The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Ravens compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the team is headquartered in Owings Mills. The Ravens were established in 1996, after Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced plans to relocate the franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1995; as part of a settlement between the league and the city of Cleveland, Modell was required to leave the Browns' history and records in Cleveland for a replacement team and replacement personnel that would take control in 1999. In return, he was allowed to take his own personnel and team to Baltimore, where such personnel would form an expansion team; the Ravens have qualified for the NFL playoffs eleven times since 2000, with two Super Bowl victories, two AFC Championship titles, 15 playoff victories, four AFC Championship game appearances, five AFC North division titles, are the only team in the NFL to hold a perfect record in multiple Super Bowl appearances.
The Ravens organization was led by general manager Ozzie Newsome from 1996 until his retirement following the 2018 season, has had three head coaches: Ted Marchibroda, Brian Billick, John Harbaugh. With a record-breaking defensive unit in their 2000 season, the team established a reputation for relying on strong defensive play, led by players like middle linebacker Ray Lewis, until his retirement, was considered the "face of the franchise." The team is owned by Steve Bisciotti and valued at $2.5 billion, making the Ravens the 27th-most valuable sports franchise in the world. The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven. Chosen in a fan contest that drew 33,288 voters, the allusion honors Poe, who spent the early part of his career in Baltimore and is buried there; as the Baltimore Sun reported at the time, fans "liked the tie-in with the other birds in town, the Orioles, found it easy to visualize a tough, menacing black bird." After the controversial relocation of the Colts to Indianapolis, several attempts were made to bring an NFL team back to Baltimore.
In 1993, ahead of the 1995 league expansion, the city was considered a favorite, behind only St. Louis, to be granted one of two new franchises. League officials and team owners feared litigation due to conflicts between rival bidding groups if St. Louis was awarded a franchise, in October Charlotte, North Carolina was the first city chosen. Several weeks Baltimore's bid for a franchise—dubbed the Baltimore Bombers, in honor of the locally produced Martin B-26 Marauder bomber—had three ownership groups in place and a state financial package which included a proposed $200 million, rent-free stadium and permission to charge up to $80 million in personal seat license fees. Baltimore, was unexpectedly passed over in favor of Jacksonville, despite Jacksonville's minor TV market status and that the city had withdrawn from contention in the summer, only to return with then-Commissioner Paul Tagliabue's urging. Although league officials denied that any city had been favored, it was reported that Taglibue and his longtime friend Washington Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke had lobbied against Baltimore due to its proximity to Washington, D.
C. and that Taglibue had used the initial committee voting system to prevent the entire league ownership from voting on Baltimore's bid. This led to public outrage and the Baltimore Sun describing Taglibue as having an "Anybody But Baltimore" policy. Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer said afterward that Taglibue had led him on, praising Baltimore and the proposed owners while working behind-the-scenes to oppose Baltimore's bid. By May 1994, Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos had gathered a new group of investors, including author Tom Clancy, to bid on teams whose owners had expressed interest in relocating. Angelos found a potential partner in Georgia Frontiere, open to moving the Los Angeles Rams to Baltimore. Jack Kent Cooke opposed the move, intending to build the Redskins' new stadium in Laurel, close enough to Baltimore to cool outside interest in bringing in a new franchise; this led to heated arguments between Cooke and Angelos, who accused Cooke of being a "carpetbagger." The league persuaded Rams team president John Shaw to relocate to St. Louis instead, leading to a league-wide rumor that Tagliabue was again steering interest away from Baltimore, a claim which Tagliabue denied.
In response to anger in Baltimore, including Governor Schaefer's threat to announce over the loudspeakers Tagliabue's exact location in Camden Yards any time he attended a Baltimore Orioles game, Tagliabue remarked of Baltimore's financial package: "Maybe can open another museum with that money." Following this, Angelos made an unsuccessful $200 million bid to bring the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to Baltimore. Having failed to obtain a franchise via the expansion, the city, despite having "misgivings," turned to the possibility of obtaining the Cleveland Browns, whose owner Art Modell was financially struggling and at odds with the city of Cleveland over needed improvements to the team's stadium. Enticed by Baltimore's available funds for a first-class stadium and a promised yearly operating subsidy of $25 million, Modell announced on November 6, 1995 his intention to relocate the team from Cleveland to Baltimore the following year; the resulting controversy ended when representatives of Cleveland and the NFL reached a settlement on February 8, 1996.
