompidou Centre, this idea of revealed structure is taken to the extreme, with structural components serving little or no structural role.
In this case, the use of "structural" steel is a aesthetic matter. The style's premier practitioners include Colombo-American architect Bruce Graham and Bangladeshi-American architect Fazlur Rahman Khan for the John Hancock Centre, Willis Tower and Onterie Center, British architects Sir Norman Foster, Sir Richard Rogers, Sir Michael Hopkins, Italian architect Renzo Piano and Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, known for his organic, skeleton-like designs. Early high-tech buildings were referred to by historian Reyner Banham as "serviced sheds" due to their exposure of mechanical services in addition to the structure. Most of these early examples used exposed structural steel as their material of choice; as hollow structural sections had only become available in the early 1970s, high-tech architecture saw much experimentation with this material. Buildings in this architectural style were constructed in North America and Europe, it is connected with what is called the Second School of Chicago which emerged after World War II.
The main content is that the technological kind of construction with steel and glass, is expressed in a formal independent way to gain aesthetic qualities from it. The first proper example is the 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments by German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; the style got its name from the book High Tech: The Industrial Style and Source Book for The Home, written by design journalists Joan Kron and Suzanne Slesin and published in November 1978 by Clarkson N. Potter, New York; the book, illustrated with hundreds of photos, showed how designers and homeowners were appropriating classic industrial objects—library shelving, chemical glass, metal deck plate, restaurant supply and airport runway light fixtures, movers' quilts, industrial carpeting etc.—found in industrial catalogues and putting these to use in residential settings. The foreword to the book by architect Emilio Ambasz, former curator of design at the Museum of Modern Art, put the trend in historical context; as a result of the publicity and popularity of the book, the decorating style became known as "High-Tech", accelerated the entry of the still-obscure term "high-tech" into everyday language.
In 1979, the term high-tech appeared for the first time in a New Yorker magazine cartoon showing a woman berating her husband for not being high-tech enough: "You're middle-, middle-, middle-tech." After Esquire excerpted Kron and Slesin's book in six instalments, mainstream retailers across the United States, beginning with Macy's New York, started featuring high-tech decor in windows and in furniture departments. But credit should go to a shop on 64th Street and Lexington Avenue in New York, Ad Hoc Housewares, which opened in 1977, for marketing these objects to a residential audience before anyone else; the book went on to be reprinted in England and Japan, like the original, each edition included a directory of local sources for the objects. The high-tech architecture was, in some ways, a response to growing disillusionment with modern architecture; the realization of Le Corbusier's urban development plans led to cities with monotonous and standardized buildings. Enthusiasm for economic building led to low-quality finishes, with subsequent degradation countering a now-waning aesthetic novelty.
High-tech architecture created a new aesthetic in contrast with standard modern architecture. In High Tech: The Industrial Style and Source Book for The Home, when discussing the high-tech aesthetic, the authors emphasized using elements "your parents might find insulting"; this humour so aptly demonstrates the rebellious attitude. Kron and Slesin further explain the term "high-tech" as one being used in architectural circles to describe an increasing number of residences and public buildings with a "nuts-and-bolts, exposed-pipes, technological look". A prime example of this is the Centre Pompidou in Paris; this highlights one of the aims of high-tech architecture, to show the technical elements of the building by externalizing them. Thus, the technical aspects create the building's aesthetic. For interior design, there was a trend of using industrial appliances as household objects, e.g. chemical beakers as vases for flowers. This was because of an aim to use an industrial aesthetic; this was assisted by the conversion of former industrial spaces into residential spaces.
