New Edition is an American R&B group from the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, formed in 1978. The group reached its height of popularity in the 1980s. During the group's first experience with fame in 1983, its members were Ricky Bell, Michael Bivins, Bobby Brown, Ronnie DeVoe and Ralph Tresvant. Early hits included "Candy Girl," "Cool It Now," and "Mr. Telephone Man". Tresvant was the lead singer on most of the songs. Brown was embarked on a solo career; the group continued for a time with its remaining four members, but recruited singer Johnny Gill, who would be introduced on their 1988 album Heart Break. The group went on hiatus in 1990, while its various members worked on side projects, such as the group Bell Biv DeVoe. Gill and Tresvant recorded successful solo albums. All six members of New Edition reunited in 1996 to record the group's sixth studio album Home Again. During the ill-fated Home Again Tour, both Bobby Brown and Michael Bivins quit the group, forcing the remainder of the tour to be canceled.
Various reunions have occurred since with the 1987-1990 lineup, though also including Brown. Their last studio album was 2004's One Love. On May 3, 2011, New Edition issued a press release on their official website announcing that all six members were reuniting as New Edition to kick off the 30th anniversary celebration of Candy Girl with their fans, they received their star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on January 23, 2017. On January 24, 2017, a three-part docuseries, The New Edition Story, premiered on BET about the group's career and personal life, it was announced that all six members will reunite to record another album and go on tour. In 1978, Bobby Brown, Michael Bivins, Ricky Bell started a vocal group; the group had included two other friends Travis Pettus and Corey Rackley. All five kids lived in the Orchard Park Projects in Boston, they met Brooke Payne, a local manager and choreographer, who encountered the boys at a local talent show in Roxbury. After an audition for Payne, he gave them the name New Edition to signify they were a new edition of the Jackson 5.
Rackley left the group and was replaced by another neighborhood friend Ralph Tresvant, whom Bell and Brown were acquainted with and who sang with Ricky in a group called Ricky & Ralph. Travis Pettus would leave the group as well. Payne brought in his nephew Ronnie DeVoe to replace Pettus as the group's fifth member; the group scored its big break in 1981, performing at the local Hollywood Talent Night held at Boston's Strand Theatre by singer/producer Maurice Starr. The first prize was a recording contract. Though the group came in second place, an impressed Starr decided to bring the group to his studio the following day to record what would become their debut album, Candy Girl. Released in 1983 on New York producer Arthur Baker's Levi Belt Streetwise Records, the album featured the hits: "Is This The End", "Popcorn Love", "Jealous Girl", the title track, which went to number one on both the American R&B singles chart and the UK singles chart. Returning from their first major concert tour, the boys were dropped off back at their homes in the projects and were given a check in the amount of $1.87 apiece for their efforts.
Tour budget and expenses were given as the explanation as to. Due to these financial reasons, New Edition parted company with Starr in 1984. Meanwhile, the group hired the law firm of Steven and Martin Machat and sued Streetwise for release from a contract, unenforceable as well as materially breached by Streetwise; the Machats won the legal game and secured the group a bigger recording deal with major label MCA Records, which won the bidding war among various other major labels. In need of management, the group signed with Steven Machat and his two management partners Rick Smith and Bill Dern; the management company, AMI, proceeded to escalate the group's profile in both the urban and pop music worlds. Through the production affiliate of AMI, Jump and Shoot, MCA released the group's self-titled second album the same year. Eclipsing their debut album, New Edition spun off the top five hit "Cool It Now" and the top twenty "Mr. Telephone Man", went on to be certified double platinum in the United States.