Tagliabue promised the city of Cleveland that an NFL team would be located
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the Browns play their home games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea, Ohio. The Browns' official colors are brown and white, they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B. McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference; the Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the league's four seasons and winning its championship in each. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers and the original Baltimore Colts; the Browns won a championship in their inaugural NFL season, as well as in the 1954, 1955, 1964 seasons, in a feat unequaled in any of the North American major professional sports, played in their league championship game in each of the Browns' first ten years of existence.
From 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl during that period. In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore. After threats of legal action from the city of Cleveland and fans, a compromise was reached in early 1996 that allowed Modell to establish the Baltimore Ravens as a new franchise while retaining the contracts of all Browns personnel; the Browns' intellectual property, including team name, training facility, history, were kept in trust and the franchise was regarded by the NFL as suspended, with a new team to be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation. The Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success, they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, no playoff wins. The franchise has been noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks, having started 30 players in the position since 1999.
Through the end of the 2018 season, the Browns' win–loss record since returning to the NFL in 1999 is 95–224–1. In 2017, the Browns became only the second team in league history to finish a season 0–16, joining the 2008 Detroit Lions. Through the 2018 season, the Browns hold the longest active playoff drought in the NFL, at 16 seasons; the history of the Cleveland Browns American football team began in 1944 when taxi-cab magnate Arthur B. "Mickey" McBride secured a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. Paul Brown was the team's namesake and first coach; the Browns began play in 1946 in the AAFC. The Browns won each of the league's four championship games before the league dissolved in 1949; the team moved to the more established National Football League, where it continued to dominate. Between 1950 and 1955, Cleveland reached the NFL championship game every year. McBride and his partners sold the team to a group of Cleveland businessmen in 1953 for a then-unheard-of $600,000.
Eight years the team was sold again, this time to a group led by New York advertising executive Art Modell. Modell fired Brown before the 1963 season, but the team continued to win behind running back Jim Brown; the Browns won the championship in 1964 and reached the title game the following season, losing to the Green Bay Packers. When the AFL and NFL merged before the 1970 season, Cleveland became part of the new American Football Conference. While the Browns made it back to the playoffs in 1971 and 1972, they fell into mediocrity through the mid-1970s. A revival of sorts took place in 1979 and 1980, when quarterback Brian Sipe engineered a series of last-minute wins and the Browns came to be called the "Kardiac Kids". Under Sipe, the Browns did not make it past the first round of the playoffs. Quarterback Bernie Kosar, who the Browns drafted in 1985, led the team to three AFC Championship games in the late 1980s but lost each time to the Denver Broncos. In 1995, Modell announced he was relocating the Browns to Baltimore, sowing a mix of outrage and bitterness among Cleveland's dedicated fan base.
Negotiations and legal battles led to an agreement where Modell was allowed to move the team, but Cleveland kept the Browns' name and history. After three years of suspension while Cleveland Stadium was demolished and FirstEnergy Stadium built on its site, the Browns started play again in 1999 under new owner Al Lerner; the Browns struggled throughout the 2000s and 2010s, posting a record of 95–224–1 since their 1999 return. The Browns have only posted two winning seasons and one playoff appearance since returning to the NFL; the team's struggles have been magnified since 2012, when the Lerner family sold the team to businessman Jimmy Haslam. In six seasons under the Haslam ownership, the Browns went through four head coaches and four general managers, none of whom had found success. In 2016 and 2017 under head coach Hue Jackson, the Browns went 1–31, the worst two-year stretch in NFL history, received the number one overall draft pick in both of those years; the Browns are the only National Football League team without a helmet logo.
The logoless helmet serves as the Browns' official logo. The organization has used several promotional logos throughout the years.