High-tech architecture aimed to give everything an industrial appearance. Another aspect of the aims of high-tech architecture was that of a renewed belief in the power of technology to improve the world; this is evident in Kenzo Tange's plans for technically sophisticated buildings in Japan's post-war
High technology, or high tech is technology, at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available. The opposite of high tech is low technology, referring to simple traditional or mechanical technology; the phrase was used in a 1958 The New York Times story advocating "atomic energy" for Europe: "... Western Europe, with its dense population and its high technology...." Robert Metz used the term in a financial column in 1969: "Arthur H. Collins of Collins Radio] controls a score of high technology patents in variety of fields." And in a 1971 article used the abbreviated form, "high tech."A used classification of high-technological manufacturing industries is provided by the OECD. It is based on the intensity of research and development activities used in these industries within OECD countries, resulting in four distinct categories. Startups working on high technologies are sometimes referred to as deep tech. Electronics Intermediate technology - sometimes used to mean technology between low and high technology Industrial design List of emerging technologies Innovation
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside is a British-Italian architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture. Rogers is best known for his work on the Pompidou Centre in Paris, the Lloyd's building and Millennium Dome both in London, the Senedd in Cardiff, the European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, he is a winner of the RIBA Gold Medal, the Thomas Jefferson Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, the Minerva Medal and Pritzker Prize. He is a Senior Partner at Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners known as the Richard Rogers Partnership. Richard Rogers was born in Florence in 1933 into an Anglo-Italian family, his father, William Nino Rogers, was the cousin of Italian architect Ernesto Nathan Rogers. His ancestors moved from Sunderland to Venice in about 1800 settling in Trieste and Florence. In 1939 William Nino Rogers decided to come back to England. Upon moving to England, Richard Rogers went to Leatherhead. Rogers did not excel academically, which made him believe that he was "stupid because he could not read or memorize his school work" and as a consequence he stated that he became "very depressed".
He wasn't able to read until the age of 11, it was not until after he had his first child that he realised that he was dyslexic. After leaving St Johns School, he undertook a foundation course at Epsom School of Art before going into National Service between 1951 and 1953, he attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, where he gained the Architectural Association's Diploma from 1954 until 1959, subsequently graduating with a master's degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962 on a Fulbright Scholarship. While studying at Yale, Rogers met fellow architecture student Norman Foster and planning student Su Brumwell. After leaving Yale he joined Owings & Merrill in New York. On returning to England in 1963, he, Norman Foster and Brumwell set up architectural practice as Team 4 with Wendy Cheeseman. Rogers and Foster earned a reputation for what was termed by the media high-tech architecture. By 1967, Team 4 had split up, but Rogers continued to collaborate with Su Rogers, along with John Young and Laurie Abbott.
In early 1968 he was commissioned to design a house and studio for Humphrey Spender near Maldon, Essex, a glass cube framed with I-beams. He continued to develop his ideas of prefabrication and structural simplicity to design a Wimbledon house for his parents; this was based on ideas from his conceptual Zip-Up House, such as the use of standardized components based on refrigerator panels to make energy-efficient buildings. Rogers subsequently joined forces with Italian architect Renzo Piano, a partnership, to prove fruitful, his career leapt forward when he, Piano and Gianfranco Franchini won the design competition for the Pompidou Centre in July 1971, alongside a team from Ove Arup that included Irish engineer Peter Rice. This building established Rogers's trademark of exposing most of the building's services on the exterior, leaving the internal spaces uncluttered and open for visitors to the centre's art exhibitions; this style, dubbed "Bowellism" by some critics, was not universally popular at the time the centre opened in 1977, but today the Pompidou Centre is a admired Parisian landmark.
Rogers revisited this inside-out style with his design for London's Lloyd's building, completed in 1986 – another controversial design which has since become a famous and distinctive landmark in its own right. After working with Piano, Rogers established the Richard Rogers Partnership along with Marco Goldschmied, Mike Davies and John Young in 1977; this became Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners in 2007. The firm maintains offices in London and Sydney. Rogers has devoted much of his career to wider issues surrounding architecture, urbanism and the ways in which cities are used. One early illustration of his thinking was an exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1986, entitled "London As It Could Be", which featured the work of James Stirling and Rogers' former partner Norman Foster; this exhibition made public a series of proposals for transforming a large area of central London, subsequently dismissed as impractical by the city's authorities. In 1995, he became the first architect to deliver the BBC's annual Reith Lectures.
This series of five talks, titled Sustainable City, were adapted into the book Cities for a Small Planet. The BBC made these lectures available to the public for download in July 2011. In 1998, he set up the Urban Task Force at the invitation of the British government, to help identify causes of urban decline and establish a vision of safety and beauty for Britain's cities; this work resulted in a white paper, Towards an Urban Renaissance, outlining more than 100 recommendations for future city designers. Rogers served for several years as chair of the Greater London Authority panel for Architecture and Urbanism, he has been chair of the board of Trustees of The Architecture Foundation. From 2001 to 2008 he was chief advisor on architecture and urbanism to Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, he stood down from the post in October 2009. Rogers has served as an advisor to two mayors of Barcelona on urban strategies. Amidst this extra-curricular activity, Rogers has continued to create controversial and iconic works.