While promoting their second album, the group was dismayed to realize that they weren't signed to MCA Records, but instead with the production company Jump and Shoot, which had its own deal with MCA. To buy themselves out of the stifling production deal, each of the five members borrowed $100,000 from MCA. Though it separated the group from Jump and Shoot and allowed them to sign a new contract to record for MCA directly, they were now in mortgage to the label; as a result, the group would be forced to continually record and tour during this period in order to pay off its debt. New Edition's third album, All for Love, was released in the latter half of 1985. While not duplicating the success of its predecessor, the album was certified platinum, spawned the hits "Count Me Out", "A Little Bit Of Love", "With You All the Way"; the growing popularity of the group led to a guest appearance in the 1985 film Krush Groove, performing "My Secret". Toward the year's end, Christmas All Over The World, a holiday EP, was released as well as an oldies album of tunes from the'50s sung by the group with an'80s production style Under pressure from MCA and their management, the group voted Bobby Brown
Peter Wolf is an American musician best known as the lead vocalist of the J. Geils Band from 1967 to 1983 and for a successful solo career with writing partner Will Jennings. Peter Wolf was born in The Bronx, he was accepted at the prestigious High School of Music & Art, located in west Harlem near the famed Apollo Theater. He attended the Apollo seeing many of the great soul, rhythm & blues and gospel artists that had an enormous influence on him, he moved to Boston when he received a scholarship to the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, where he studied painting. His first roommate was film director David Lynch. In 1964, Wolf and fellow art students Paul Shapiro, Doug Slade, Joe Clark, Stephen Jo Bladd formed a group called The Hallucinations, they performed at nightclubs in the famed Combat Zone and developed a large following as one of the first bands to play at the legendary Boston Tea Party nightclub. During this period, they appeared on bills with The Velvet Underground, Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Van Morrison, John Lee Hooker and Sun Ra..
While performing with the Hallucinations, Wolf was asked to join Boston's legendary radio station WBCN as their "all night" D. J, his show was popular and he interviewed many of the great rock and jazz artists that were touring through Boston in the late 1960s. In 1967, the newly revamped J. Geils Band was formed with Wolf on vocals; as the group's frontman, Wolf was known for his charismatic presence and fast-talking quips made him known as one of rock's most dynamic stage performers. During the early days of MTV they achieved wider success with their played videos; because of the band's constant touring they established international success and toured stadiums with The Rolling Stones. Wolf and keyboardist Seth Justman were responsible for most of the band's songwriting. Creative differences followed their multi platinum album Freeze Frame, Wolf parted ways with the J. Geils Band in 1983 and went on to a successful solo career. In 1999 the J. Geils Band reunited for a series of tours, while Wolf continued recording and performing as a solo artist.
The J. Geils Band have been nominated to the Roll Hall of Fame five times. Wolf's first solo record, Lights Out, was produced with Michael Jonzun, of the Jonzun Crew, featured Adrian Belew, G. E. Smith, Elliot Randall, Yogi Horton, Mick Jagger, Elliot Easton, Maurice Starr; the single "Lights Out" written with Don Covey became a hit the same year, peaking at No. 12 on the Billboard Hot 100. Wolf appeared on the Artists United Against Apartheid project's song, "Sun City" in 1987. In 1987, Wolf released his second solo album, Come As You Are, with the title track notching Wolf not only another top-15 hit on the pop charts but a number one hit on the Mainstream Rock Charts. A single, "Can't Get Started" had wide radio plays, his album Long Line and with his fifth album, Fool's Parade, started his long collaboration with singer/songwriter Kenny White and Sleepless, were both praised by Rolling Stone, receiving five stars, respectively. Sleepless was noted as one of the 500 greatest albums of all time in Rolling Stone issue 937.
Wolf's 2010 album Midnight Souvenirs won Album of the Year at the Boston Music Awards. On the album Midnight Souvenirs, Wolf performed duets with Shelby Lynne, Neko Case and Merle Haggard. Wolf had inducted one of his idols, Jackie Wilson and the Paul Butterfield Blues Band into The Rock'n' Roll Hall of Fame, his eighth solo album, A Cure for Loneliness, was released in April 2016 to critical acclaim. Wolf was married to actress Faye Dunaway from 1974 to 1979. Peter Wolf website Peter Wolf on IMDb
Pac-Man is an arcade game designed by Toru Iwatani and published by Namco and Midway Games. It was initally released in Japan as PUCKMAN in May 1980, followed by the United States in October of the same year; the gameplay involves the titular character in an enclosed maze filled with individual dots, or pellets. The goal is to consume all of the pellets while avoiding four multi-colored "ghosts" that wander around the maze; as the levels progress, the ghosts progressively become more aggressive, changing their behavior and patterns. If a ghost touches Pac-Man, he loses a life; the maze contains four large "power pellets", which gives the player temporary invulnerability, allowing them to consume the ghosts to earn more points. Throughout the game, fruits appear in the center of the maze, which can be consumed to earn more points. At the time of the game's release, the most popular arcade games were space shooters, such as Space Invaders and Asteroids, with the most noticeable difference being racing games and derivatives of Pong.