A touchdown is a scoring play in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, a team scores a touchdown by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone. To score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. In all gridiron codes, the touchdown is scored the instant the ball touches or "breaks" the plane of the goal line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone; this particular requirement of the touchdown is the exact opposite of the prerequisite to score most sports in which points are scored by moving a ball or equivalent object into a goal where the whole of the relevant object must cross the whole of the goal line for a score to be awarded. The play is dead and the touchdown scores the moment the ball touches plane in possession of a player, or the moment the ball comes into possession of an offensive player in the end zone; the slightest part of the ball touching or being directly over the goal line is sufficient for a touchdown to score.
However, only the ball counts, not a player's foot, or any other part of the body. Touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes "breaking the plane" as well. Touchdowns are scored by the offense by running or passing the ball; the former is called a rushing touchdown, in the latter, the quarterback throws a touchdown pass or passing touchdown to the receiver, who makes a touchdown reception. However, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, or on a return after a missed or blocked field goal attempt or blocked punt. In short, any play in which a player carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. In the NFL, a touchdown may be awarded by the referee as a penalty for a "palpably unfair act," such as a player coming off the bench during a play and tackling the runner, who would otherwise have scored.
A touchdown is worth six points. The scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion. Afterwards, the team that scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team, if there is any time left. Unlike a try scored in rugby, contrary to the event's name, the ball does not need to touch the ground when the player and the ball are inside the end zone; the term touchdown is a holdover from gridiron's early days when the ball was required to be touched to the ground as in rugby, as rugby and gridiron were still similar sports at this point. This rule was changed to the modern-day iteration in 1889; when the first uniform rules for American football were enacted by the newly formed Intercollegiate Football Association following the 1876 Rugby season, a touchdown counted for 1⁄4 of a kicked goal and allowed the offense the chance to kick for goal by placekick or dropkick from a spot along a line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through the point where the ball was touched down, or through a process known as a "punt-out", where the attacking team would kick the ball from the point where it was touched down to a teammate.
If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, or resume play as normal. The governing rule at the time read: "A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns. In 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field. Two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, a touchdown counted as four points. A goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to be touched to the ground was removed. A touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, the goal after touchdown added another point. In 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points. The end zone was added. Before the addition of the end zone, forward passes caught beyond the goal line resulted in a loss of possession and a touchback; the increase from five points to six did not come until much in Canada, the touchdown remained only five points there until 1956. In addition, the score continued to be called a try in Canada until the second half of the twentieth century; the ability to score a touchdown on the point-after attempt was added to NCAA football in 1958, high school football in 1969, the CFL in 1975 and the NFL in 1994. The short-lived World Football League, a professional American football league that operated in 1974 and 1975, gave touchdowns a 7-point value. American football scoring Conversion Touchdown celebration Touchdown Jesus Touchdown pass Conversion
1996 NFL season
The 1996 NFL season was the 77th regular season of the National Football League and the season was marked by notable controversies from beginning to end. The season ended with Super Bowl XXXI when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New England Patriots 35–21 at the Louisiana Superdome; when Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns, wanted to relocate his team to Baltimore in a surprise move first reported on by the Boston Globe on November 4, 1995, the ensuing press furor and public relations mess forced the league to intercede and make an agreement with him and the Cities of Cleveland and Baltimore before the new season had begun. In the belated agreement, the name and history of the Browns were to remain in Cleveland, while the relocated club would technically be a new league franchise. Either way, the beloved Cleveland Browns would continue, while the Baltimore Ravens began their new history when the 1996 season started; the season was the final season for the Houston Oilers before leaving Texas for Memphis for the following season, to Nashville in 1998.
This move left Houston with no professional football team until the 2002 debut of the Texans. One of the most memorable aspects of the 1996 season was that the Carolina Panthers and Jacksonville Jaguars, each in just their second year of existence, both advanced to their respective conference championship games. 1996 marked the third year the NFL salary cap was in force and marked the end of multiple “dynasties” in the NFL as it was the first season since 1991 in which neither the Dallas Cowboys nor the San Francisco 49ers played in the NFC Championship Game. It was the first NFC Championship Game that did not feature either the Cowboys, 49ers, Washington Redskins, or Los Angeles Rams; the season ended with Super Bowl XXXI when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New England Patriots in a game decided when a third-quarter kick-off was returned 99 yards for a touchdown by Packers’ kick returner, Desmond Howard. For that, his excellent performance on kick-off and punt returns throughout the game, Howard was named Super Bowl MVP, the first and only time that a special teams player has earned that award.
