San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Pulgas Water Temple
The Pulgas Water Temple is a stone structure west of I-280 at 86 Cañada Road, California, United States, designed by architect William G. Merchant. It was erected by the San Francisco Water Department to commemorate the 1934 completion of the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct and is located at the aqueducts terminus, in 1938, the original water temple was replaced with the current design. There is a large, tree-lined reflecting pool to the east, the water temple grounds can be rented for weddings or special events. San Francisco and surrounding communities get water from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir approximately 160 miles away via the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. Starting in 2004, water no longer flows through the temple, the retreated water either enters the drinking water system after being chloraminated yet again at another plant or is stored as surplus in Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir. California State Historical Landmark #92 is located here, commemorating the place, somewhere in this immediate area. Members of the expedition were the first Europeans to explore areas of California.
On the previous day, while camped at San Francisquito Creek, expedition leaders made the decision to turn around and this meant first retracing their steps north to where they had crossed Sweeney Ridge from the coast. Pulgas is the Spanish word for fleas, which were encountered by early Spanish explorers of the area, in this location, the name comes from the former Rancho de las Pulgas, an early Spanish land grant
County Limerick is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster, and is part of the Mid-West Region. It is named after the city of Limerick, Limerick City and County Council is the local council for the county. The countys population at the 2016 census is 195,175 of which 58,319 live in Limerick City, Limerick borders four other counties, Kerry to the west, Clare to the north, Tipperary to the east and Cork to the south. It is the fifth largest of Munsters six counties in size, the River Shannon flows through the city of Limerick into the Atlantic Ocean at the north of the county. Below the city, the waterway is known as the Shannon Estuary, because the estuary is shallow, the countys most important port is several kilometres west of the city, at Foynes. Limerick City is the county town and is Irelands third largest city and it serves as a regional centre for the greater Mid-West Region. Newcastle West, Killmallock & Abbeyfeale are other important towns in the county, there are fourteen historic baronies in the county.
While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, the highest point in the county is located in its south-east corner at Galtymore, which separates Limerick from County Tipperary. The county is not a simply a plain, its topography consists of hills, the eastern part of the county is part of the Golden Vale, which is well known for dairy produce and consists of rolling low hills. This gives way to flat land around the centre of the county. Towards the west, the Mullaghareirk Mountains push across the county offering extensive views east over the county, tributaries of the Shannon drainage basin located in the county include the rivers Mulkear, Maigue, Morning Star and the Feale. It is thought that humans had established themselves in the Lough Gur area of the county as early as 3000 BC, the arrival of the Celts around 400 BC brought about the division of the county into petty kingdoms or túatha.
The OBriens retained their power until late in the 1100s. The ancestors of both Michael Collins and the famous OConnells of Derrynane were among the septs of the Uí Fidgenti. As the Ui Fidgenti were the clan in the Limerick after 400 a. d. the Uí Fidgenti still made a substantial contribution to the population of the central. Their capital was Dún Eochair, the earthworks of which still remain and can be found close to the modern town of Bruree
Heritage Documentation Programs
These programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, and written reports, in 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency. It was founded as a constructive program for architects, draftsmen. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of Americas architectural heritage, by creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement. Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher, who worked for the project for over 40 years. The Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10,1969, by NPS, HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts.
Since the advent of HAER, the program is typically called HABS/HAER. Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, a predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940. That project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, the permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, which was established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States, U. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph. As a branch of the United States Government, its works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures, locales and designs.
Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places HAER,30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. Documenting Complexity, The Historic American Engineering Record and Americas Technological History, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. National Park Service−NPS, official Heritage Documentation Programs website
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
The J Church is a Muni Metro light rail line in San Francisco, mainly serving the Noe Valley and Balboa Park neighborhoods, connecting them to downtown. It began as one of San Franciscos streetcar lines in 1917, buses cannot negotiate the grades, and the right-of-way is too narrow to accommodate anything wider than the streetcar tracks. The line runs from Embarcadero Station in the Financial District to Balboa Park Station, the downtown portion of the line uses the Market Street Subway, along with four other Muni Metro lines. The J exits the tunnel at Duboce Avenue along with the N Judah, between 18th and 20th Street, the line cuts through Dolores Park in a private right-of-way featuring a 9% grade, the steepest section of the Muni Metro. After crossing 20th Street, it cuts across the blocks east of Church, around a steep hill, the J follows Church to 30th Street, to San Jose Avenue and Geneva. Between Randall and Cotter Streets, there is a right-of-way in the middle of San Jose Avenue, at the end of the line, the J loops around the Metro yard at San Jose and Geneva, alongside Balboa Park Station.
