St. Marys, Ontario
St. Marys is a town in southwestern Ontario, Canada, it is located at the junction of Thames River and Trout Creek southwest of Stratford, is surrounded by the Township of Perth South in Perth County, Ontario. St. Marys operates under its own municipal government, independent from the County's government. Nonetheless, the three entities "enjoy a large degree of collaboration and work together to grow the region as a leading location for industry and people". Census data published for Perth County by Statistics Canada includes St. Marys and most Perth County publications do, at least in some sections of the document; the town is known by its nickname, "The Stone Town", due to the abundance of limestone in the surrounding area, giving rise to a large number of limestone buildings and homes throughout the town. St. Marys Cement, a large cement producer founded in the town, capitalized on this close feed stock, grew to be a major producer of cement in the province of Ontario. St. Marys is home to the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame.
It is the burial place of Canada's 9th Prime Minister. Timothy Eaton, who went on to become one of Canada's most famous retailers, opened his first businesses in Canada in nearby Kirkton, Ontario and St. Marys. In 1839 the Canada Company sent a surveyor to Blanshard Township in the Huron Tract to choose a site for a town on the Thames River which would be named St. Marys; the first settlers arrived at the junction of the Thames River and Trout Creek, southwest of Stratford in the early 1840s, attracted by the area's natural resources. At the new town site, the Thames River cascaded over a series of limestone ledges, providing the power to run the first pioneer mills and giving the community an early nickname: Little Falls; the Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes the settlement as follows: It was laid out in 1844, contains about 120 inhabitants. There is an excellent limestone quarry close to the village. Professions and Trades.—One grist mill, one saw mill, one physician and surgeon, two asheries, three stores, one tavern, one shoemaker, one tailor, one cooper, one blacksmith.
The arrival of the Grand Trunk Railway in the late 1850's increased the growth. In 1854 the community was incorporated in 1863 as a town. However, it did not incorporate itself into Perth County. In the riverbed and along the banks, limestone was close to the surface and could be quarried for building materials. Many 19th century limestone structures survive: churches, commercial blocks, private homes, they have given St. Marys its current nickname: Stonetown. A plaque erected by the Government of Ontario provides additional details about the early days; when opening Blanshard Township for settlement in 1839, the Canada Company made an arrangement with Thomas Ingersoll, a brother of Laura Secord, to build mills at "the Little Falls" of the Thames. In 1841-43 he erected a sawmill and a grist-mill and in return obtained 337 acres of land in this vicinity; the mills formed the nucleus of a settlement named St. Marys; the building of railways, 1857–60, stimulated development and in 1864, when St. Marys became a town, it was the centre of lumber and limestone quarry industries and the adjacent prosperous agricultural region.
The first library was opened in 1857. In 1904, the Andrew Carnegie Foundation provided $10,000 for the construction of a library building, it was built and opened on August 17, 1905. By 1913 the shelves contained 4000 books. Major renovations were completed in 1988 including the addition of a new wing. In 1908, a handle and hockey stick company was founded by Solen Doolittle in the town of St. Marys called the St. Marys Wood Specialty Company. Located on James Street in St. Marys from the early 1900s, it moved to Hespeler, Ontario in 1933. During their time in St. Marys the company made many such items as hammer handles, hockey sticks and baseball bats. After many ownership changes over the years, by 1988 the now-Cooper bat had risen to #2 in the National Baseball League after Louisville Slugger; this success subsequently inspired the town to bid for the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. On January 1, 1998, Perth county was restructured by reducing fourteen municipalities to four. However, the City of Stratford and the Town of St. Marys were unaffected, remaining independent entities.
Independent of the County of Perth, the Town of St. Marys has its own Mayor and six councilors including the Deputy Mayor, they meet at Town Hall on a regular basis. The Mayor for the 2014-2018 term is Al Strathdee. Population trend: According to the 2016 census, the land area was 12.45 square kilometres and the population density was 583.5 people per square kilometre. In 2016, there were 3,026 occupied private dwellings an increase of 10.8% from 2011. St. Marys contains many 19th century buildings built with locally quarried limestone. Notable buildings include the Opera House built in 1880, the spired municipal Town Hall built in 1891, the Public Library built in 1904; the Museum and Archives contains a great deal of historical information, with photographs. The Town Hall theatre offers theatrical events; the Municipal Heritage Committee helps in preserving the historic stone buildings and publishes a useful brochure online, with interesting facts about those in the downtown area. The Grand Trunk Trail is a walkway transformed from a two kilometre section of the former Grand Trunk Railway line.