All, nearly overshadowed by the press feeding frenzy reporting and commenting on the rumor, between the AFC championship game up to and into the broadcast coverage of Super Bowl XXXI itself, that iconic coach Bill Parcells was planning on breaking his contract with the New England Patriots because he did not get along well with owner Robert Kraft, who had helped turn around New England's image after years of ownership, either dismal or absent. In the event, Parcells did not return with the players, telephone records showed he was talking to the Jets in the days before and the day of the Super Bowl itself; this documentary evidence led to the league awarding the Patriots multiple draft picks in compensation for the "tampering" by the Jets, but a continuation of one-upmanship that has gone on for years between the heated rivals. New Orleans Saints – New numbers on uniforms. On home uniform old gold numbers with white trim, road uniforms old gold numbers with black trim, similar to team's original jerseys worn from 1967–69, but with a lighter shade of gold.
30th anniversary patch worn on the left chest. Philadelphia Eagles – New logo. New uniforms, with “midnight green” color. Dallas Cowboys – New color road uniforms. Baltimore Ravens – New team in new city; the Cleveland Browns. Purple jerseys with white numbers trimmed in gold at home. Black pants worn with both jerseys. San Francisco 49ers – New uniforms. Darker red, white pants, updated team logo. 50th season logo on uniform. Minnesota Vikings – Changes in uniforms. Vikings logo on sleeve ends of home uniforms. Added yellow trim to numbers. Arizona Cardinals – New road jerseys. Black trim removed from numbers, logo removed from sleeves, Arizona state flag moved above sleeve stripes. Carolina Panthers opened Ericsson Stadium. Baltimore Ravens moved into Memorial Stadium. Arizona Cardinals – Vince Tobin new head coach. Replaced Buddy Ryan, fired after the 1995 season. Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Tony Dungy new head coach. Replaced Sam Wyche, fired after the 1995 season. Miami Dolphins – Jimmy Johnson new head coach.
Replaced Don Shula who retired after the 1995 season. Indianapolis Colts – Lindy Infante new head coach. Replaced Ted Marchibroda, offered a job from the Baltimore Ravens. Cincinnati Bengals – Dave Shula was fired by mid season and was replaced by interim head coach Bruce Coslet. New Orleans Saints – Jim Mora resigned at mid season and was replaced by interim head coach Rick Venturi. Baltimore Ravens – Ted Marchibroda new head coach. Replaced Bill Belichick, fired in the 1995 season in the Cleveland Browns era. In order to reduce injuries, hits with the helmet or to the head will be personal fouls and subject to fines. Gordon McCarter retired during the 1996 off-season, he joined the NFL in 1967, serving as a line judge and back judge, before being promoted to referee in 1974. Dale Hamer, who had to sit out the 1995 season to recover from open heart surgery, took over McCarter's officiating crew. Jacksonville was the second AFC Wild Card ahead of Indianapolis and Kansas City based on better conference record.
Indianapolis was the third AFC Wild Card based on head-to-head victory over Kansas City. Cincinnati finished ahead of Houston in the AFC Central based on better net division points. Oakland finished ahead of Seattle in the AFC West based on better
History of the San Diego Chargers
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Chargers played in San Diego, California as the San Diego Chargers from 1961 to 2017 before relocating back to Los Angeles where the team played their inaugural 1960. The Chargers franchise relocated from Los Angeles to San Diego in 1961; the Chargers' first home game in San Diego was at Balboa Stadium against the Oakland Raiders on September 17, 1961. Their last game as a San Diego-based club was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego on January 1, 2017 against the Kansas City Chiefs, who defeated the host Chargers, 30–13; the Chargers played in four of the first five AFL national championship games -- winning once. In the early years, the wide receiver, Lance Alworth made 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his career of eleven AFL and NFL seasons, he made a record at ninety-six consecutive games with a reception. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the Chargers reached the AFL championship game four times and won it once.