The most famous of these, the Millennium Dome, was designed by the Rogers
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent funded institution led by eminent artists and architects, its purpose is to promote the creation and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions and debate. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition; the motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgement in the arts, to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest among the public based on recognised canons of good taste. Fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works.
From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, provided an early venue for contemporary artists in Britain. The success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were exhibiting societies; the combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a national school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies; the origin of the Royal Academy of Arts lies in an attempt in 1755 by members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, principally the sculptor Henry Cheere, to found an autonomous academy of arts. Prior to this a number of artists were members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, including Cheere and William Hogarth, or were involved in small-scale private art academies, such as the St Martin's Lane Academy.
Although Cheere's attempt failed, the eventual charter, called an'Instrument', used to establish the Royal Academy of Arts over a decade was identical to that drawn up by Cheere in 1755. It was Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect and head of the British government's architects' department, the Office of Works, who used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support for the Academy in 1768; the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president, Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788. The instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40; the founder members were Reynolds, John Baker, George Barret, Francesco Bartolozzi, Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Augustino Carlini, Charles Catton, Mason Chamberlin, William Chambers, Francis Cotes, George Dance, Nathaniel Dance, Thomas Gainsborough, John Gwynn, Francis Hayman, Nathaniel Hone the Elder, Angelica Kauffman, Jeremiah Meyer, George Michael Moser, Mary Moser, Francis Milner Newton, Edward Penny, John Inigo Richards, Paul Sandby, Thomas Sandby, Dominic Serres, Peter Toms, William Tyler, Samuel Wale, Benjamin West, Richard Wilson, Joseph Wilton, Richard Yeo, Francesco Zuccarelli.
William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members. Among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, two sets of brothers; the Royal Academy was housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, designed by Chambers, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy's first treasurer; the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the completed National Gallery. These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions. In 1868, 100 years after the Academy's foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, used rent-free by the Royal Academy; the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769.
136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its exhibition programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters, following the cessation of a similar annual exhibition at the British Institution; the range and frequency of these loan exhibitions have grown enormously since that time, making the Royal Academy a leading art exhibition institution of international importance. Britain's first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, as another way to fulfil its mission. Led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, J. M. W. Turner; the last three were all graduates of the RA School, which for a long time was the only established art school in the Royal Academy. In 2018, the Academy's 250th anniversary, the results of a major refurbishment were unveiled.
The project began on 1 January 2008 with the appointment of David Chipperfield Architects. Heritage Lottery
Hopkins Architects is a prominent British architectural firm established by architects Sir Michael and Patricia, Lady Hopkins. The practice is now run by five Principals; the practice has won many awards for its work and has been shortlisted for the Stirling Prize three times, including in 2011 for the London 2012 Velodrome, in 2006 for Evelina Children's Hospital and in 2001 for Portcullis House and Westminster Underground Station. The founders were awarded the Royal Institute of British Architects Royal Gold Medal in 1994 and Michael Hopkins was appointed a CBE and knighted for services to architecture; the practice's first building outside of the United Kingdom was the headquarters for GEK in Athens in 2003, followed by Tokyo's Shin-Marunouchi Tower in 2007. It has now designed buildings on four continents, with projects completed or under development in the UK, the US, Greece, India, the UAE and Saudi Arabia. Hopkins maintain their headquarters in Marylebone and operate an additional Design Studio in Dubai.
