Jewish Museum, Berlin
The first Jewish Museum in Berlin was founded on 24 January 1933 and was built next to the Neue Synagoge on Oranienburger Straße. In addition to curating Jewish history, it featured collections of Jewish art; the current Jewish Museum Berlin is the largest Jewish museum in Europe. It consists of three buildings, two of which are new additions built for the museum by architect Daniel Libeskind. German-Jewish history is documented in the collections, the library and the archive, is reflected in the museum's program of events; the museum is one of Germany's most frequented museums. Opposite the building ensemble, the W. Michael Blumenthal Academy of the Jewish Museum Berlin was built – after a design by Libeskind – in 2011/2012 in the former flower market hall; the archives, museum education department, a lecture hall and the Diaspora Garden can all be found in the academy. Princeton economist W. Michael Blumenthal, born in Oranienburg near Berlin and was President Jimmy Carter's Secretary of the Treasury, was the director of the museum from 1997 to 2014.
The first Jewish Museum in Berlin was founded on 24 January 1933, under the leadership of Karl Schwartz, six days before the Nazis gained power. The museum was built next to the Neue Synagoge on Oranienburger Straße and, in addition to curating Jewish history featured collections of modern Jewish art. Schwartz intended the museum as a means to revitalise Jewish creativity, to demonstrate that Jewish history was living history; the museum's art collection was seen as a contribution to German art history and one of the last exhibitions to be held was a retrospective of the German impressionist, Ernst Oppler in 1937. To reflect this focus on living history, the entrance hall of the museum both contained busts of prominent German Jews, such as Moses Mendelssohn and Abraham Geiger, a number of works by contemporary Jewish artists such as Arnold Zadikow and Lesser Ury. On 10 November 1938, during the'November Pogroms', known as Kristallnacht, the museum was shut down by the Gestapo, the museum's inventory was confiscated.
In 1976 a "Society for a Jewish Museum" formed and, three years the Berlin Museum, which chronicled the city's history, established a Jewish Department, but discussions about constructing a new museum dedicated to Jewish history in Berlin were being held. In 1988, the Berlin government announced an anonymous competition for the new museum's design. A year Daniel Libeskind's design was chosen by the committee for what was planned as a "Jewish Department" for the Berlin Museum. While other entrants proposed cool, neutral spaces, Libeskind offered a radical, zigzag design, which earned the nickname "Blitz". Construction on the new extension to the Berlin Museum began in November 1992; the empty museum was completed in 1999 and attracted over 350,000 people before it was filled and opened on 9 September 2001. The Jewish Museum Berlin is located in, it consists of two buildings – a baroque old building, the “Kollegienhaus” and a new, deconstructivist-style building by Libeskind. The two buildings have no visible connection above ground.
The Libeskind building, consisting of about 161,000 square feet, is a twisted zig-zag and is accessible only via an underground passage from the old building. For Libeskind, The new design, created a year before the Berlin Wall came down, was based on three conceptions that formed the museum’s foundation: first, the impossibility of understanding the history of Berlin without understanding the enormous intellectual and cultural contribution made by the Jewish citizens of Berlin, the necessity to integrate physically and spiritually the meaning of the Holocaust into the consciousness and memory of the city of Berlin. Third, that only through the acknowledgement and incorporation of this erasure and void of Jewish life in Berlin, can the history of Berlin and Europe have a human future. A line of "Voids", empty spaces about 66 feet tall, slices linearly through the entire building; such voids represent "That which can never be exhibited when it comes to Jewish Berlin history: Humanity reduced to ashes."
In the basement, visitors first encounter three intersecting, slanting corridors named the "Axes." Here a similarity to Libeskind's first building – the Felix Nussbaum Haus – is apparent, divided into three areas with different meanings. In Berlin, the three axes symbolize three paths of Jewish life in Germany – continuity in German history, emigration from Germany, the Holocaust; the second axis connects the Museum proper to the Garden of Exile. The Garden's oleaster grows out atop 49 tall pillars; the third axis leads from the Museum to a 79-foot tall empty silo. The bare concrete Tower is neither heated nor cooled, its only light comes from a small slit in its roof; the Jewish Museum Berlin was Libeskind's first major international success. In recent years, Libeskind has designed two structural extensions: a covering made of glass and steel for the "Kollegienhaus" courtyard, the Eric F. Ross Building, which houses the Academy of the Jewish Museum in the former flower market hall on the opposite side of the street.