In 1959, the team began as the "Los Angeles Chargers" when they entered the American Football League, joining seven other teams: the Denver Broncos, Dallas Texans, Oakland Raiders, New York Titans, Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills, Boston Patriots. The Chargers' first owner was Barron Hilton, the son of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotels corporation. Lamar Hunt, instrumental in organizing the AFL, said that he had asked Gene Mako for a suggestion for somebody to start a team in Los Angeles and he recommended Hilton. Hunt said that he visited Hilton for less than an hour and Hilton agreed to start a team. Barron Hilton held a contest to find a name for his team; the prize was a trip to Mexico. A man from Hollywood named Gerald Courtney won. Conrad Hilton said, "I liked because they were yelling "charge" and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games". Hunt said he thought Hilton picked the team name from the first batch of letters as publicity for his new charge account business Carte Blanche.
The team's first general manager was a former University of Notre Dame football coach. The team's first head coach was Sid Gillman from the Los Angeles Rams, his strength lay in offense innovation and he was honoured in the Hall of Fame. Gillman signed a contract with the team for three years; when Frank Leahy resigned due to poor health, Gillman became the general manager in addition to his coaching role. The Chargers planned to play at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Chargers were to host the first AFL national championship game at the Los Angeles Coliseum in 1961. However, as its attendance for home games was falling below 10,000 league and ABC television officials fearing that showing empty seats in the 100,000+ seat Coliseum might jeopardize the entire league persuaded the Chargers to give up the advantage and move the game to Houston. In December 1960, reports surfaced that Chargers were considering relocation offers from San Diego and Seattle.
Greg Gregston of the San Diego Union reported that the Chargers "have learned in one season that Los Angeles has been saturated beyond sensible proportions with sports." In January 1961, the team announced the move to Balboa Stadium in San Diego. Hilton was reported to have lost $900,000 in the first season. San Diego would spend $250,000 to increase stadium seating from 22,000 to 30,000; the Junior Chamber Commerce reported. Seating was increased more in May 1961 with upper deck bring the total capacity to 34,000. By Detroit native George Pernicano had become a minor shareholder in the team. In the 1961 season, their first in San Diego, the team's defense made forty-nine pass interceptions; the term, "Fearsome Foursome" described the 1961 Chargers' defensive players' lineup. The anchoring players were Ernie Ladd; the "Fearsome Foursome" phrase was used by other NFL teams. In 1961, the Chargers lost the championship to Houston by ten points to three with 29,556 patrons attending the game at Balboa Stadium.
In 1962, the team won four games and lost ten, including eight of the final nine games of the season. This was due to injuries. In the 1963 season, eight Charger players scored in the final week. Paul Lowe rushed over 183 yards, scoring 2 touchdowns on 17 carries. In the championship game, the Chargers beat Denver 58 points to 20 and became the AFL West champions; the season ended a week late due to a postponement of games after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963; the Chargers won the 1963 AFL title when they defeated the Boston Patriots 51 points to 10. Spectators numbering 30,127 attended the game at Balboa Stadium. Keith Lincoln's effort made up 349 yards of the total offense. In 1964, the Chargers played the New York Jets resulting in 17 points each. 50,222 spectators attended the game at New York. The game earned $46,828 in entrance fees. On Thanksgiving Day, Buffalo defeated the Chargers 27-24 at Balboa Stadium; the attendance was 34,865 spectators. The Chargers won their fourth AFL West title by defeating the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 spectators at Balboa Stadium.
Lance Alworth left the game with a knee injury, the fullback, Keith Lincoln was sidelined in the first quarter with a fractured rib. At the 1964 championship game in Buffalo, the Chargers were beaten 20-7; the AFL teams signed a five-year tel
A wide receiver referred to as wideouts or receivers, is an offensive position in American and Canadian football, is a key player. They get their name because they are split out "wide". Wide receivers are among the fastest players on the field; the wide receiver functions as the pass-catching specialist. The wide receiver's principal role is to catch passes from the quarterback. On passing plays, the receiver attempts to avoid, outmaneuver, or outrun defenders in the area of his pass route. If the receiver becomes open, or has an unobstructed path to the destination of a catch, he may become the quarterback's target. Once a pass is thrown in his direction, the receiver's goal is to first catch the ball and attempt to run downfield; some receivers are perceived as a deep threat because of their flat-out speed, while others may be possession receivers known for not dropping passes, running crossing routes across the middle of the field, converting third down situations. A receiver's height contributes to their expected role.
