City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Le Schuylkill is a high-rise residential building in Monaco. It is located at Boulevard de Suisse in Monte-Carlo, Monaco; the construction of the building was completed in 1970. It was designed in the modernist architectural style, it is 78 metres high, with twenty-five storeys. It is the fourteenth tallest building in Monaco, it was owned by heiress Hélène Pastor through her eponymous real estate company. Her daughter, Sylvia Pastor, lived in this building with her companion, the Polish businessman and honorary consul Wojciech Janowski. Another notable resident was Michael Pearson, 4th Viscount Cowdray
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms; the kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, legal system, state church; the territory of the Kingdom had been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms. In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland; the English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s; the conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain. In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland.
Catholics, who made up most of the population, were discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars, the Williamite-Jacobite War, the Armagh disturbances and the Irish Rebellion of 1798; the Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, it established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain. The papal bull Laudabiliter of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155, it granted the Angevin King Henry II of England the title Dominus Hibernae. Laudabiliter authorised the king to invade Ireland. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope; this was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.
When Pope Clement VII excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII, in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry declared himself the head of the Church in England, he had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III; the Treason Act 1537 was passed to counteract this. Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas in 1534–35, the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, took their submissions. By 1540 most of Ireland seemed under the control of the king's Dublin administration. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, an Act of the Irish Parliament; the new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI, Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland.
The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland to the Crown of England became enshrined in Catholic canon law. In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland was ruled by the reigning monarch of England; this placed the new Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with the Kingdom of England. In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King's Inns for barristers in 1541, the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin were delayed until 1592. In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords and Spain against the crown, in what became known as the Nine Years' War. A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland. In 1603 James VI King of Scots became James I of England, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Ireland in a personal union.
The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England and Ireland were ruled as a republic until 1660; this period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England and Ireland. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II. Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649. Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782, granting Ireland legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan's Parliament, after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan. Although Ireland had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788 -- 89 a Regency crisis arose. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales George
Orlando Bridgeman, 5th Earl of Bradford
Lieutenant-Colonel Orlando Bridgeman, 5th Earl of Bradford, DL, JP, styled Viscount Newport from 1898 to 1915, was a British peer, Conservative politician and soldier. He was a major landowner. Bridgeman was the oldest son of George Bridgeman, 4th Earl of Bradford and his wife Lady Ida Frances Annabella Lumley, second daughter of Richard Lumley, 9th Earl of Scarbrough. Bridgeman was educated at Harrow School and went to Trinity College, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1896 and with a Master of Arts in 1903. At Cambridge, he was secretary of the Pitt Club, he succeeded his father as earl in 1915. Bridgeman joined the 3rd Battalion of The Royal Scots, was appointed a captain on 29 April 1899; the battalion was embodied in December 1899 to serve in the Second Boer War, in early March 1900 left Queenstown on the SS Oriental for South Africa. He fought in the war after arrival in 1900, again in 1902, returning from Cape Town to the United Kingdom with most of his regiment in May 1902.
He again fought in the First World War from 1915 as a lieutenant-colonel. Bridgeman was appointed Honorary Colonel of the King's Shropshire Light Infantry in 1939. Bridgeman was assistant private secretary to Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury in his posts as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1898 and 1900 and as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a few weeks during the summer of 1902. Salisbury resigned on 11 July 1902, Lord Newport subsequently was private secretary to Salisbury's successor Arthur Balfour from July 1902 until 1905. Having joined the House of Lords on his father's death, Bridgeman became Government Whip in 1919, a post he held until 1924, he was Justice of the Peace for Shropshire and represented the latter county as well as Warwickshire as Deputy Lieutenant, too. On 21 July 1904, he married The Hon. Margaret Cecilia Bruce, daughter of Henry Bruce, 2nd Baron Aberdare, they had five children: Lady Helen Diana Bridgeman, married Sir Robert Henry Edward Abdy, 5th Bt. on 10 February 1930 and divorced in 1962 The Hon. Ursula Mary Bridgeman Gerald Michael Orlando Bridgeman, 6th Earl of Bradford Lady Anne Pamela Bridgeman, married Lieutenant-Colonel Weetman John Churchill Pearson, 3rd Viscount Cowdray on 19 July 1939 and divorced in 1950 Lady Joan Serena Bridgeman Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Orlando Bridgeman, 5th Earl of Bradford
Tatler is a British magazine published by Condé Nast Publications focusing on fashion and lifestyle, as well as coverage of high society and politics. It is targeted towards the British upper-middle class and upper class, those interested in society events, its readership is the wealthiest of all Condé Nast's publications. It was founded in 1901 by Clement Shorter. Tatler has editions in local languages in mainland China and Russia; the editions in Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines are in English. Tatler promotes indigenous British culture by arranging "debutante ball" events in these foreign countries. Tatler was introduced on 3 July 1901, by publisher of The Sphere, it was named after the original literary and society journal founded by Richard Steele in 1709. For some time a weekly publication, it had a subtitle varying on "an illustrated journal of society and the drama", it contained news and pictures of high society balls, charity events, race meetings, shooting parties and gossip, with cartoons by "The Tout" and H. M. Bateman.