Pac-Man received a lukewarm response from critics but has retrospectively been regarded as one of the greatest and most influential video games of all time. It is credited with establishing conventions of the maze chase genre, spawning numerous clones and bootlegs, has since become a social phenomenon and an icon of 1980s popular culture. Pac-Man is one of the highest-grossing video games of all time, having generated more than $2.5 billion in quarters by 1990. Adjusted for inflation, all versions of the game have earned an estimated $12 billion in revenue; the success of Pac-Man led to numerous spin-offs, including more than 30 licensed ones, as well as several bootleg versions, as well as an animated TV series in 1982 and the top-ten single "Pac-Man Fever" by Buckner and Garcia. It is one of the longest-running video game franchises from the golden age of arcade games, was included in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. According to the Davie-Brown Index, the titular character has the highest brand awareness of any video games character among American consumers, with 94% recognition.
The player navigates Pac-Man through a dead-end-less maze containing dots, known as Pac-Dots, four multi-colored ghosts: Blinky, Pinky and Clyde. There is a passageway from the left side of the screen to the right side, four Power Pellets spread out between quadrants, fruits that appear in each level; the goal of the game is to accumulate as many points as possible by collecting dots and eating blue ghosts, while avoiding the four ghosts. When all of the dots in a stage are eaten, that stage is completed, the player will advance to the next one. Between some stages, one of three intermission animations plays; the four ghosts roam the chase Pac-Man. If any of the ghosts touches Pac-Man, a life is lost; when all lives have been lost, the game is over. The player begins with three lives, but DIP switches in the machine can change the number of starting lives to one, two, or five; the player will receive one extra life bonus after obtaining 10,000 points. The number of points needed for a bonus life can be changed to 15,000 or 20,000, or disabled altogether.
Near the corners of the maze are four flashing Power Pellets that provide Pac-Man with a temporary ability to eat the ghosts and earn bonus points that way. The enemies turn deep blue, reverse direction and move away from Pac-Man, move more slowly; when an enemy is eaten, its eyes remain and return to the center ghost box where the ghost is regenerated in its normal color. The bonus score earned for eating a blue ghost increases exponentially for each consecutive ghost eaten while a single Power Pellet is active: a score of 100 points is scored for eating one ghost, 200 for eating a second ghost, 400 for a third, 800 for the fourth; this cycle restarts from 100 points. Blue enemies flash white to signal that they are about to return to their normal color and become dangerous again, the length of time the enemies remain vulnerable varies from one stage to the next becoming shorter as the game progresses. In stages, the enemies go straight to flashing after a Power Pellet is consumed, bypassing blue, which means that they can only be eaten for a short amount of time, although they still reverse direction when a Power Pellet is eaten.
Starting at stage nineteen, the ghosts do not become edible at all, but they still reverse direction. There are fruits that appear twice per level, directly below the center ghost box; this table lists each stage, the type and value of the fruit that appears, how long the ghosts are blue when a power pellet is eaten, how many times the ghosts flash before returning to normal: The enemies in Pac-Man are known variously as "monsters" or "ghosts". In an interview, creator Toru Iwatani stated that he designed each enemy with its own distinct personality to keep the game from becoming impossibly difficult or boring to play. Iwatani described the enemy behaviors in more detail at the 2011 Game Developers Conference, he stated that the red enemy chases Pac-Man, while the pink enemy aims for a position in front of Pac-Man's mouth. The blue enemy is "fickle" and sometimes heads toward Pac-Man, other times away. Although he claimed that the orange enemy's behavior is random, in actuality it alternates from behaving like the red enemy and aiming towards the lower-left corner of the maze.
Pac-Man was designed to have no ending.
Paul Albert Anka, is a Canadian singer and actor. Anka became famous with hit songs like "Diana", "Lonely Boy", "Put Your Head on My Shoulder", " Having My Baby", he wrote such well-known music as the theme for The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and one of Tom Jones's biggest hits, "She's a Lady". He wrote the English lyrics to Claude François and Jacques Revaux's music for Frank Sinatra's signature song, "My Way", covered by many, including Elvis Presley. In 1983, he co-wrote the song "I Never Heard" with Michael Jackson, it was retitled and released in 2009 under the name "This Is It". An additional song that Jackson co-wrote with Anka from the 1983 session, "Love Never Felt So Good", was released in 2014 on Jackson's posthumous album Xscape; the song was released by Johnny Mathis in 1984. Anka became a naturalized US citizen in 1990. Anka was born in Ottawa, Canada, to Camelia and Andrew Emile "Andy" Anka Sr. who owned a restaurant called the Locanda. His parents were both Antiochian Orthodox Christians.