A wide receiver has two potential roles during running plays. In the case of draw plays and other trick plays, he may run a pass route with the intent of drawing off defenders. Alternatively, he may block for the running back. Well-rounded receivers are noted for blocking defensive backs in support of teammates in addition to their pass-catching abilities. Sometimes wide receivers are used to run the ball in some form of an end-around or reverse; this can be effective because the defense does not expect them to be the ball carrier on running plays. For example, wide receiver Jerry Rice rushed the ball 87 times for 645 yards and 10 touchdowns in his 20 NFL seasons. In rarer cases, receivers may pass the ball as part of a trick play. A receiver can pass the ball so long as they receive the ball behind the line of scrimmage, in the form of a handoff or backwards lateral; this sort of trick play is employed with a receiver who has past experience playing quarterback at a lower level, such as high school, or sometimes, college.
Antwaan Randle El threw a touchdown pass at the wide receiver position in Super Bowl XL playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers against the Seattle Seahawks. Antwaan Randle El played quarterback for four years at Indiana University. Wide receivers also serve on special teams as kick returners or punt returners, as gunners on kick coverage teams, or as part of the hands team during onside kicks. On errant passes, receivers must play a defensive role by attempting to prevent an interception. If a pass is intercepted, receivers must use their speed to chase down and tackle the ball carrier to prevent him from returning the ball for a long gain or a touchdown. In the NFL, wide receivers can use the numbers 10–19 and 80–89; the wide receiver grew out of a position known as the end. The ends played on the offensive line next to the tackles. By the rules governing the forward pass and backs are eligible receivers. Most early football teams used the ends as receivers sparingly, as their position left them in heavy traffic with many defenders around.
By the 1930s, some teams were experimenting with moving one end far out near the sideline, to make them more open to receive passes. These split ends became the prototype for the modern wide receiver. Don Hutson, who played college football at Alabama and professionally with the Green Bay Packers, was the first player to exploit the potentials of the split end position, is credited as inventing the wide receiver position; as the passing game evolved, a second wide receiver position was added. While it is possible to move the opposite end out wide for a second split end position most teams preferred to leave that end in close to provide extra blocking protection on the quarterback's blind side; that player was playing the modern day tight end position. Instead of moving the blind side end out, one of the three running backs was split wide instead, creating the flanker position; the flanker lined up off the line of scrimmage like a running back or quarterback, but split outside like a split end.
Lining up behind the line of scrimmage gave flankers some advantages. Flankers have more "space" between themselves and a pressing defensive back, so cornerbacks can not as "jam" them at the line of scrimmage; this is in addition to being eligible for motion plays, allowing for the flanker to move laterally before and during the snap. Elroy "Crazy Legs" Hirsch is one of the earliest players to exploit the potentials of the flanker position as a member of the Los Angeles Rams during the 1950s. While some teams did experiment with more than two wide receivers as a gimmick or trick play, most teams used the pro set as the standard set of offensive personnel. An early innovator, coach Sid Gillman used 3+ wide receiver sets as early as the 1960s. In sets that have three, four, or five wide receivers, extra receivers are called slot receivers, as they play in the "slot" between the furthest receiver and the offensive line. In most situations, the slot receiver lines
William Stephen Belichick ( or is an American football coach who serves as the head coach of the New England Patriots of the National Football League. His extensive authority over the Patriots' football operations makes him the general manager of the team as well, he holds numerous coaching records, including winning a record six Super Bowls as the head coach of the New England Patriots, two more as defensive coordinator for the New York Giants. He is considered to be one of the greatest coaches in NFL history by current and former players, his peers, the press. Belichick began his coaching career in 1975 and became the defensive coordinator for New York Giants head coach Bill Parcells by 1985. Parcells and Belichick won two Super Bowls together before Belichick left to become the head coach of the Cleveland Browns in 1991, he was fired following the team's 1995 season. He rejoined Parcells, first in New England, where the team lost Super Bowl XXXI, with the New York Jets. After being named head coach of the Jets, Belichick resigned after only one day on the job to accept the head coaching job for the New England Patriots on January 27, 2000.