In addition, they operate Project Offices in Munich and Tokyo. Current work includes the new Richard A and Susan F Smith Campus Center at Harvard University in Massachusetts, USA, the Peninsula London Hotel, the Engineering and Science Library at University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. Tokyo Midtown Hibiya, Japan St Thomas' Hospital East Wing, United Kingdom Bryanston School: The Tom Wheare Music School, United Kingdom Brent Civic Centre, United Kingdom WWF-UK Headquarters, Living Planet Centre, United Kingdom University of East London: Stratford Library, United Kingdom St George's Chapel, Great Yarmouth, United Kingdom Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium, India University College Hospital Macmillan Cancer Centre, United Kingdom London 2012 Velodrome, United Kingdom Rice University: South Colleges, Texas, USA Rice University: Duncan and McMurtry Colleges, Texas, USA Princeton University: Frick Chemistry Laboratory, New Jersey, USA Norwich Cathedral Hostry, United Kingdom Nottingham Trent University: Newton and Arkwright Buildings, United Kingdom Yale University: Kroon Hall, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Dubai International Financial Centre: Gate Village, Dubai, UAE Lawn Tennis Association: National Tennis Centre, United Kingdom Wellcome Trust: Wellcome Collection, United Kingdom Evelina Children's Hospital, United Kingdom Wellcome Trust: Gibbs Building, United Kingdom Norwich Cathedral Refectory, United Kingdom Portcullis House, New Parliamentary Building, United Kingdom Westminster Underground Station, United Kingdom The Forum, United Kingdom University of Nottingham: Jubilee Campus, United Kingdom Our Dynamic Earth, United Kingdom University of Cambridge: Queen's Building, Emmanuel College, United Kingdom Victoria and Albert Museum Masterplan, United Kingdom Inland Revenue Centre, United Kingdom Glyndebourne Opera House, United Kingdom Bracken House, United Kingdom Lord's Cricket Ground: Mound Stand, United Kingdom Schlumberger Research Centre, United Kingdom Hopkins House, United Kingdom 2015 British Council for Offices: Innovation Award for "WWF-UK's Living Planet Centre" 2015 BREEAM Award: Highly Commended for "WWF-UK's Living Planet Centre" 2014 Building Magazine: Sustainable Project of the Year for "Brent Civic Centre" 2014 British Council for Offices: Corporate Workplace, London Regional Award for "Brent Civic Centre" 2013 ArchDaily Building of the Year Award for "London 2012 Velodrome" 2012 Design Museum: Architecture Design of the Year Award for "London 2012 Velodrome" 2012 BCIA Prime Minister's Better Public Building Award for "UCH Macmillan Cancer Centre" 2012 Elle Decoration: British Design Awards, First Place for "London 2012 Velodrome" 2011 AJ100 Building of the Year Award for "London 2012 Velodrome" 2011 Stirling Prize People's Choice Award for "London 2012 Velodrome" 2010 AIA COTE Top Ten Award for "Kroon Hall" 2010 AJ100 Building of the Year Award for "Kroon Hall" 2009 British Council for Offices: Best Commercial Workplace Award for "Butterfield Park Innovation Centre" 2008 British Council for Offices: Best of the Best Award for "Lawn Tennis Association: National Tennis Centre" 2008 Building Magazine Sustainable Architect of the Year Award 2006 Building Better Healthcare Awards: Best NHS Hospital Design for "Evelina Children's Hospital" 2005 Time Out Magazine: London Eating & Drinking Awards, Best in category for "Inn the Park" 2003 Royal Fine Art Commission Trust: Aggiornamento Award for "Manchester Art Gallery" 2000 Royal Fine Art Commission Trust: Millennium Building of the Year Award for "Westminster Underground Station" Former Hopkins staff include Chris Wilkinson, Bill Dunster, John Pringle and Ian Sharratt, Edward Williams and Laura Carrara-Cagni.
Buildings by Hopkins appear in two James Bond films. The interior of the IBM Building at Bedfont Lakes serves as the location for Elliot Carver's media party in Hamburg in Tomorrow Never Dies. In the following film, The World Is Not Enough, Portcullis House makes a fleeting appearance in the boat chase down the Thames. On 22 October 2006 the practice's Westminster Undergro
Schlumberger Limited is the world's largest oilfield services company. Schlumberger employs 100,000 people representing more than 140 nationalities working in more than 85 countries. Schlumberger has four principal executive offices located in Paris, Houston and the Hague. Schlumberger is incorporated in Willemstad, Curaçao as Schlumberger N. V. and trades on the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext Paris, the London Stock Exchange, SIX Swiss Exchange. Schlumberger is a Fortune Global 500 company, ranked 287 in 2016, listed in Forbes Global 2000, ranked 176 in 2016. Schlumberger was founded in 1926 by Alsatian German brothers Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger from the Alsace region in France as the Electric Prospecting Company; the company recorded the first-ever electrical resistivity well log in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, France in 1927. Today Schlumberger supplies the petroleum industry with services such as seismic acquisition and processing, formation evaluation, well testing and directional drilling, well cementing and stimulation, artificial lift, well completions, flow assurance and consulting, software and information management.
