TVOntario is a Canadian publicly funded English language educational television station and media organization serving the Canadian province of Ontario. It is operated by the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, a Crown corporation owned by the Government of Ontario, it operates two television stations: CICA-DT in CICO-DT-24 in Ottawa. These two stations relay their programming across portions of Ontario through seven rebroadcast stations, it is available on pay television providers throughout Ontario, all providers in the province are required to carry it on their basic tier, programming can be streamed online. TVO is governed by a volunteer Board of Directors, supported by a network of Regional Councillors from across the province. TVO reports to the Ontario legislature through the Minister of Education, in accordance with the Ontario Educational Communications Authority Act. Instead of following the model of the federally owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television services, which shows commercial advertisements, TVO chose a commercial-free model similar to the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States.
This model was emulated by provincial educational broadcasters Télé-Québec in Quebec and Knowledge Network in British Columbia. The majority of TVO's funding is provided by the Government of Ontario through the Ministry of Education, which provides $39 million annually, with additional funding provided by charitable donations and corporate partners. TVO is responsible for over-the-air broadcasts of the Ontario Legislative Assembly in some remote Northern Ontario communities that do not receive cable television access to the Ontario Parliament Network. In 2002, the Ministry of Education transferred responsibility to TVO for the Independent Learning Centre, which provides distance education at the elementary and secondary school level. TVO used to operate a separate but similar network for Franco-Ontarian audiences. Before the launch of TFO, TVO aired French-language programming on Sundays. After TFO's launch, TVO and TFO swapped programming on Sundays well into the 1990s. TFO was separated from TVO and was incorporated under the newly formed GroupeMédia TFO, a separate Crown corporation of the Government of Ontario, in 2007.
TVO is Canada's oldest educational television service. It established the country's first UHF television station based in Toronto. TVO used to have the largest over-the-air coverage in Ontario, reaching 98.5% of the province with 216 transmitters. TVO is carried on all cable systems serving Ontario. On satellite systems in Ontario, it is available in standard definition only on Bell TV on channel 265 and on Shaw Direct on 353 or 55, in high definition on channel 39 or 539; the main transmitter in Toronto uses the call sign CICA, with its rebroadcasters using CICO followed by a number to denote their status as rebroadcasters. Many analogue transmitters used CICA-TV and CICO-TV callsigns, in addition to CICE-TV, until the shutdown of TVO's remaining analogue transmitters on July 31, 2012. TVO's transmitters are located in Ontario, with the only exception being its Ottawa transmitter, CICO-DT-24, based at Camp Fortune in Chelsea, Quebec. There, it shares its site with its Quebec counterpart, Télé-Québec, with most of the region's television and FM radio signals.
From the 1970s through the 1990s, TVO ran top-of-the-hour bumpers where an announcer would mention the channel allocation of the service's flagship station in Toronto, along with an allocation for one of its rebroadcast transmitters: "This is TVOntario. Channel 19 in Toronto, channel XX in." TVO announced plans in 2017 to decommission its transmitters in Ottawa, Chatham, Kitchener, Thunder Bay and Windsor – keeping only CICA-DT in Toronto to fulfill license criteria – in an effort to cut costs by $1 million. Following negative reactions from TVO viewers and donors, the towns and cities affected, advocacy groups such as Friends of Canadian Broadcasting the decision was reversed and the Government of Ontario agreed to increase its funding of TVO by $1 million. On June 6, 2012, TVO dropped its signal from cable and satellite providers outside Ontario, due to a carriage dispute over compensation for distributing its signal to its subscribers outside the province; the network reached an agreement with Vidéotron, entered negotiations with Shaw Communications and Telus, but failed to reach an agreement with Bell Canada.