In 2016, a jury appointed by the Jewish Museum Berlin awarded the first prize in an architectural competition for a new €3.44 million children's museum for 5 to 12 year-olds to Olson Kundig Architects.
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
Ole von Beust
Carl-Friedrich Arp Ole Freiherr von Beust called Ole von Beust, is a German politician, First Mayor of Hamburg from 31 October 2001 to 25 August 2010, serving as President of the Bundesrat from 1 November 2007 on for one year. He was succeeded as mayor by Christoph Ahlhaus. Born in Hamburg, he is the son of Achim Helge Freiherr von Beust and Hanna, née Wolff, considered half Jewish in Nazi Germany. Through his father he is a descendant of Saxon and Austrian statesman Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust. In 1971 Beust became a member of the conservative Christian Democratic Union. In 1973, after finishing high school, he worked for the CDU group in Hamburg's city-state parliament, a position he held until he started to study law in 1975 at the University of Hamburg. From 1977 until 1983 he was Hamburg president of the youth organisation of his party. Since 1978 Beust has been a member of the Hamburg city-state's parliament. In 1983 he completed his studies and became an independent lawyer, he has been a member of the ruling council of the Hamburg Land CDU since 1992, of the national ruling council of the CDU party since 1998.
First term On 31 October 2001, Ole von Beust became First Mayor of Hamburg. When Hamburg experienced an exodus of jobs after major corporations including cigarette-maker Reemtsma and shipping company Hapag-Lloyd, haircare products-maker Hans Schwarzkopf and the Vereins and Westbank AG were acquired by companies outside of Hamburg, von Beust had the city's investment arm, the Hamburger Gesellschaft für Beteiligungsverwaltung, join forces with retailer Tchibo for the acquisition of cosmetics maker Beiersdorf in 2003; this put American multinational Procter & Gamble out of the bidding and preserved Beiersdorf as a publicly traded, stand-alone company in Hamburg. As host of Hamburg's annual St. Matthew's Day banquet for the city's civic and business leaders, von Beust invited several high-ranking guests of honour to the city, including Queen Silvia of Sweden, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark, President Jakaya Kikwete of Tanzania. On 19 August 2003, Beust dismissed Ronald Schill, causing a scandal.
Beust had earlier dismissed Walter Wellinghausen, senator of the interior and Schill's most important official, without consulting Schill beforehand. This was due to public allegations of misconduct on Wellinghausen's part. In a private conversation, Schill demanded that Beust take back the dismissal using personal threats. Beust decided to dismiss Schill as well. In the press conference Schill held minutes after he had heard of his own dismissal, he spoke vaguely of "homosexual relationships", a "flat in an infamous hustler district" and "certain things happened that let one infer the occurrence of love acts" between Beust and Roger Kusch, who Beust had appointed minister of justice. Beust in turn stated that Schill threatened to make his alleged liaison with Kusch public under the premise that Beust intermingled public and private affairs, he said he had no sexual relationship with Kusch, that they knew each other for 25 years and were good friends, that Beust was Kusch's landlord. "This is all – all", according to Beust.
His unprepared statement to the press earned Schill a homophobic reputation. A popular radio-station broadcast a song calling him "Mega-Proll" and gay and lesbian associations protested vocally. Schill however affirmed Beust's version of the story, except for the accusations of blackmail, saying that he warned Beust to stay clear of nepotism, that this had nothing to do with Beust's sexual orientation, he stated "I have nothing against homosexuals". In a interview, Beust's father confirmed that his son is indeed homosexual. Beust himself considers his sexual orientation a private matter. Second term The Hamburg elections of 29 February 2004, ended with an unprecedented landslide victory for Ole von Beust and the CDU, with the party achieving an overall majority in the city-state's parliament; the CDU gained 47.2 percent of the vote, a full 21-point increase from the previous election in September 2001. This was the first time since 1993. Under von Beust's leadership, the Hamburg state government made the decision to commence construction of the Elbphilharmonie, a concert hall in the HafenCity quarter.
Between 2007 and 2009, von Beust was one of 32 members of the Second Commission on the modernization of the federal state, established to reform the division of powers between federal and state authorities in Germany. Third term In the Hamburg elections of 24 February 2008, the CDU gained 42.6 percent of the vote. Thus, the CDU continued to be the strongest party in Hamburg. However, since the CDU lost its absolute majority, it formed a coalition government with the Greens. At the time, the two party's cooperation was seen as a test for a possible coalition at the national level. In February 2009, von Beust and Minister President Peter Harry Carstensen of Schleswig-Holstein agreed on a €13 billion bailout of state-owned shipping financier HSH Nordbank; the two states were forced to intervene after the SoFFin fund, set up by the federal government in 2008 to stabilize the financial markets, said it could not help out HSH Nordbank until it got rid of all its bad debts. Ahead of the 2009 national elections, von Beust was tipped as potential Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development in the cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel.
2008 Hamburg state election
On 24 February 2008 state elections were held in Hamburg, for the 19th legislative period of the Hamburg Parliament. The four parties having more than 5 percent are the conservative CDU, the social-democratic SPD, the left-wing Die Linke and the ecological Green Party. CDU and GAL formed a coalition and Ole von Beust continued as Minister-President. Results of the election 2004 as followed: Ole von Beust, head of Senate of Hamburg and First Mayor, was the main candidate of the CDU; the candidate for SPD was Michael Naumann. Winner Ole von Beust did not achieve an absolute majority, he formed Germany's first "Black-Green"coalition on the federal state level with the Greens. On 28 November 2010 the Hamburg Home Office announced that the Hamburg parliament would be dissolved on 16 December 2010; the next elections were held on 20 February 2011. Elections in Hamburg Hamburg state elections in the Weimar Republic The Federal Returning Officer. Retrieved on 2009-08-30
The Left (Germany)
The Left commonly referred to as the Left Party, is a democratic socialist political party in Germany. It is considered to be left-wing populist by some researchers; the party was founded in 2007 as the result of the merger of the Party of Democratic Socialism and the Electoral Alternative for Labour and Social Justice. Through the PDS, the party is the direct descendant of the ruling party of the former East Germany, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Since mid-2012, its co-chairs have been Bernd Riexinger. In the Bundestag the party won 64 out of 630 seats after polling 8.6% of the vote in the 2013 federal elections and, after the Social Democrats and the CDU/CSU formed a grand coalition, became leader of the opposition. In the 2017 elections, the party acquired 69 out of 709 seats after receiving 9.2% of the vote.. Its parliamentary group is the fifth largest among the six groups in the German Bundestag, ahead of the Greens; the Left is a founding member of the Party of the European Left, is the largest party in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group in the European Parliament.
The party is the most left-wing party of the six represented in the Bundestag, has been called far-left by some news outlets, but according to the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the party as such is not to be regarded as left or a threat to democracy. However, it does monitor some of its internal factions, such as Socialist Left, as do some states' similar authorities, on account of suspected extremist tendencies. According to official party figures, the Left Party had 63,784 registered members as of December 2013, making it the fifth-largest party in Germany; the party participates in governments in the states of Brandenburg, as junior partner to the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Peaceful Revolution in East Germany which led to the replacement of Communist leader Erich Honecker in October 1989 led to a new generation of politicians in East Germany's ruling Socialist Unity Party who looked to Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika as their model for political change.
They had kept their own counsel during the Honecker era. However, the upheaval in the wake of the fall of the Berlin Wall gave them an opening. Longtime SED politician Hans Modrow, attorney Gregor Gysi and dissidents like Rudolf Bahro and Stefan Heym soon began to rebuild a party that had long been known as one of the most rigidly Stalinist parties in the Soviet bloc. After protests, the party was forced to give up its monopoly of power on 1 December 1989. Honecker's successor, Egon Krenz, resigned two days and Gysi was named party chairman. By the end of 1989, the last hardline members of the party's Central Committee had either resigned or been pushed out. In 1990, 95% of SED's 2.3 million members had left the party. By the time of a special congress in December 1989, the party was no longer a Marxist–Leninist party, though neo-Marxist and communist minority factions continued to be part of the party. At the congress, the party adopted a program of democratic reform. To try to distance itself from its repressive past and repair its reputation with the public, the party renamed itself "Socialist Unity Party-Party of Democratic Socialism", but dropped the SED part altogether in February 1990.
Gysi remained its leader, soon became one of the most well-known faces within German politics. By the end of February, the PDS had expelled most of the remaining prominent Communist-era leaders from its ranks - including Honecker and Krenz. However, this was not enough to save the party when it faced the voters at the 18 March general election, the first free election in East Germany; the party came in a distant third with 16.4% of the vote, behind the East German branches of the West German-based Christian Democratic Union and Social Democratic Party. The two major parties formed a grand coalition, led by the Alliance for Germany, built around the East German CDU, which meant the PDS was the main opposition party. In the first all-German Bundestag elections in 1990, the PDS won 2.4% of the nationwide vote. Under normal circumstances, a party must win at least five percent of the vote to qualify for mixed member proportional representation in the Bundestag. However, for the 1990 elections only, a one-time exception allowed eastern-based parties to qualify for list representation if they won at least five percent of the vote in the former East Germany.
Gysi was elected from a Berlin-area district. As a result, the PDS entered the 1990 Bundestag with 17 deputies led by Gysi, albeit without the privileges afforded to parliamentary groups. In the 1994 federal election the PDS managed to increase its share of the vote to 4.4 percent. This was in spite of an aggressive "Red Socks" campaign organised against the PDS by the then-ruling CDU aimed at scaring off voters by insinuating that underneath their suits, representatives of the PDS were "still wearing red socks"—i.e. harboring hardline Communist convictions. More Gysi was reelected from his Berlin-area seat, three other candidates were elected from eastern electoral districts; this allowed the PDS to qualify for MMP though it came up just short of the five percent threshold. Parties with at least three directly ele
The Berggruen Museum is a collection of modern art classics in Berlin, which the collector and dealer Heinz Berggruen, in a "gesture of reconciliation", gave to his native city. The most notable artists on display include Pablo Picasso, Giambattista Pittoni, Alberto Giacometti, Georges Braque, Paul Klee and Henri Matisse; the Berggruen Collection is part of the National Gallery of Berlin. The collection arrived in Berlin in 1996, with Berggruen's return to his native city after six decades in exile. In 1988 he had given about 90 Klees to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in 1990, he had agreed to make a five-year loan to the National Gallery in London of 72 paintings and drawings by Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Joan Miró. In 1990, negotiations with Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía for the Berggruen collection to be shown in Madrid fell through. Berggruen lent the collection, which he had assembled over 30 years, to the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation.
He sold it to the PCHF in December 2000, for the "symbolic" price of 253 million marks, well below its estimated value of 1.5 billion marks. Today it is exhibited under the title "Berggruen Collection – Picasso and His Time" as part of the National Gallery of Berlin, in the West Stüler Building on Schloßstraße, opposite Charlottenburg Palace; the centrepiece of the collection is the work of Picasso, with over 100 exhibits, together with over 60 pictures by Paul Klee. Henri Matisse is represented by over 20 works, including more than half a dozen of his famous cutouts. Sculpture ensembles by Alberto Giacometti and examples of African sculpture round out the core of the collection. Berggruen continued to purchase works after the museum's opening in 1996, including Picasso's important 1909 painting Houses on the Hill from the Museum of Modern Art in New York. A total of 165 works were transferred from Berggruen to the PCHF in the 2000 sale. In 2005 the Berggruen family acquired Picasso's Nu Jaune for $13.7 million at Sotheby's in New York.
This gouache is one of the first studies for Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, a milestone in 20th-century art. To mark the 10th anniversary of the museum, his permanent retirement from public life at the age of 92, Berggruen donated a sculpture by Alberto Giacometti, Standing Woman III, to the collection in December 2006, it had in fact been on loan at the museum until standing in the Stüler Building's rotunda. To keep the two-metre high bronze statue within the collection – his life's work – Berggruen purchased it and donated it to the PCHF. Several weeks on 23 February 2007, he died in Paris; the museum received 1.5 million visitors during its first decade from 1996 to 2006. Besides the permanent exhibition "Picasso and His Time", the museum hosts numerous special exhibitions on themes of classic modern art. In July 2007 the heirs to Berggruen's estate announced that they would present a further 50 classic modern works to the museum, in order to continue in their father's tradition of reconciliation with Germany.
Since the transfer at Christmas 2000 Berggruen had continued to purchase paintings, including works by Picasso, Klee and Cézanne, among others. To make an expansion possible, the state of Berlin announced that it would endow the PCHF with a new building for its 50th anniversary: the Kommandantenhaus, adjacent to the West Stüler Building. A society for friends of the Berggruen Museum was founded at the same time, with members including Berggruen's widow Bettina, his children Nicolas, Olivier and Helen, as well as Michael Blumenthal, Michael Naumann and Simon de Pury; the PCHF agreed to take on the running costs of the society. Plans were announced in 2008 to connect the two buildings with a glass pergola, chosen from an architectural competition, to be paid for by the government and installed by the state of Berlin. In May 2008 a further 70 paintings were added to the collection. Home page on the Berlin State Museums website