Since he has led the Patriots to 16 AFC East division titles, 13 appearances in the AFC Championship Game, nine Super Bowl appearances, with a record six wins. Belichick has won eight Super Bowl titles in total from his combined time as an assistant and head coach. Belichick is the NFL's longest-tenured active head coach, as well as the first all-time in playoff coaching wins with 31 and third in regular season coaching wins in the NFL with 261, he is one of only three head coaches. He was named the AP NFL Coach of the Year for the 2003, 2007, 2010 seasons. Belichick was born on April 16, 1952, in Nashville, the son of Jeannette and Steve Belichick. Bill was named after College Football Hall of Fame coach Bill Edwards, his godfather. Belichick is of Croatian ancestry, his paternal grandparents, Ivan Biličić and Marija Barković, emigrated from the Croatian village of Draganić, Karlovac, in 1897, settling in Monessen, Pennsylvania, he was raised in Annapolis, where his father was an assistant football coach at the United States Naval Academy.
Belichick has cited his father as one of his most important football mentors, Belichick studied football with his father. Bill learned to break down game films at a young age by watching his father and the Navy staff do their jobs, he graduated from Annapolis High School in 1970 with classmate Sally Brice-O'Hara. While there, he played lacrosse, with the latter being his favorite sport, he enrolled at Phillips Academy in Andover, for a postgraduate year, with the intention of improving his grades and test scores to be admitted into a quality college. The school honored him 40 years by inducting him into its Athletics Hall of Honor in 2011. Belichick subsequently attended Wesleyan University in Middletown, where he played center and tight end. In addition to being a member of the football team, he played lacrosse and squash, serving as the captain of the lacrosse team during his senior season. A member of Chi Psi fraternity, he earned a bachelor's degree in economics in 1975, he would be part of the inaugural induction class into the university's Athletics Hall of Fame in spring 2008.
After graduating, Belichick took a $25-per-week job as an assistant to Baltimore Colts head coach Ted Marchibroda in 1975. In 1976, he joined the Detroit Lions as their assistant special teams coach before adding tight ends and wide receivers to his coaching duties in 1977, he spent the 1978 season with the Denver Broncos as their assistant special teams coach and defensive assistant. In 1979, Belichick began a 12-year stint with the New York Giants alongside head coach Ray Perkins as a defensive assistant and special teams coach, he added linebackers coaching to his duties in 1980 and was named defensive coordinator in 1985 under head coach Bill Parcells, who had replaced Perkins in 1983. The Giants won Super Bowl Super Bowl XXV following the 1986 and 1990 seasons, his defensive game plan from the New York Giants' 20–19 upset of the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXV has been placed in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. From 1991 until 1995, Belichick was the head coach of the Cleveland Browns. During his tenure in Cleveland, he compiled a 36–44 record, leading the team to the playoffs in 1994, his only winning year with the team.
Coincidentally, his one playoff victory during his Browns tenure was achieved against the New England Patriots in the Wild Card Round during that postseason. In Belichick's last season in Cleveland, the Browns finished 5–11, despite starting 3–1. One of his most controversial moves was cutting quarterback Bernie Kosar midway through the 1993 season. Kosar was signed by the Dallas Cowboys two days and won a Super Bowl with the Cowboys in Super Bowl XXVIII. In November 1995, in the middle of the ongoing football season, Browns owner Art Modell had announced he would move his franchise to Baltimore after the season. After first being given assurances that he would coach the new team that would become the Baltimore Ravens, Belichick was instead fired on February 14, 1996, one week after the shift was announced. After his dismissal by the Cleveland Browns, Belichick served under Parcells again as assistant head coach and defensive backs coach with the Patriots for the 1996 season; the Patriots finished with an 11–5 record and won the AFC Championship over the Jacksonville Jaguars, but they lost to the Green Bay Packers in Super Bowl XXXI amid rumors of Parcells's impending defection.