TVO cited that: "...we believe that we have a responsibility to earn revenues from the sale of our service outside of our home province. TVO is willing to consent to cable and satellite distributors carrying our signal outside the province, provided that we're compensated. Since cable or satellite distributors receive subscriber revenues driven by having TVO as part of their offering, we feel it's reasonable to be compensated. We could not come to an agreement with Bell to compensate TVO for carrying our signal outside of Ontario, the decision was made to cease offering our signal outside of Ontario." As a result, the only cable
CBC Television is a Canadian English language broadcast television network, owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the national public broadcaster. The network began operations on September 6, 1952, its French-language counterpart is Ici Radio-Canada Télé. Headquartered at the Canadian Broadcasting Centre in Toronto, CBC Television is available throughout Canada on over-the-air television stations in urban centres and as a must-carry station on cable and satellite television. All of the CBC's programming is produced in Canada. Although CBC Television is supported by public funding, commercial advertising revenue supplements the network, in contrast to CBC Radio and public broadcasters from several other countries, which are commercial-free. CBC Television provides a complete 24-hour network schedule of news, sports and children's programming. On October 9, 2006 at 6:00 a.m. the network switched to a 24-hour schedule, becoming one of the last major English-language broadcasters to transition to such a schedule.
Most CBC-owned stations signed off the air during the early morning hours. Instead of the infomercials aired by most private stations, or a simulcast of CBC News Network in the style of BBC One's nightly simulcast of BBC News Channel, the CBC uses the time to air repeats, including local news, primetime series and other programming from the CBC library, its French counterpart, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, still signs off every night. While there has been room for regional differences in the schedule, as there is today, for CBC-owned stations, funding has decreased to the point that most of these stations only broadcast 30 to 90 minutes a day of locally produced newscasts, no other local programming; until 1998, the network carried a variety of American programs in addition to its core Canadian programming, directly competing with private Canadian broadcasters such as CTV and Global. Since it has restricted itself to Canadian programs, a handful of British programs, a few American movies and off-network repeats.
Since this change, the CBC has sometimes struggled to maintain ratings comparable to those it achieved before 1995, although it has seen somewhat of a ratings resurgence in recent years. In the 2007-08 season, popular series such as Little Mosque on the Prairie and The Border helped the network achieve its strongest ratings performance in over half a decade. In 2002, CBC Television and CBC News Network became the first broadcasters in Canada that are required to provide closed captioning for all of their programming. On those networks, only outside commercials need not be captioned, though a bare majority of them are aired with captions. All shows, billboards and other internal programming must be captioned; the requirement stems from a human rights complaint filed by deaf lawyer Henry Vlug, settled in 2002. Under the CBC's current arrangement with Rogers Communications for National Hockey League broadcast rights, Hockey Night in Canada broadcasts on CBC-owned stations and affiliates are not technically aired over the CBC Television network, but over a separate CRTC-licensed part-time network operated by Rogers.
This was required by the CRTC as Rogers exercises editorial control and sells all advertising time during the HNIC broadcasts though the CBC bug and promos for other CBC Television programs appear throughout HNIC. The CBC's flagship newscast, The National, airs Sunday through Fridays at 10:00 p.m. local time and Saturdays at 6:00 p.m. EST; until October 2006, CBC owned-and-operated stations aired a second broadcast of the program at 11:00 p.m.. This second airing was replaced with other programming, as of the 2012-13 television season, was replaced on CBC's major market stations by a half-hour late newscast. There is a short news update, at most, on late Saturday evenings. During hockey season, this update is found during the first intermission of the second game of the doubleheader on Hockey Night in Canada; the show is simultaneously broadcasts rolling coverage from CBC News Network from noon to 1 p.m. local time in most time zones. In addition to the mentioned late local newscasts, CBC stations in most markets fill early evenings with local news programs from 5:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. while most stations air a single local newscast on weekend evenings.
