Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Little Wars is a set of rules for playing with toy soldiers, written by English novelist H. G. Wells in 1913; the book, which had a full title of Little Wars: a game for boys from twelve years of age to one hundred and fifty and for that more intelligent sort of girl who likes boys' games and books, provided simple rules for miniature wargaming. Although first printed in 1913, an updated version was released in 2004. Little Wars included simple rules for infantry and artillery in the form of a toy 4.7 inch gun that launched projectiles small wooden dowels to knock down enemy soldiers. In addition to its being a war game, the book hints at several philosophical aspects of war; the book is written in a whimsical style and illustrated with amusing drawings and photographs of a game being played that Wells describes in the book. Wells gives a description of the game from the view of one of the generals in the battle bombastically relating his memoirs; the development of the game is explained and Wells's thoughts on war, as he was known to be a pacifist, are revealed in his writing.
According to Wells, the idea of the game developed from a visit by his friend Jerome K. Jerome. After dinner, Jerome began shooting down toy soldiers with a toy cannon and Wells joined in to compete; the two decided that with an addition of written rules, a good Kriegsspiel type game could be developed. The game revolved around the use of lead hollow cast soldiers made by W. Britain and battlefields made from whatever materials were on hand blocks or other toys. Simple rules of movement and close combat were developed with a set amount of time for each player to move and fire. Wells provides a chapter of "Extensions and Amplifications of Little War". In an appendix, Wells provides "Little Wars and Kriegspiel". Little Wars was first published in 1913 by Frank Palmer. Little Wars was republished in its unabridged form by Da Capo Press in 1977. There have been numerous other reprints and it is now available online at Project Gutenberg, along with a previous game book by Wells called Floor Games. A 2004 edition of the book published by Skirmisher Publishing includes an introduction by game designer Michael O. Varhola and a foreword by Gary Gygax.
C. Ben Ostrander reviewed the 1977 unabridged version of Little Wars in The Space Gamer No. 17. Ostrander commented that "There are many line drawings and photos of the author'at play'. Although it is of little use to the modern gamer, this book stands as an interesting volume." Full text of Little Wars from Project Gutenberg Full text of Floor Games from Project Gutenberg Little Wars on Archive.org Little Wars at "Schild en Vriend" Little Wars public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Ernest Gary Gygax was an American game designer and author best known for co-creating the pioneering role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons with Dave Arneson. In the 1960s, Gygax created an organization of wargaming clubs and founded the Gen Con gaming convention. In 1971, he helped develop a miniatures wargame based on medieval warfare, he co-founded the company Tactical Studies Rules with childhood friend Don Kaye in 1973. The following year, he and Arneson created D&D, which expanded on Gygax's Chainmail and included elements of the fantasy stories he loved as a child. In the same year, he founded a magazine based around the new game. In 1977, Gygax began work on a more comprehensive version of the game, called Advanced Dungeons & Dragons. Gygax designed numerous manuals for the game system, as well as several pre-packaged adventures called "modules" that gave a person running a D&D game a rough script and ideas on how to run a particular gaming scenario. In 1983, he worked to license the D&D product line into the successful D&D cartoon series.
After leaving TSR in 1985 over issues with its new majority owner, Gygax continued to create role-playing game titles independently, beginning with the multi-genre Dangerous Journeys in 1992. He designed another gaming system called Lejendary Adventure, released in 1999. In 2005, Gygax was involved in the Castles & Crusades role-playing game, conceived as a hybrid between the third edition of D&D and the original version of the game conceived by Gygax. Gygax had six children. In 2004, Gygax suffered two strokes, narrowly avoided a subsequent heart attack, was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm, died in March 2008. Gygax was born in Chicago, the son of Almina Emelie "Posey" and Swiss immigrant and former Chicago Symphony Orchestra violinist Ernst Gygax, he was named Ernest after his father, but he was known as Gary, the middle name given to him by his mother after the actor Gary Cooper. The family lived on Kenmore Avenue, close enough to Wrigley Field that he could hear the roar of the crowds watching the Chicago Cubs play.