The J Church line stops at stations for the downtown section of the route. Most of the stops are designated by a sign on the sidewalk. The J Church begins service at 5 a. m. weekdays,6 a. m, sundays and continues until 12,15 a. m. every night. Headways range from 7 to 15 minutes during the day, and 15 to 20 minutes at night, there is no late night service along the entire J line. Some of the route is covered by the L-Owl and N-Owl service provided by buses run on Market Street between Church Street and Steuart Street. Owl service on the 24 Divisadero line runs near the portion of the J line north of 30th Street, the outer end of the line was originally at Church and 30th Streets, where streetcars used a wye to turn around. In 1991, the tracks were extended to the Balboa Park BART station, the 2. 3-mile new section was initially used only by light rail cars starting or ending their runs, all-day J-line service was not extended along the new tracks until March 1992. This extension of the J-line to the Metro Center now provides vintage F Market cars a connection to the adjacent Geneva Yard, occasionally J-Church streetcars use the wye at 30th and Church as a terminus during rush hours, or during irregular operations.
With the completion of the M Ocean View Subway, the J Church will be re-routed to connect with the M Ocean View at a new subway station at SF State. Future ideas for extensions include a north of Church and Duboce Streets along Fillmore Street to Fort Mason. When these extensions occur, it is whether the J Church will be re-titled to J San Jose or keep its current designation. Inbound to outbound J Church on SFMTAs site J Church schedule J Church map, J-Church route information from the SF Muni Map Project
Stockton Street Tunnel
The Stockton Street Tunnel is a tunnel in San Francisco and carries its namesake street underneath a section of Nob Hill near Chinatown for about three blocks. The south portal is located just shy of Bush Street, which is two blocks to the north of Union Square. The north portal is located just to the south of the Sacramento Street intersection, the tunnel was primarily built for the streetcars of the now defunct F Stockton line, and inaugurated by mayor James Rolph on December 29,1914. Chicago, The Myron C. Clark Publishing Co, cant Go Over, It Goes Under Its Hills
Kohala is the name of the northwest portion of the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In ancient Hawaii it was ruled by an independent High Chief called the Aliʻi Nui. In modern times it is divided into two districts of Hawaii County, North Kohala and South Kohala, locals commonly use the name Kohala to refer to the census-designated places of Halaʻula, Hāwī, and Kapaʻau collectively. The dry western shore is known as the Kohala Coast. The area was named after the geological feature Kohala Mountain. The current districts cover the north and western sides of the mountain and it was one of the five ancient divisions of the island called moku. Near the coast are remnants of dry forests, and near the summit is a cloud forest and this precipitation allowed the northeast coast to be developed into sugarcane plantations, including one founded by Rev. Elias Bond used to fund his church and girls seminary. The Kohala Historical Sites State Monument includes Moʻokini Heiau, a National Historic Landmark, King Kamehameha I, the first King of the unified Hawaiʻian Islands, was born in North Kohala west of Hāwī, at the ancient site called the Moʻokini Heiau.
The heiau is a spiritual temple, and not just an historic artifact of the Hawaiian culture. The Bond Historic District is located in the North Kohala District, with structures from the Bond familys 19th century missionary, major thoroughfares within Kohala include Akoni Pule Highway which provides access to Pololū Valley. The Hawaii Belt Road which connects in the end of the Akoni Pule Highway to Kona in the south. The Kohala Mountain Road provides a link between Waimea and the Kohala CDPs of Halaʻula, Hāwī, and Kapaʻau, Upolu Airport is on Upolu Point at the northern tip of the island. Waimea-Kohala Airport is south of the town of Waimea, Hawaii County, Halaʻula Hāwī Kapaʻau Puako Waikoloa Village Waimea Kawaihae The Fairmont Orchid Mauna Kea Beach Hotel Kohala Gallery
NUI Galway is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland. It is located in Irelands westerly city of Galway, a tertiary-level educational institution, it is ranked among the top 2 per cent of universities in the world. The University is ranked #249 in the 2016 QS World University Rankings and has been awarded the full five QS stars for excellence. The university was founded in 1845 as Queens College, alumni include the incumbent Taoiseach and President of Ireland, Enda Kenny and Michael D. Higgins respectively, as well as numerous other prominent politicians. Other leading figures in Irish official life to have been educated here include Attorney General Máire Whelan and Comptroller, NUI Galway is a member of the Coimbra Group, a network of 40 long-established European universities. The university opened for teaching in 1849 as Queens College, Galway with 37 professors and 91 students, a year it became part of the Queens University of Ireland. The Irish Universities Act made this college a constituent college of the new National University of Ireland and it was given special statutory responsibility under the University College, Galway Act in respect of the use of the Irish language as the working language of the college.
It retained the title of University College, Galway until the Universities Act changed it to the National University of Ireland, located close to the city centre, it stretches along the River Corrib. The oldest part of the university, the Quadrangle building with its Aula Maxima was designed by John Benjamin Keane, it is a replica of Christ Church, the stone from which it is built was supplied locally. More modern parts of the university sprang up in the 1970s and were designed by architects Scott Tallon Walker, the 1990s saw considerable development, including the conversion of an old munitions factory into a student centre. A new Human Biology Building is under construction at present, the highly toxic substance asbestos was removed from the university grounds on 13 occasions between March 2010 and June 2014. Nelson Mandela made an appearance at the University in 2003. On what was his last visit to Ireland, Mandela condemned U. S. foreign policy, in 2008, Éamon Ó Cuív was allegedly involved in an altercation with a protesting student on the grounds of the university.
Ó Cuív was Community and Gaeltacht Affairs Minister at the time, in 2009, former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern was forced to flee from a public discussion in NUI Galway after being jostled by students opposed to the planned reintroduction of college fees. Shortly afterwards, the University announced its withdrawal of support for the Students Union-run RAG week, the Students Union president said she did not believe the decision was justified, with more than €20,000 having been raised for charity in 2009. NUI Galway has announced details of plans to make the university a campus of the future at a cost of around €400 million, details of the future plans of the University show a Human Biology building which will incorporate Anatomy and other human sciences areas. It formed an alliance with University of Limerick in 2010. It launched its Strategic Plan Vision 2020 in 2015, Angelas College, Sligo has been a college of the National University of Ireland, Galway, it was previously a recognised college of the National University of Ireland
Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893 and the United States annexed the islands in 1898. The Hawaiian Islands are the peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. The islands are about 1,860 miles from the nearest continent and this name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name Hawaii gradually began to take precedence. The Hawaiian Islands have a land area of 6,423.4 square miles. Except for Midway, which is a territory of the United States. The eight main islands of Hawaii are listed here and this number includes all minor islands and islets, or very small island, offshore of the main islands and individual islets in each atoll. Thus, the southeast island is volcanically active, whereas the islands on the northwest end of the archipelago are older and typically smaller, the age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods.4 Ma.
The only active volcanism in the last 200 years has been on the island, Hawaiʻi. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the USGS documents recent volcanic activity and provides images, almost all of the magma of the hotspot has the composition of basalt, and so the Hawaiian volcanoes are composed almost entirely of this igneous rock. There is very little coarser-grained gabbro and diabase, nephelinite is exposed on the islands but is extremely rare. Hawaiʻi island is the biggest and youngest island in the chain, mauna Loa, taking up over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield volcano on the Earth. The measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles, the Hawaiian Islands have many earthquakes, generally caused by volcanic activity. Most of the earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo, by missionaries Titus Coan, Sarah J. Lyman. From 1833 to 1896, approximately 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year, Hawaii accounted for 7. 3% of the United States reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes.
Hawaii ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this period, after Alaska. On October 15,2006, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii, the initial earthquake was followed approximately five minutes by a magnitude 5.7 aftershock. Minor-to-moderate damage was reported on most of the Big Island, several major roadways became impassable from rock slides, and effects were felt as far away as Honolulu, nearly 150 miles from the epicenter
Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous plant in the Cannabis genus, a species of the Cannabaceae family. People have cultivated Cannabis sativa throughout recorded history as a source of fibre, seed oil, recreation and spiritual moods. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use, the species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. Its seeds are used to make hempseed oil which can be used for cooking, lamps. They can be used as feed, as they provide a moderate source of nutrients for most birds. The flowers contain psychoactive chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are consumed for recreational and spiritual purposes, when so used, preparations of flowers and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract are consumed by smoking and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures and ointments have been common preparations, in traditional medicine of India in particular C. sativa has been used as hallucinogenic, sedative and anti-inflammatory agent.
The flowers of the plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. Male plants shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seed ripening on the female plants, although genetic factors dispose a plant to become male or female, environmental factors including the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression. Naturally occurring monoecious plants, with male and female parts, are either sterile or fertile but artificially induced hermaphrodites can have fully functional reproductive organs. Feminized seed sold by commercial seed suppliers are derived from artificially hermaphrodytic females that lack the male gene. In the case of production related to use of Cannabis. A Cannabis plant in the growth phase of its life requires more than 12–13 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day, the flowering cycle can last anywhere between nine and fifteen weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions.
In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.3 to 6.8. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5.2 to 5.8, making Cannabis well-suited to hydroponics because this pH range is hostile to most bacteria and fungi. Broadly, there are three main groups of cannabis that are cultivated today, Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fibre, characterised by long stems. Cultivars grown for seed which can be eaten raw or from which hemp oil is extracted