The trail features a walk over the restored Sarnia bridge. In 2012, the Re-Purposing of the Sarnia Bridge to part of the Grand Trun
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O
William Christopher Macdonald
Sir William Christopher Macdonald was a Scots-Quebecer tobacco manufacturer and major education philanthropist in Canada. Born William Christopher McDonald in 1831 at Tracadie, in what was in the British Colony of Prince Edward Island, he was sixth of seven children of The Hon. Donald Macdonald and Anna Matilda, daughter of The Hon. Ralph Brecken. In 1772, as a consequence of the Jacobite Rebellion, Macdonald's paternal grandfather, John MacDonald of Glenaladale, the 8th laird of Glenaladale, purchased more than 20,000 acres of land in Prince Edward Island for settlement by more than 200 members of his Roman Catholic clan. Known today as the Glenaladale Settlers, in Canada the family name had been recorded as McDonald, which he maintained until 1898, when he began using the historical Scottish spelling but without capitalizing the "d"; as a youth, Macdonald rebelled against the authoritarian rule of his father and his Roman Catholic upbringing. Although his mother was Protestant and his siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith.
At the age of sixteen he renounced the church. At eighteen he left his Island home, making his way to the United States, where he found clerical work in Boston. Although he had limited education, Macdonald showed an entrepreneurial spirit and, joined by his brother Augustine, he organized himself as a broker to handle the shipping of American-made goods to merchants in his native Prince Edward Island. However, after a ship carrying some of his merchandise sank in an ocean storm, the venture had severe problems and Macdonald closed the business and left Boston; the Macdonald brothers moved to the Province of Canada where they settled in Montreal, a city, undergoing an economic boom. There, they made a living as brokers, earning commissions from the resale of a variety of products until 1858 when they opened McDonald Brothers and Co. a company that made tobacco products. The business procured tobacco leaf from suppliers in the southern United States, converted to pipe and chewing tobacco at their small Montreal facility.
While the use of tobacco products was growing in popularity, the American Civil War afforded the fledgling company an opportunity that brought enormous financial success, leading to Macdonald Brothers becoming the preeminent company in the field in Canada. All of the tobacco growers were located in states that were part of the Confederacy and with the onset of the war, the northern states faced a huge shortage of tobacco leaf; because Macdonald's company was in Canada, he was able to buy the leaf from the South and have it brought by ocean cargo vessels to Montreal. There, it was processed the finished product was shipped to the tobacco-starved market in the northern United States. Despite the fortune that Macdonalds' tobacco made, Macdonald himself said that he was ashamed of his business, seeing smoking as a "filthy and disgusting habit and forbade its consumption in his presence", referring to his shame as a source of his philanthropy; that was perhaps why his company's slogan was "Tobacco with a heart".
At the end of the Civil War, the company continued to prosper and by the early 1870s, it had more than five hundred employees. During this period, Macdonald bought out his brother's stock position and soon began using the great wealth he had earned to undertake philanthropic endeavors. Macdonald's philanthropic efforts at McGill University began because of his close relationship with John William Dawson, the principal of the university at the time. Macdonald, never having had a family of his own, soon became fond of the whole Dawson family. In fact, he would build the Macdonald-Harrington building in honor of Dawson's daughter Anna marrying the university geologist and future head of the chemistry department, Bernard J. Harrington. In 1870, he provided the funding for ten scholarships to McGill University, a program that continues to this day. However, this marked only a small beginning of the massive funding he would bestow on the university where he would serve on the Board of Governors for more than thirty years.
His generosity paid for the cost to construct buildings at McGill University to house new chemistry and physics departments, jointly with fellow Montrealer Thomas Workman, the engineering building. In each of these cases, for a time, Macdonald bore the faculty costs for the new departments as government funding was limited; when the university's engineering building burned down, Macdonald paid the costs to rebuild it. That building was named in his honor; as a result of these expanded facilities, the university began to establish an international reputation that would attract the likes of Ernest Rutherford to teach and where he did the work which earned him the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. When real estate developers purchased the property at the southwest corner of the University campus to build a hotel, Macdonald stepped in and bought the property at a premium gave it to the university. However, to ensure McGill was not subjected to other unwanted commercial development that would limit the university's future growth, he purchased and donated 25 acres north of the main campus which became the site for Molson Stadium, the gymnasium, Douglas Hall.
Macdonald's love of nature and rural life led to his establishing a new type of specialized school in cooperation with Dr. James W. Robertson, the Commissioner of Agriculture and Dairying for the Government of Canada. Built in Quebec, the Maritime Provinces and Ontario, aimed at those wanting to make their living in rural agriculture environments
Donald Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal
Donald Alexander Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, was a Scottish-born Canadian businessman who became one of the British Empire's foremost builders and philanthropists. He became commissioner and principal shareholder of the Hudson's Bay Company, he was president of the Bank of Montreal and with his first cousin, Lord Mount Stephen, co-founded the Canadian Pacific Railway. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and afterwards represented Montreal in the House of Commons of Canada, he was Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1896 to 1914. He was chairman of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, he was chancellor of Aberdeen University. King Edward VII called him "Uncle Donald", his estate was valued at $5.5 million. During his lifetime, including the bequests left after his death, he gave away just over $7.5 million plus a further £1 million to a huge variety of charitable causes across Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. He raised Lord Strathcona's Horse, who saw their first action in the Boer War.
He funded the building of Leanchoil Hospital. He and his first cousin, Lord Mount Stephen, purchased the land and each gave $1 million to the City of Montreal to construct and maintain the Royal Victoria Hospital, he endowed the Lord Strathcona Medal and donated generously to McGill University, Aberdeen University, the University of Manchester, Yale University, the Prince of Wales Hospital Fund and the Imperial Institute. At McGill, he started the Donalda Program for the purpose of providing higher education for Canadian women, building the Royal Victoria College on Sherbrooke Street for that purpose in 1886, he built the Strathcona Medical Building at McGill and endowed its chairs in pathology and hygiene. Born 6 August 1820, on Forres High Street, in Moray, Scotland, he was the second son of Alexander Smith and his wife Barbara Stuart, daughter of Donald Stuart of Leanchoil, Upper Strathspey, descended from Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, his father, whose family had lived at Archiestown Cottage as crofters at Knockando, became a saddler at Forres after trying his hand at farming and soldiering.
Donald was a first cousin of the successful and notably philanthropic Grant brothers of Manchester, who were reputedly immortalised as the "Cheeryble Brothers" in Charles Dickens' book, Nicholas Nickleby. Donald's mother was the sister of the Canadian explorer John Stuart, partner of the North West Company who rose to become Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company. Smith was educated at Anderson's Free School and on leaving at age sixteen he was apprenticed to become a lawyer in the offices of Robert Watson, Town Clerk of Forres. By the age of eighteen, Smith chose another career path: offered entry into mercantile life at Manchester, a career in the Indian Civil Service, his choice was to pattern himself on his uncle John Stuart who offered him a junior clerkship in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. Smith sailed to Montreal that year, he emigrated to Lower Canada in 1838 to work for the Hudson's Bay Company, becoming a clerk for the organization in 1842. He was given administrative control over the seigneury of Mingan in late 1843, where his innovative methods met with the disapproval of HBC governor Sir George Simpson.
The Mingan post burned down in 1846, Smith left for Montreal the following year. He returned in 1848, remained in Labrador until the 1860s, administering the fur trade and salmon fishing within the region. In 1862, Smith was promoted as the company's Chief Factor in charge of the Labrador district, he travelled to London in 1865, made a favourable impression on the HBC's directors. In 1868, he was promoted to Commissioner of the Montreal department, managing the HBC's eastern operations; that same year, Smith joined with George Stephen, Richard Bladworth Angus, Andrew Paton to establish the textile manufactory, Paton Manufacturing Company, in Sherbrooke. In 1869, the government of Sir John A. Macdonald held accountable the HBC for the disturbances reported in the Red River Colony, part of the proposed purchase of the original part of Rupert's Land from the HBC; the person in charge of HBC's nominal head office in Montreal was Smith, he was asked by the Governor-General to investigate and write a Royal Commission report.
Smith travelled to Manitoba, negotiated at Fort Garry with Louis Riel, voted the leader of the rebellion. Smith's offers, including land recognition for the Métis, led to Riel calling a Council of 40 representatives, drawn half-and-half from the Metis and the HBC settlers, for formal negotiations. Smith returned to Ottawa in early 1870, communicated the Royal Commission on the North-West Territories, which made his name in Canada and London. Smith succeeded in gaining clemency for some prisoners within the region, he was appointed that year to the office of President of the HBC's Council of the Northern Department. Smith accompanied Col. Garnet Wolseley's military mission to Red River in the year. Smith stayed in the region after 1870, was responsible for negotiating the transfer of HBC land to the federal government (as well as coordinating the transfer
1976 Progressive Conservative leadership election
The 1976 Progressive Conservative leadership election was held at the Ottawa Civic Centre in Ottawa on February 22, 1976, to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada to replace Robert Stanfield, who had resigned after losing the 1968, 1972, 1974 elections. It unexpectedly elected a 36-year-old, little-known PC Member of Parliament from Alberta as the party's new leader. Joe Clark defeated Claude Wagner on the fourth ballot of the convention by a margin of 65 votes; the convention's delegates were elected by the party's riding associations, along with the party's youth and women's associations. There were numerous ex officio delegates, including PC Members of Parliament, defeated candidates from the previous election, members of provincial legislatures, members of the party's national executive and the executives of provincial parties affiliated to the federal party. Delegates cast secret ballots, so their votes were not "tied" to any candidate. After each ballot, the candidate winning the fewest votes was removed from the ballot for the next round.
Several candidates withdrew voluntarily. Claude Wagner, 50, was the front-runner going into the convention. A former Liberal Minister of Justice in the government of Quebec. Wagner's support came from party members who believed that having a Quebec francophone leader would enable the party to expand its support in Quebec, where the party was soundly defeated by the Liberal Party of Canada in elections. Wagner's "law and order" image as Quebec justice minister appealed to many on the party's right wing. Brian Mulroney, 36, was a lawyer from Quebec who had grown up in a bilingual family and was seen as a candidate who could appeal to Quebec. Mulroney had never run for public office before and alienated many party members with his slick appearance and his expensive campaign, he was unable to build on the base of support that he brought to the convention. After placing second on the first ballot, Mulroney fell behind Clark on the second ballot as Red Tory delegates began to coalesce behind Clark. After delegates began to desert Mulroney on the third ballot, he was forced out of the race.
Mulroney defeated Clark for the leadership at the 1983 leadership convention. Wagner's campaign appealed to Mulroney delegates to come to him as a fellow Quebecer while Clark's campaign appealed to them on the basis of Mulroney and Clark both being on the left of the party. Key operatives in Mulroney's campaign included Ontario PC president Alan Eagleson and Newfoundland Premier Frank Moores. Murloney was endorsed by only two sitting Members of Parliament, Heath MacQuarrie and James McGrath. Joe Clark, 36, had been the Member of Parliament for Rocky Mountain, Alberta since the 1972 federal election. A Red Tory, in his youth he had served two terms as president of the Progressive Conservative Youth wing. Prior to being elected to parliament, Clark was a journalist, political science teacher, party worker. Jack Horner, 48, was a cattle rancher, he attracted votes from right-wing westerners. Horner placed fourth in the first ballot, but as right-wing delegates flocked to Wagner, Horner was unable to increase his vote and dropped out after the second ballot.
After losing the leadership, he joined the Liberal Party and became a minister in the Trudeau government despite his hard-line right-wing views and his harsh criticism of the Liberal government. He was defeated in the 1979 election, was appointed to the board of directors of the Canadian National Railway when Trudeau was returned to power in 1980. Horner was endorsed by former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. Paul Hellyer, 52, was a popular, long-term Liberal cabinet minister from Toronto, defeated by Pierre Trudeau at the 1968 Liberal leadership convention. After leaving the Liberal Party, Hellyer had attempted to establish a new party under his own leadership, the Action Canada movement; this was unsuccessful, Hellyer joined the PC Party. Hellyer damaged his bid for the PC leadership during his convention speech, when he criticized centrist Red Tories in the party for not being conservative enough; this alienated many party members who saw the irony in a former Liberal cabinet minister lecturing party members about being conservative.
After placing respectably in fifth in the first ballot, close to half of his delegates left his camp to support other candidates on the second ballot, Hellyer withdrew from the race. Flora MacDonald, 49, a popular PC Member of Parliament from Kingston, was the first woman to make a serious run for the PC leadership. MacDonald encouraged women of all political stripes across Canada to support her campaign by contributing one dollar, she was believed to be the front-runner amongst the Red Tory candidates going into the convention. Based on the public statements of support that she had received from delegates, many believed that she had a realistic chance of becoming leader. After the delegates cast their secret ballots, the result was different — she had won far fewer votes than had been promised to her by delegates, Clark became the favourite amongst Red Tories; the phenomenon of delegates promising their votes to one candidate and voting for another has become known in Canadian politics as the "Flora Syndrome".
She continued to be a respected Member of Parliament and served as a minister in the Clark and Mulroney governments. She had been endorsed by New Brunswick Premier Richard Hatfield. Sinclair Stevens, 49, an Ontario businessperson and PC MP
1972 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1972 was held on October 30, 1972, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 29th Parliament of Canada. It resulted in a slim victory for the governing Liberal Party, which won 109 seats, compared to 107 seats for the opposition Progressive Conservatives. A further 48 seats were won by other independents. On election night, the results appeared to give 109 seats to the Tories, but once the counting had finished the next day, the final results gave the Liberals a minority government and left the New Democratic Party led by David Lewis holding the balance of power. See 29th Canadian parliament for a full list of MPs elected; the election was the second fought by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. The Liberals entered the election high in the polls, but the spirit of Trudeaumania had worn off, a slumping economy hurt his party; the Tories were led by Robert Stanfield, the former premier of Nova Scotia, who had an honest but bumbling image. The Tories tried to capitalize on the public's perception that the Liberals were mismanaging the economy with the slogan, "A Progressive Conservative government will do better."
The Liberals campaigned on the slogan, "The Land is Strong", television ads illustrating Canada's scenery. The slogan became much derided, the party had developed few real issues to campaign on; as a result, their entire campaign was viewed as being one of the worst managed in recent decades. Liberal Party: increase bilingualism in the civil service. Progressive Conservative Party: increase the discipline in government spending, increase the power of the Auditor General to fight waste and inefficiency in government. New Democratic Party: eliminate 3% increase in personal income tax rates scheduled for January 1, 1973, reduce rates by 8% for ordinary Canadians. Social Credit Party: reform the monetary system in line with social credit theories; the voter turn-out was 76.7%. One independent candidate was elected: Roch LaSalle was re-elected in his Quebec riding. LaSalle had left the PC caucus to protest the party's failure to recognize Quebec's right to self-determination, was the only candidate to win the support of the separatist Parti Québécois.
One candidate with no affiliation was elected: Lucien Lamoureux, in the Ontario riding of Stormont-Dundas-Glengarry. Lamoureux elected as a Liberal, had been serving as Speaker of the House of Commons, he ran without affiliation. He retired after this Parliament, did not run in the 1974 election; the Liberals won a minority government, with the New Democratic Party led by David Lewis holding the balance of power. Despite having won both the popular vote and the most seats in every province and territory except for Quebec, British Columbia and the Northwest Territories, the Tories were kept out of power by their continued inability to make any headway into Quebec, as well as a failure to more decisively win in Ontario, where the Liberals finished a close second. Requiring NDP support to continue, the government would move to the political left, including the creation of Petro-Canada. Notes: "% change" refers to change from previous election 1 Indicates increase from total Social Credit + Ralliement creditiste seats/vote in 1968.
2 Roch LaSalle, elected in 1968 as a Progressive Conservative, won re-election as an independent. 3 Lucien Lamoureux, elected as a Liberal but served as Speaker of the House, won re-election with no party affiliation. 4 The Rhinoceros Party ran a total of 12 candidates, but because it was not recognized by Elections Canada as a registered party, its candidates were listed as independents. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 29th Canadian Parliament Social