The company is involved in the groundwater extraction and carbon capture and storage industries. The Schlumberger brothers had experience conducting geophysical surveys in countries such as Romania, Serbia, South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the United States; the new company sold electrical-measurement mapping services, recorded the first-ever electrical resistivity well log in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, France in 1927. The company expanded, logging its first well in the U. S. in 1929, in Kern County, California. In 1935, the Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation was founded in Houston evolving into Schlumberger Well Services, Schlumberger Wireline & Testing. Schlumberger invested in research, inaugurating the Schlumberger-Doll Research Center in Ridgefield, Connecticut in 1948, contributing to the development of a number of new logging tools. In 1956, Schlumberger Limited was incorporated as a holding company for all Schlumberger businesses, which by now included American testing and production company Johnston Testers.
Over the years, Schlumberger continued to expand its acquisitions. In 1960, Dowell Schlumberger, which specialized in pumping services for the oil industry, was formed. In 1962, Schlumberger Limited became listed on the New York Stock Exchange; that same year, Schlumberger purchased Daystrom, an electronic instruments manufacturer in South Boston, Virginia, making furniture by the time the division was sold to Sperry & Hutchinson in 1971. Schlumberger purchased 50% of Forex in 1964 and merged it with 50% of Languedocienne to create the Neptune Drilling Company; the first computerized reservoir analysis, SARABAND, was introduced in 1970. The remaining 50% of Forex was acquired the following year. In 1979, Fairchild Camera and Instrument became a subsidiary of Schlumberger Limited. In 1981, Schlumberger established the first international data links with e-mail. In 1983, Schlumberger opened their Cambridge Research Center in Cambridge, England and in 2012 it was renamed the Schlumberger Gould Research Center after the company's former CEO Andrew Gould.
The SEDCO drilling rig company and half of Dowell of North America were acquired in 1984, resulting in the creation of the Anadrill drilling segment, a combination of Dowell and The Analysts' drilling segments. Forex Neptune was merged with SEDCO to create the Sedco Forex Drilling Company the following year, when Schlumberger purchased Merlin and 50% of GECO. In 1987, Schlumberger completed their purchases of Neptune and Cori, Allmess; that same year, National Semiconductor acquired Fairchild Semiconductor from Schlumberger for $122 million. In 1991, Schlumberger acquired PRAKLA-SEISMOS, pioneered the use of geosteering to plan the drill path in horizontal wells. In 1992, Schlumberger acquired software company GeoQuest Systems. With the purchase came the conversion of SINet to TCP/IP and thus internet capable. In the 1990s Schlumberger bought out the petroleum division, AEG meter, ECLIPSE reservoir study team Intera Technologies Corp. A joint venture between Schlumberger and Cable & Wireless resulted with the creation of Omnes, which handled all of Schlumberger's internal IT business.
Oilphase and Camco International were purchased. In 1999, Schlumberger and Smith International created a joint venture, M-I L. L. C; the world's largest drilling fluids company. The company consists of 60% Smith International, 40% Schlumberger. Since the joint venture was prohibited by a 1994 antitrust consent decree barring Smith from selling or combining their fluids business with certain other companies, including Schlumberger, the U. S. District Court in Washington, D. C. found Smith International Inc. and Schlumberger Ltd. guilty of criminal contempt and fined each company $750,000 and placed each company on five years probation. Both companies agreed to pay a total of $13.1 million, representing a full disgorgement of all of the joint venture's profits during the time the companies were in contempt. In 2000, the Geco-Prakla division was merged with Western Geophysical to create the seismic contracting company WesternGeco, of which Schlumberger held a 70% stake, the remaining 30% belonging to competitor Baker Hughes.
Sedco Forex was spun off, merged with Transocean Drilling company in 2000. In 2001, Schlumberger acquired the IT consultancy company Sema plc for $5.2 billion. The company was an Athens 2004 Summer Olympi