At age 7, he became a member of a small group of friends who called themselves the "Kenmore Pirates". In 1946, after the Kenmore Pirates were involved in a fracas with another gang of boys, his father decided to move the family to Posey's family home in Lake Geneva, where Posey's family had settled in the early 19th century, where Gary's grandparents still lived. In this new setting, Gygax soon made friends with several of his peers, including Don Kaye and Mary Jo Powell. During his childhood and teen years, he developed a love of games and an appreciation for fantasy and science fiction literature; when he was five, he played card games such as pinochle and board games such as chess. At the age of ten, he and his friends played the sort of make-believe games that came to be called "live action role-playing games" with one of them acting as a referee, his father introduced him to science fantasy through pulp novels. His interest in games, combined with an appreciation of history led Gygax to begin playing miniature war games in 1953 with his best friend Don Kaye.
As teenagers Gygax and Kaye designed their own miniatures rules for toy soldiers with a large collection of 54 mm and 70 mm figures, where they used "ladyfingers" to simulate explosions. By the time he reached his teens, Gygax had a voracious appetite for pulp fiction authors such as Robert Howard, Jack Vance, Fritz Leiber, H. P. Lovecraft, Edgar Burroughs. Gygax was a mediocre student, in 1956, a few months after his father died, he dropped out of high school in his junior year, he joined the Marines, but after being diagnosed with walking pneumonia, he was given a medical discharge and moved back home with his mother. From there, he commuted to a job as a shipping clerk with Kemper Insurance Co. in Chicago. Shortly after his return, a friend introduced him to Avalon Hill's new wargame Gettysburg, Gygax was soon obsessed with the game playing marathon sessions once a week or more, it was from Avalon Hill that he ordered the first blank hex mapping sheets that were available, which he employed to design his own games.
At about the same time that he discovered Gettysburg, his mother re-introduced him to Mary Jo Powell, who had left Lake Geneva as a child and had just returned. Gygax was smitten with the beautiful young woman, after a short courtship, persuaded her to marry him, despite the fact that he was only 19; this caused some friction with his best friend Don Kaye, wooing Mary Jo, to the point where Kaye refused to attend Gygax's wedding. The young couple moved to Chicago where Gygax continued as a shipping clerk at Kemper Insurance, found Mary Jo a job there too. At Mary Jo's insistence, he attended night classes in junior college to earn his high school diploma, this time he excelled at his studies and made the college's Dean's List, he took anthropology classes at the University of Chicago. Gygax volunteered as a Republican precinct captain during the 1960 presidential election, observed many infractions by his Democratic counterpart; when he threatened to report these, he was offered a full scholarship to the University of Chicago if he kept silent.
Although Gygax did not report the infractions, since he felt nothing would be done, he did not accept the scholarship. Despite his commitments to his job, raising a family and his political volunteerism, Gygax continued to play wargames
H. G. Wells
Herbert George Wells was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, writing dozens of novels, short stories, works of social commentary, satire and autobiography, including two books on recreational war games, he is now best remembered for his science fiction novels and is called a "father of science fiction", along with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback. During his own lifetime, however, he was most prominent as a forward-looking prophetic social critic who devoted his literary talents to the development of a progressive vision on a global scale. A futurist, he wrote a number of utopian works and foresaw the advent of aircraft, space travel, nuclear weapons, satellite television and something resembling the World Wide Web, his science fiction imagined time travel, alien invasion and biological engineering. Brian Aldiss referred to Wells as the "Shakespeare of science fiction". Wells rendered his works convincing by instilling commonplace detail alongside a single extraordinary assumption – dubbed “Wells’s law” – leading Joseph Conrad to hail him in 1898 as "O Realist of the Fantastic!".
His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds and the military science fiction The War in the Air. Wells was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times. Wells's earliest specialised training was in biology, his thinking on ethical matters took place in a and fundamentally Darwinian context, he was from an early date an outspoken socialist sympathising with pacifist views. His works became political and didactic, he wrote little science fiction, while he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of journalist. Novels such as Kipps and The History of Mr Polly, which describe lower-middle-class life, led to the suggestion that he was a worthy successor to Charles Dickens, but Wells described a range of social strata and attempted, in Tono-Bungay, a diagnosis of English society as a whole. A diabetic, Wells co-founded the charity The Diabetic Association in 1934. Herbert George Wells was born at Atlas House, 162 High Street in Bromley, Kent, on 21 September 1866.
Called "Bertie" in the family, he was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells and his wife, Sarah Neal. An inheritance had allowed the family to acquire a shop in which they sold china and sporting goods, although it failed to prosper: the stock was old and worn out, the location was poor. Joseph Wells managed to earn a meagre income, but little of it came from the shop and he received an unsteady amount of money from playing professional cricket for the Kent county team. Payment for skilled bowlers and batsmen came from voluntary donations afterwards, or from small payments from the clubs where matches were played. A defining incident of young Wells's life was an accident in 1874 that left him bedridden with a broken leg. To pass the time he began to read books from the local library, brought to him by his father, he soon became devoted to the other lives to which books gave him access. That year he entered Thomas Morley's Commercial Academy, a private school founded in 1849, following the bankruptcy of Morley's earlier school.
The teaching was erratic, the curriculum focused, Wells said, on producing copperplate handwriting and doing the sort of sums useful to tradesmen. Wells continued at Morley's Academy until 1880. In 1877, his father, Joseph Wells, suffered a fractured thigh; the accident put an end to Joseph's career as a cricketer, his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary source of family income. No longer able to support themselves financially, the family instead sought to place their sons as apprentices in various occupations. From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium, Hyde's, his experiences at Hyde's, where he worked a thirteen-hour day and slept in a dormitory with other apprentices inspired his novels The Wheels of Chance, The History of Mr Polly, Kipps, which portray the life of a draper's apprentice as well as providing a critique of society's distribution of wealth. Wells's parents had a turbulent marriage, owing to his mother's being a Protestant and his father's being a freethinker.
When his mother returned to work as a lady's maid, one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living space for her husband and children. Thereafter and Joseph lived separate lives, though they never divorced and remained faithful to each other; as a consequence, Herbert's personal troubles increased as he subsequently failed as a draper and later, as a chemist's assistant. However, Uppark had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself, reading many classic works, including Plato's Republic, Thomas More's Utopia, the works of Daniel Defoe; this would be the beginning of Wells's venture into literature. In October 1879, Wells's mother arranged through a distant relative, Arthur Williams, for him to join the National School at Wookey in Somerset as a pupil–teacher, a senior pupil who acted as a teacher of younger children. In December that year, Williams was dismissed for irregularities in his qualifications and Wells was returned to Uppark. After a short apprenticeship at a chemist in nearby Midhurst and an
Metropolitan State University of Denver
Metropolitan State University of Denver is a public university in Denver, Colorado. MSU Denver is located on the Auraria Campus, along with the University of Colorado Denver and the Community College of Denver, in downtown Denver, adjacent to Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue. MSU Denver has an enrollment of more than 21,000 students; the institution is located in one of the oldest areas of Denver. The campus is located at the former townsite of Auraria, founded in November 1858. Denver was founded three weeks on the opposing side of Cherry Creek. Denver would soon overtake Auraria after thriving for a mere two years. For a century following, an Auraria neighborhood would remain; the boundaries of the former neighborhood were Colfax Avenue on the south, the South Platte River on the northwest and Cherry Creek on the northeast. The Auraria Campus, Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens now inhabit this area. Auraria had a mix of industrial areas through the early to mid-20th century; when the campus was built, many Aurarians, a majority of them Hispanic, were displaced and the school promised to serve the community.
The historic Tivoli Brewery was a popular beer brewery on this site, preserved and the building now serves as the Tivoli Student Union to all three schools on the campus. Many original buildings remain on campus including a preserved street of Victorian cottages in the 9th Street Historic District. Two churches are still on St. Elizabeth's of Hungary and St. Cajetan's; the Emmanuel Gallery, the oldest synagogue structure in Denver, is on the campus as well and serves as a museum. Metropolitan State University of Denver was founded in 1965 as an opportunity school; the concept was. By design, MSU Denver is required to be accessible to all, why it has some of the lowest tuitions of four-year Colorado colleges and universities. A third of the student body are students of color; the Auraria Campus is situated between Sports Authority Field at Pepsi Center. During the 2008 Democratic National Convention, MSU Denver started the semester a week early, closed for the convention, restarted on schedule; the campus was within the security perimeter designated by the United States Secret Service, leading to the decision to close the campus to all except essential personnel.
MSU Denver was the first university to allow DREAMers to have a chance at higher education. It made national headlines; the then-Metropolitan State College of Denver Board of Trustees on March 9, 2011, approved a legislative proposal to change the institution's name to "Denver State University" following a vote among students and faculty. University of Denver administration and faculty publicly objected to "Denver State University" as MSU Denver's new name; as a result of this, the Board of Trustees decided to cancel the planned name change. Some community members objected and viewed this change of plans as allowing a private university deciding the fate of a public one. On July 1, 2012, the name became Metropolitan State University of Denver. To coincide with the new transition from college to university status, the Student Success Building opened its doors and now houses administrative offices, including admissions and financial aid, as well as state-of-the-art classrooms. 1965–1990: Metropolitan State College 1990–2012: Metropolitan State College of Denver 2012–present: Metropolitan State University of Denver The Auraria Campus is the main campus of MSU Denver and is located to the southwest of downtown Denver in the Auraria Neighborhood, enclosed by Auraria Pkwy to the west and north, Speer Blvd to east, Colfax Ave to the south.
MSU Denver shares the campus with two other higher education institutions, the University of Colorado Denver and Community College of Denver. The traditional main entrance to campus is Lawrence between the North and Science buildings. However, in recent years due to the addition of the RTD Light Rail, many students regard the Colfax At Auraria station at 10th St & Colfax to be the main entrance; the campus is located in the heart of the central business district and is in close proximity to the Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens, The Colorado Convention Center, The Denver Performing Arts Complex, Larimer Square, the 16th Street Mall. The reclaimed Callie Maher brewery, which closed in 1969, now operates as a student union serving all 3 schools on campus. There are ongoing building renovations on campus, including the library, as well as a new aerospace building next to the Student Success building. Light Rail Auraria West Campus – Light rail station for the C, E, & W lines Colfax at Auraria – Light rail station for the D, F & H linesBus The Auraria Campus is on eleven RTD bus routes.
Bike The Auraria Campus can be reached from both the South Platte River and Cherry Creek bike paths, is only blocks from Confluence Park, where these two paths intersect. Classroom Buildings Science Building Central Classroom Building Plaza Kenneth King Center (English, Native American Studies, Political Science, Theater departments.
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson was a Scottish novelist and travel writer, most noted for Treasure Island, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, A Child's Garden of Verses. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Stevenson suffered from serious bronchial trouble for much of his life, but continued to write prolifically and travel in defiance of his poor health; as a young man, he mixed in London literary circles, receiving encouragement from Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, Leslie Stephen and W. E. Henley, the last of whom may have provided the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island, his travels took him to France and Australia, before he settled in Samoa, where he died. A celebrity in his lifetime, Stevenson attracted a more negative critical response for much of the 20th century, though his reputation has been restored, he is ranked as the 26th most translated author in the world. Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, Scotland on 13 November 1850 to Thomas Stevenson, a leading lighthouse engineer, his wife Margaret Isabella.
He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson. At about age 18, he changed the spelling of "Lewis" to "Louis", he dropped "Balfour" in 1873. Lighthouse design was the family's profession. Thomas's maternal grandfather Thomas Smith had been in the same profession. However, Robert's mother's family were gentry, tracing their lineage back to Alexander Balfour who had held the lands of Inchyra in Fife in the fifteenth century, his mother's father Lewis Balfour was a minister of the Church of Scotland at nearby Colinton, her siblings included physician George William Balfour and marine engineer James Balfour. Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfather's house. "Now I wonder what I inherited from this old minister," Stevenson wrote. "I must suppose, that he was fond of preaching sermons, so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them."Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they needed to stay in warmer climates for their health.
Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, but the tendency to extreme sickness in winter remained with him until he was 11. Illness left him extraordinarily thin. Contemporaneous views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis or sarcoidosis. Stevenson's parents were both devout Presbyterians, but the household was not strict in its adherence to Calvinist principles, his nurse Alison Cunningham was more fervently religious. Her mix of Calvinism and folk beliefs were an early source of nightmares for the child, he showed a precocious concern for religion, but she cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from John Bunyan and the Bible as he lay sick in bed and telling tales of the Covenanters. Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in "The Land of Counterpane" in A Child's Garden of Verses, dedicating the book to his nurse.
Stevenson was an only child, both strange-looking and eccentric, he found it hard to fit in when he was sent to a nearby school at age 6, a problem repeated at age 11 when he went on to the Edinburgh Academy. His frequent illnesses kept him away from his first school, so he was taught for long stretches by private tutors, he was a late reader, learning at age 7 or 8, but before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse, he compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood. His father was proud of this interest, he paid for the printing of Robert's first publication at 16, entitled The Pentland Rising: A Page of History, 1666. It was an account of the Covenanters' rebellion, published in 1866, the 200th anniversary of the event. In September 1857, Stevenson went to Mr Henderson's School in India Street, but because of poor health stayed only a few weeks and did not return until October 1859. During his many absences he was taught by private tutors. In October 1861, he went to Edinburgh Academy, an independent school for boys, stayed there sporadically for about fifteen months.
In the autumn of 1863, he spent one term at an English boarding school at Spring Grove in Isleworth in Middlesex. In October 1864, following an improvement to his health, he was sent to Robert Thomson's private school in Frederick Street, where he remained until he went to university. In November 1867, Stevenson entered the University of Edinburgh to study engineering, he showed from the start devoted much energy to avoiding lectures. This time was more important for the friendships he made with other students in the Speculative Society with Charles Baxter, who would become Stevenson's financial agent, with a professor, Fleeming Jenkin, whose house staged amateur drama in which Stevenson took part, whose biography he would write. Most important at this point in his life was a cousin, Robert Alan Mowbray Stevenson, a lively and light-hearted young man who, instead of the family profession, had
New Bloomfield, Pennsylvania
New Bloomfield is a borough in Perry County, is the county seat. The population was 1,077 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Harrisburg–Carlisle metropolitan statistical area. New Bloomfield was laid out in 1823, named for the blooming clovers near the original town site. A post office called New Bloomfield has been in operation since 1825; the Perry County Courthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The official name of the borough is Bloomfield; however the United States Postal Service to avoid confusion with the neighborhood of Pittsburgh, named Bloomfield, refers to the area as "New Bloomfield." According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,077 people, 396 households, 255 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,983.1 people per square mile. There were 425 housing units at an average density of 782.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.89% White, 0.56% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.28% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 396 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.84. In addition, there is a military boarding school, Carson Long Military Academy, with about 90 cadets. In the borough the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 24.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $39,018, the median income for a family was $47,500. Males had a median income of $30,781 versus $24,286 for females.
The per capita income for the borough was $17,168. About 6.0% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Bloomfield Borough is governed by a seven member, locally elected council. There is an elected mayor. Local TaxesIn 2013, Bloomfield Borough property owners were subject to the following real estate millage rates: 2.16220 mills plus.37000 mills for the fire department. The Borough assesses a $5 per year per capita tax. For 2013-14, the school district's millage is 10.210 mills. The West Perry School District levies a 1.7% earned income tax which applies only to wage earners and a $5 per year per capita tax. Both social security income and pension income are exempted from the earned income tax regardless of the wealth of the individual or the amount of the pension. County level Three, elected at large, Perry County Commissioners. In 2015, they are: Brenda K. Benner, Stephen C. Naylor and Paul L Rudy Jr.
The County levies several taxes including a 3.3125 millage on property in 2014. Perry County receives funding from both the state and federal government; the County is mandated by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to provide many social services to residents. Perry County has one of the highest median property taxes in the United States, is ranked 550th of the 3143 counties in order of median property taxes; the average yearly property tax paid by Perry County residents amounts to about 3.11% of their yearly income. Perry County ranked 538th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income. According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-2000 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-2009 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2010-2011. Property taxes in Pennsylvania are high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.
S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income. New Bloomfield Borough lies within the West Perry School District. In 2013, the District's enrollment declined to 2,527 students; the District provides full day kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2014, the Pittsburgh Business Times ranked West Perry School District 371st out of 496 Pennsylvania public school districts for academic achievement of its pupils. High School students and adults can attend the publicly funded Cumberland Perry Area Vocational Technical School, located in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. CPAVTA provides students training in the: construction and mechanical trades, culinary arts, health aids, computer technical careers and other fields. Students may attend Capital Area Online Learning Association online education programs; the service is operated by the Capital Area Intermediate Unit 15. School aged residents may attend the Capital Area School for the Arts, an arts charter school located in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
School aged Bloomfield residents may apply to attend any of the Commonwealth's 14 public cyber charter schools at no additional cost to the parents. The resident’s public school district is required to pay the charter school and cyber charter school tuition for residents who attend these public schools. By Commonwealth law, if the District provides transportation for its own students the District must provide transportation to any school that lies