Weekly newsmagazine the fifth estate is a CBC mainstay, as are documentary series such as Doc Zone. One of the most popular shows on CBC Television is the weekly Saturday night broadcast of NHL hockey games, Hockey Night in Canada, it has been televised by the network since 1952. During the NHL lockout and subsequent cancellation of the 2004-2005 hockey season, CBC instead aired various recent and classic movies, branded as Movie Night in Canada, on Saturday nights. Many cultural groups suggested the CBC air games from minor hockey leagues. Other than hockey, CBC Sports properties include Toronto Raptors basketball, Toronto FC Soccer, various other amateur and professional
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Internal bleeding is a loss of blood from a blood vessel that collects inside the body. Internal bleeding is not visible from the outside, it is a serious medical emergency but the extent of severity depends on bleeding rate and location of the bleeding. Severe internal bleeding into the chest, retroperitoneal space and thighs can cause hemorrhagic shock or death if proper medical treatment is not received quickly. Internal bleeding is a medical emergency and should be treated by medical professionals; the most common cause of death in trauma is bleeding. Death from trauma accounts for 1.5 million of the 1.9 million deaths per year due to bleeding. There are two types of trauma: penetrating trauma and blunt trauma. Penetrating trauma can result in internal bleeding, it can occur after a ballistic stab wound. If penetrating trauma occurs in blood vessels close to the heart, it can lead to hemorrhagic or hypovolemic shock and death. Blunt trauma is another cause of vascular injury, it can occur after a high speed deceleration in an automobile accident.
A number of pathological conditions and diseases can lead to internal bleeding. These include: Blood vessel rupture as a result of high blood pressure, esophageal varices, peptic ulcers, or ectopic pregnancy. Other diseases linked to internal bleeding include cancer, hematologic disease, Vitamin K deficiency, rare viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as the Ebola, Dengue or Marburg viruses. Internal bleeding could be caused by medical error as a result of complications after surgical operations or medical treatment; some medication effects may lead to internal bleeding, such as the use of anticoagulant drugs or antiplatelet drugs in the treatment of coronary artery disease. At first, there may be no symptoms of internal bleeding. If an organ is damaged and it bleeds, it can be painful. Over time, internal bleeding can cause low blood pressure, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, confusion and loss of consciousness. A patient may lose more than 30% of their blood volume before there are changes in their vital signs or level of consciousness.
This is called hemorrhagic or hypovolemic shock, a type of shock that occurs when there is not enough blood to reach organs in the body. Early symptoms include anxiety, increased breathing rate, weak peripheral pulses, cold skin on the arms and legs. If internal bleeding is not treated, the heart and breathing rate will continue to increase while blood pressure and mental status decrease. Internal bleeding can result in death by blood loss; the median time from the onset of hemorrhagic shock to death by exsanguination is 2 hours. Internal bleeding can occur anywhere in the body; some symptoms of internal bleeding depend on the location of the bleed. Some examples of types of internal bleeding include: Head: Intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma Torso: cardiac tamponade, pulmonary hemorrhage, aortic aneurysm, gastrointestinal bleeding, blunt kidney trauma, splenic injury retroperitoneal bleeding, postpartum bleeding, ectopic pregnancy Extremities: bone fracture, hemarthrosis Blood loss can be estimated based on heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, mental status.
Advanced trauma life support by the American College of Surgeons separates hemorrhagic shock into four categories. Assessing circulation occurs after breathing. If internal bleeding is suspected, a patient’s circulatory system is assessed through palpation of pulses and doppler ultrasonography, it is important to examine the patient for visible signs that may suggest internal bleeding: a wound bruising blood collection abnormal skin sensation signs of compartment syndromeIt is important to look for the source of the internal bleeding. If internal bleeding is suspected after trauma, a FAST exam may be performed to look for bleeding in the abdomen. If the patient has stable vital signs, they may undergo diagnostic imaging such as a CT scan. If the patient has unstable vital signs, they may not undergo diagnostic imaging and instead may receive immediate medical or surgical treatment. Management of internal bleeding depends on the severity of the bleed. Internal bleeding is a medical emergency and should be treated by medical professionals.
If a patient has low blood pressure, intravenous fluids can be used until they can receive a blood transfusion. In order to replace blood loss and with large amounts of IV fluids or blood, patients may need a central venous catheter. Patients with severe bleeding need to receive large quantities of replacement blood via a blood transfusion; as soon as the clinician recognizes that the patient may have a severe, continuing hemorrhage requiring more than 4 units in 1 hour or 10 units in 6 hours, they should initiate a massive transfusion protocol. The massive transfusion protocol replaces red blood cells and platelets in varying ratios based on the cause of the bleeding, it is important to stop bleeding after identifying the cause of internal bleeding. Studies have shown that taking longer to achieve hemostasis in patients with traumatic causes and non-traumatic causes is associated with an increased death rate.. Un
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC