BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
A TASER is a brand of conducted electrical weapon sold by Axon TASER International. It fires two small barbed darts intended to remain attached to the target; the darts are connected to the main unit by thin insulated copper wire and deliver electric current to disrupt voluntary control of muscles, causing "neuromuscular incapacitation.” The effects of a TASER may only be localized pain or strong involuntary long muscle contractions, based on the mode of use and connectivity of the darts. The TASER was introduced as a less-lethal force option for police to use to subdue fleeing, belligerent, or dangerous people, who would have otherwise been subjected to more lethal force options such as firearms. A 2009 Police Executive Research Forum study found that officer injuries drop by 76% when a TASER is used. Taser International has stated that police surveys show that the device has saved 75,000 lives through 2011; the TASER is marketed as less-lethal since the possibility of serious injury or death exists whenever the weapon is deployed.
Jack Cover, a NASA researcher, began developing the Taser in 1969. By 1974, Cover had completed the device, which he named after a book featuring his childhood hero, Tom Swift; the book was Tom Swift and His Electric Rifle, by "Victor Appleton". The Taser Public Defender used gunpowder as its propellant, which led the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms to classify it as a firearm in 1976; the backformed verb. Taser International CEO Patrick Smith has testified in a Taser-related lawsuit that the catalyst for the development of the device was the "shooting death of two of his high school acquaintances" by a "guy with a licensed gun who lost his temper". In 1993, Rick Smith and his brother Thomas began to investigate what they called "safer use of force option for citizens and law enforcement". At their Scottsdale, facilities, the brothers worked with the "...original Taser inventor, Jack Cover" to develop a "non-firearm Taser electronic control device". The 1994 Air Taser Model 34000 had an "anti-felon identification system" to prevent the likelihood that the device would be used by criminals.
The U. S. firearms regulator, the ATF, stated. In 1999, Taser International developed an "...ergonomically handgun-shaped device called the Advanced Taser M-series systems", which used a "...patented neuromuscular incapacitation technology". In May 2003, Taser International released a new weapon called the Taser X26, which used "shaped pulse technology". On July 27, 2009 Taser International released a new type of Taser called the X3, which can fire three shots before reloading, it holds three new type cartridges. The Taser fires two small dart-like electrodes, which stay connected to the main unit by conductive wire as they are propelled by small compressed nitrogen charges; the cartridge contains a pair of electrodes and propellant for a single shot and is replaced after each use. There are a number of cartridges designated with the maximum at 35 feet. Cartridges available to non-law enforcement consumers are limited to 15 feet; the electrodes are barbed to prevent removal once in place. Earlier Taser models had difficulty in penetrating thick clothing, but newer versions use a "shaped pulse" that increases effectiveness in the presence of barriers.
Tasers may provide a safety benefit to police officers. Tasers have a greater deployment range than pepper spray or empty hand techniques; this allows police to maintain a greater distance. A study of use-of-force incidents by the Calgary Police Service conducted by the Canadian Police Research Centre found that the use of Tasers resulted in fewer injuries than the use of batons or empty hand techniques; the study found. The TASER device is a less-lethal, not non-lethal, weapon. Sharp metal projectiles and electricity are in use, so misuse or abuse of the weapon increases the likelihood that serious injury or death may occur. In addition, the manufacturer has identified other risk factors. Children, pregnant women, the elderly, thin individuals are considered at higher risk. Persons with known medical problems, such as heart disease, history of seizure, or have a pacemaker are of greater risk. Axon warns that repeated, extended, or continuous exposures to the weapon are not safe; because of this, the Police Executive Research Forum believes that a total exposure should not exceed 15 seconds.
There are other circumstances that pose higher secondary risks of serious injury or death, including: Uncontrolled falls or subjects falling from elevated positions Persons running on hard or rough surfaces, like asphalt Persons operating machinery or conveyance Places where explosive or flammable substances are present Some Taser models those used by police departments have a "Drive Stun" capability, where the Taser is held against the target without firing the projectiles, is intended to cause pain without incapacitating the target. "Drive Stun" is "the process of using the EMD weapon as a pain compliance technique. This is done by placing it against an individual's body; this can be done without an air cartridge in place or after an air cartridge has been deployed."Guidelines released in 2011 in the U. S. recommend that use of Drive Stun as a pain compli
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
The Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal or the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal was a commemorative medal created in 2002 to mark the fiftieth anniversary of Elizabeth II's accession. The Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal was awarded in Canada to nominees who contributed to public life; the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal was awarded to active personnel in the British Armed Forces and Emergency Personnel who had completed 5 years of qualifying service. The Canadian and British medals were of different designs. Canada: The medal is gold-plated, bronze medal with a thin raised edge and, on the obverse, an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II, crowned with the George IV State Diadem and circumscribed by the words QUEEN OF CANADA • REINE DU CANADA; the reverse features a stylised maple leaf with CANADA at the bottom and the years 1952 and 2002 on the left and right of the Royal cypher and crown. Although similar in appearance, it should not be confused with the Queen's Gallantry Medal. United Kingdom: The medal is of cupronickel with a gilt finish and shows the Queen wearing St. Edward's Crown, circumscribed by the inscription ELIZABETH • II • DEI • GRA • REGINA • FID • DEF.