Anka's father was Syrian-American from'Uyūn al-Wādī, from the Na'Nou' family and his mother was Canadian-Lebanese "from the town of Kfar Mechki, Rashaya District, in Lebanon". Anka sang with the St. Elias Antiochian Orthodox Cathedral choir under the direction of Frederick Karam, with whom he studied music theory, he studied piano with Winnifred Rees. He attended Fisher Park High School. Paul Anka recorded his first single, "I Confess", when he was 14. In 1957, with $100 given to him by his uncle, he went to New York City where he auditioned for Don Costa at ABC, singing what was believed to be a lovestruck verse he had written to a former babysitter. In an interview with NPR's Terry Gross in 2005, he stated that it was to a girl at his church whom he hardly knew; the song "Diana" brought Anka stardom as it rocketed to No. 1 on the US music charts. "Diana" is one of the best selling singles by a Canadian recording artist. He followed up with four songs that made it into the Top 20 in 1958, including "It's Time to Cry", which hit No. 4 and " My Heart Sings", which reached No.
15, making him one of the biggest teen idols of the time. He toured Britain Australia with Buddy Holly. Anka wrote "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" – a song written for Holly, which Holly recorded just before he died in 1959. Anka stated shortly afterward: "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" has a tragic irony about it now, but at least it will help look after Buddy Holly's family. I'm giving my composer's royalty to his widow – it's the least I can do. Paul Anka's talent included the theme for The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, he wrote "Teddy" – a Top 20 hit for Connie Francis in 1960. Anka composed Tom Jones's biggest hit record, "She's a Lady", wrote the English lyrics to "My Way", Frank Sinatra's signature song. In the 1960s, Anka began acting in motion pictures as well as writing songs for them, most notably the theme for the hit film The Longest Day, in which he made a cameo appearance as a US Army Ranger. For his film work he wrote and recorded one of his greatest hits, "Lonely Boy", he wrote and recorded "My Home Town", a No. 8 pop hit for him the same year.
He went on to become one of the first pop singers to perform at the Las Vegas casinos. In 1960, he appeared twice as himself in NBC's short-lived crime drama Dan Raven. In 1960, Anka signed with RCA Victor, he bought the rights and ownership of his ABC-Paramount catalog in 1963, but like most North American recording artists saw his career stalled by the British Invasion. By the late 1960s, his career focused on adult contemporary and big-band standards, played in Las Vegas. In the early 1970s, he signed with Buddah Records, putting out two albums, a self-titled and Jubilation; the former, first released in 1971, bore the track "She's a Lady", a song he wrote that would become a signature hit for Welsh singer Tom Jones that same year. Anka failed to make a chart success of his own version. Frustrated after more than ten years without a top 25 hit record, Anka switched labels again, which marked a turning point in his career; this time he signed with United Artists and in 1974 teamed up with Odia Coates to record the No. 1 hit, " Having My Baby", exposing Anka to a new generation of fans and proved his staying power among his original fan base, now maturing.
Anka wrote five songs which were included on an album by Don Goodwin. Anka and Coates would record two more duets that made it into the Top 10, "One Man Woman/One Woman Man" and "I Don't Like to Sleep Alone", the No. 15 duet " There's Nothing Stronger Than Our Love". In 1975 he recorded a jingle for Kodak written by Bill Lane and Roger Nichols called "Times of Your Life", it became so popular Anka recorded it as a full song, which peaked at No. 7 in the US pop chart in 1976. The follow-up was another hit that Anka wrote for Sinatra, "Anytime", peaking at No. 33. Anka's last Top 40 hit in the US was in the summer of 1983: "Hold Me'Til the Mornin' Comes", which included backing vocals from then-Chicago frontman Peter Cetera, his 1998 album A Body of Work was his first new US studio release since Walk a Fine Line in 1983.
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and