Both medals are suspended from the same broad royal blue ribbon with red outer stripes and, at the centre, double white stripes with a red stripe between. In Canada, the medal was administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall and was awarded to Canadians who made a significant contribution to their fellow citizens, their community, or to Canada over the previous fifty years. Various organisations were invited to propose the names of candidates for the medal. Of the 46,000 medals issued 9,600 medals were awarded to members of the Canadian Forces according to a system that distributed them proportionately by service and years of service and regular force and reservists, including Rangers and honorary appointees. Members of the British Armed Forces regular and cadet branches, serving prison officers and members of the emergency services who were enrolled as of Accession Day and had been so for five years were given the medal in the United Kingdom. 94,222 members of the Army received the medal, as did 32,273 in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, 38,889 in the Royal Air Force.
Longer serving members of the Royal Household and living holders of the Victoria Cross and the George Cross received the medal. Some orders of precedence are as follows: The medal was not awarded by New Zealand. However, it was accorded a place in the country's order of wear to accommodate British citizens who had received the medal in the UK and subsequently joined the New Zealand Defence Force. Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
Essex Police is a territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Essex, in the east of England, consisting of over 1.7 million people and around 1,400 square miles. It is one of the largest non-metropolitan police forces in the United Kingdom, employing over 2,900 police officers; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington, who took up the appointment in October 2018. Assistant Chief Constable for Media Relations Steve Worron is simultaneously ACC for Area Operations for Kent Police due to the two forces forming a joint Serious Crime Directorate; as of 2017, Assistant Chief Constable Nick Downing became the head of the Serious Crime Directorate for Kent and Essex Police. In November 2012, the first Essex Police and Crime Commissioner election took place, in which Conservative candidate Nick Alston achieved 30.5% of the first round votes, 51.5% of the second round votes against Independent candidate Mick Thwaites. Alston set his 4 priorities in his election statement as 1) policing that meets local needs, 2) policing, prompt and professional, 3) effective cooperation and partnership between Police and the Voluntary Sector, 4) to be an influential voice in leading public engagement about crime reduction and policing, to listen to and speak for the victims of crime.
Nick Alston was elected with a 12.8% turnout. Essex police were featured in 3 of Channel 5's Police Interceptors. Essex Constabulary was formed in 1840. In 1965, the force had an establishment of 1,862 officers. Southend-on-Sea Borough Police was established by the county borough of Southend-on-Sea, England, in 1914. In 1969 Southend-on-Sea Borough Police amalgamated with Essex Constabulary to become the Essex and Southend-on-Sea Joint Constabulary; this merger was campaigned against by the local MPs. Colchester at one time had its own police force; the title was shortened to Essex Police in 1974. In April 2000, it took over parts of the county in the south-west in the Metropolitan Police Area. Epping Forest Keepers act as Epping Forest constables in the Forest parishes in the south-west of the Essex Police area. Essex Police is one of the United Kingdom's largest non-metropolitan police forces with a strength of over 2,900 police officers, its headquarters, the Force Control Room and Essex Police College, are all located in Chelmsford.
Strategically, Essex is an important force. Bordering London, the force area consists of affluent city suburbs, large urban areas, industrial centres, rural villages, London Stansted Airport and two of the UK's major ports; the force polices one of the largest expanses of coastline of any force in the UK. The police area covers 1,400 square miles and has a population of around 1,700,000; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington who replaced Stephen Kavanagh after he retired in October 2018. The force has been a regular innovator and is used by the Home Office to trial new procedures and equipment, including automatic number plate recognition and the X26 Taser. Essex Police was the subject of the television series Police Interceptors, which followed the work of the specialist Mobile Support Division's ANPR intercept unit that utilise high-performance pursuit vehicles, including the Mitsubishi Evo X and Subaru Impreza, to pursue and intercept mobile criminals. In late 2016, Essex Police was the subject of a television series The Force: Essex, which followed the duties and responsibilities of Essex Police in the modern day, covering the front-line aspect of the police officers on duty, across Essex.
A number of specialist teams within Essex were grouped into the Mobile Support Division. In 2012 Essex Police moved away from the divisional structure to a patrol based structure and the former components of the Mobile Support Division were moved to new command structures. Roads Policing and Dog Section became part of the Patrol function. Crime Division works across the territorial divisions of Essex and with forces nationwide, providing resources and expertise; as a division within Essex Police, it deals with the specialist aspects of crime investigation, tending to focus on serious crime, but not and provides support to territorial divisions' efforts in investigating crime. Crime Division has a command team structure of a divisional commander, supported by a director of intelligence, lead senior investigating officer, support manager and divisional administrative manager, based at the Chelmsford headquarters; this team is supported by section heads. The work of the various departments of Crime Division are both reactive.
The way in which major crimes are investigated has changed over time. 30 years ago, the head of Crime Division would have carried out every part of the investigation in a murder case himself, including interviewing key witnesses. However, this has now been transformed with the advent of computerised Major Investigation Rooms and concerns over handling complex, high-profile enquiries like the Stephen Lawrence case. In April 2000, the Major Investigation Team was set up to investigate homicides, abductions and extortion; each major investigation has a senior investigation officer, like the conductor of an orchestra, overseeing all the different parts of the investigations. The SIO works with a MIT and they are supported by the resources of Major Investigation Centralised Administrative Support. There are four MIT offices, at Harlow, Brentwood and Rayleigh; the sc
An electroshock weapon is an incapacitating weapon. It delivers an electric shock aimed at temporarily disrupting muscle functions and/or inflicting pain without causing significant injury. Many types of these devices exist. Stun guns and belts administer an electric shock by direct contact, whereas Tasers fire projectiles that administer the shock through thin flexible wires. Long-range electroshock projectiles, which can be fired from ordinary shotguns and do not need the wires, have been developed. Though the two terms are used interchangeably, stun guns are direct contact weapons that work through pain compliance by affecting the sensory nervous system, it can cause some muscular disruption, but that requires 3-5 seconds of direct contact. In comparison, the Taser is a long range weapon that incapacitates the target by disrupting voluntary muscular control through the motor nervous system. In 1935 Ciril Diaz of Cuba designed an electroshock glove. Jack Cover, a NASA researcher, began developing the Taser in 1969.
By 1974, he had completed the device. The Taser Public Defender used gunpowder as its propellant, which led the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms to classify it as a firearm in 1976. Cover's patent was adapted by Nova Technologies in 1983 for the Nova XR-5000, their first non-projectile hand-held style stun gun; the XR-5000 design was copied as the source for the compact handheld stun gun used today. Electroshock weapon technology uses a temporary high-voltage, low-current electrical discharge to override the body's muscle-triggering mechanisms. Referred to as a stun gun, electroshock weapons are a relative of cattle prods, which have been around for over 100 years and are the precursor of stun guns; the recipient is immobilized via two metal probes connected via wires to the electroshock device. The recipient feels pain, can be momentarily paralyzed while an electric current is being applied. Essential to the operation of electroshock, stun guns and cattle prods is sufficient current to allow the weapon to stun.
Without current these weapons cannot stun and the degree to which the weapon is capable of stunning depends on its proper use of current. It is reported that applying electroshock devices to more sensitive parts of the body is more painful; the maximum effective areas for stun gun usage are upper shoulder, below the rib cage, the upper hip. High voltages are used, but because most devices use a non-lethal current, death does not occur from a single shock; the resulting "shock" is caused by muscles twitching uncontrollably. The internal circuits of most electroshock weapons are simple, based on either an oscillator, resonant circuit, step-up transformer or a diode-capacitor voltage multiplier to achieve an alternating high-voltage discharge or a continuous direct-current discharge, it may be powered by one or more batteries depending on model. The amount of current generated depends on what stunning capabilities are desired, but without proper current calculations, the cause and effect of high voltage is muted.
Output voltage is claimed to be in the range of 100 V up to 6 kV. The output current upon contact with the target will depend on various factors such as target's resistance, skin type, bodily salinity, the electroshock weapon's internal circuitry, discharge waveform, battery conditions. Manufacturers' instructions and manuals shipped with the products state that a half-second shock duration will cause intense pain and muscle contractions, startling most people greatly. Two to three seconds will cause the recipient to become dazed and drop to the ground, over three seconds will completely disorient and drop the recipient for at least several seconds. TASER International warns law enforcement agencies that "prolonged or continuous exposure to the TASER device’s electrical charge" may lead to medical risks such as cumulative exhaustion and breathing impairment; because there was no automatic stop on older model Taser guns, many officers have used it or for a prolonged period of time, thus contributing to suspects’ injuries or death.
The current X26 model automatically stops five seconds after the trigger is depressed and the trigger must be depressed again to send another shock. The trigger can be held down continuously for a longer shock or the device can be switched off before the full five seconds have elapsed; the devices have no protections against multiple police officers giving multiple shocks, cumulatively exceeding the recommended maximum levels. There is a fabric that purports to protect the wearer from other electroshock weapons; the compact handheld stun guns are about the size of a TV remote or calculator, they must touch the subject when used. The original XR-5000 design in 1983 had the electrodes spread farther apart to make the noisy electric arc between the electrodes as a more visible warning; some such devices are available disguised as other objects, such as umbrellas, mobile phones or pens. The larger baton-style prods are similar in basic design to an electric cattle prod, it has a metal end split into two parts electrically insulated from each other, or two thin projecting metal electrod
Extraordinary rendition called irregular rendition or forced rendition, is the government-sponsored abduction and extrajudicial transfer of a person from one country to another with the purpose of circumventing the former country's laws on interrogation and torture. Such renditions have predominantly been carried out by the United States government, with the consent of the other countries involved; the first known foreign rendition by the US was that of airline hijacker Fawaz Younis who, in September 1987, was abducted after being lured on a yacht in Italy and brought to the U. S. for trial, authorized by President Ronald Reagan. President Bill Clinton authorized extraordinary rendition to nations known to practice interrogation, called on occasion torture by proxy; the administration of President George W. Bush rendered hundreds of illegal combatants for US detention, transported detainees to US controlled sites as part of an extensive interrogation program that included torture. Extraordinary rendition continued under the Obama administration, with targets being interrogated and subsequently taken to the US for trial.
A 2018 report by the Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament found the United Kingdom the MI5 and MI6, to be complicit in many of the renditions done by the US, having helped fund them, supplying them with intelligence and knowingly allowing them to happen. The United Nations considers one nation abducting the citizens of another a crime against humanity. In July 2014 the European Court of Human Rights condemned the government of Poland for participating in CIA extraordinary rendition, ordering Poland to pay restitution to men, abducted, taken to a CIA black site in Poland, tortured. By 2004, critics alleged that torture was used against subjects with the knowledge or acquiescence of the United States, where the transfer of a person for the purpose of torture is unlawful. In addition, some former detainees, such as the Australian citizen Mamdouh Habib, claimed to have been transferred to other countries for interrogation under torture. In December 2005 Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice insisted: The United States has not transported anyone, will not transport anyone, to a country when we believe he will be tortured.
Where appropriate, the United States seeks assurances. Between 2001 to 2005, CIA officers captured an estimated one hundred fifty people and transported them around the world. Under the Bush administration, rendered persons were reported to have undergone torture by receiving countries. Journalists and constitutional rights groups, former detainees have alleged that this occurred with the knowledge or cooperation of the administrations of the United States and the United Kingdom; such revelations prompted several official investigations into alleged secret detentions and unlawful interstate transfers involving Council of Europe members. A June 2006 report estimated that one hundred people had been kidnapped by the CIA on European Union soil with the cooperation of Council of Europe members and rendered to other countries after having transited through secret detention centers, some located in Europe. According to the separate European Parliament report of February 2007, the CIA has conducted 1,245 flights, many of them to destinations where suspects could face torture, in violation of Article 3 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture.
A large majority of the European Union Parliament endorsed the report's conclusion that many member states tolerated illegal actions by the CIA, criticizing several European governments and intelligence agencies for their unwillingness to cooperate with the investigation. Within days of his 2009 inauguration, Barack Obama signed an executive order opposing rendition torture and established a task force to provide recommendations about processes to prevent rendition torture, his administration distanced itself from some of the harshest counterterrorism techniques but permitted the practice of rendition to continue, restricting transport of suspects to countries with jurisdiction over them for the purpose of prosecution after diplomatic assurances "that they not be treated inhumanely" had been received. Rendition, in law, is a transfer of persons from one jurisdiction to another, the act of handing over, both after legal proceedings and according to law. "Extraordinary rendition," however, is a rendition, extralegal, i.e. outside the law.
Rendition refers to the transfer. In practice, the term is used to describe such practices the initial apprehension; this latter usage extends to the transfer of suspected terrorists by the US to countries known to torture prisoners or to employ harsh interrogation techniques that may rise to the level of torture. The Bush administration admitted to this practice. Torture can still occur, despite these provisions, much documentation exists alleging that it has happened in many cases. In these instances, the initial captor allows the possibility of torture by releasing the prisoner into the custody of nations that practice torture; the next distinction of degree is that of intent. It has been alleged that some of those detainees have been tortured with the knowledge, acquiescence, or participation of US agencies. A transfer of anyone to anywhere for the purpose of torture would be a violation of US