In 1940, it absorbed The Bystander, creating a publication called The Bystander. In 1961, Illustrated Newspapers, which published Tatler, The Sphere, The Illustrated London News, was bought by Roy Thomson. In 1965, Tatler was rebranded London Life. In 1968, it was bought by Guy Wayte's Illustrated County Magazine group and the Tatler name restored. Wayte's group had a number of county magazines in the style of Tatler, each of which mixed the same syndicated content with county-specific local content. Wayte, "a moustachioed playboy of a conman" was convicted of fraud in 1980 for inflating the Tatler's circulation figures from 15,000 to 49,000; the magazine was sold and relaunched as a monthly magazine in 1977, called Tatler & Bystander until 1982. Tina Brown, created a vibrant and youthful Tatler and is credited with putting the edge, the irony and the wit back into what was an moribund social title, she referred to it as an upper-class comic and by increasing its influence and circulation made it an interesting enough operation for the owner, Gary Bogard, to sell to the Publishers Condé Nast.
Brown subsequently transferred to New York to Vanity Fair. After several editors and a looming recession and the magazine was once again ailing, Jane Procter was brought in to re-invent the title for the 1990s; the circulation rose to over 90,000, a figure, exceeded five years by Geordie Greig. The magazine created various supplements including The Travel and Restaurant Guides, the referred to and watched Most Invited and The Little Black Book lists, as well as various parties. Kate Reardon became editor in 2011, she was a fashion assistant on American Vogue and aged 21, became the youngest fashion director of Tatler. Under Reardon's directorship, Tatler has retained its position as having the wealthiest audience of Condé Nast's magazines, exceeding an average of $175,000 in 2013. Reardon left the title at the end of 2017. At the beginning of February 2018, the appointment of Richard Dennen as the new editor of Tatler was announced, he will take up the post on 12 February. In 2014, the BBC broadcast a three-part fly-on-the-wall documentary television series, titled Posh People: Inside Tatler, featuring the editorial team going about their various jobs.
One of Tatler's most talked about annual features is the Little Black Book. The supplement is a compilation of "the most eligible, most beddable, most exotically plumaged birds and blokes in town", individuals featured have included those from a number of backgrounds: aristocrats and investment bankers sit alongside celebrities and those working in the media sector. Isabella Blow – Contributing fashion editor-at-large Clare Milford Haven – Social editor Diana Mitford – commissioned to write a Letters from Paris section in the 1960s. Christina Broom – photographer "The Story of Tatler: A 300-year frolic through Tatler's history, from coffee-house tri-weekly to glossy monthly". Tatler: 71–114. November 2009. Tatler – official site Tatler – official site Tatler - official site The Tatler and The Guardian The Tatler, Vol. 1 at Project Gutenberg – an 1899 reprint of the first 49 Issues of the 1709 Tatler
Knight Frank LLP is an estate agency and commercial property consultancy founded in London by John Knight, Howard Frank and William Rutley in 1896. Knight Frank together with its New York-based affiliate Newmark Knight Frank is one of the world's largest global property consultancies, its global network encompasses 370 offices in 55 countries and more than 12,000 employees handle in excess of US$817 billion worth of commercial and residential real estate annually. Knight, Frank & Rutley is an earlier name of the firm. Sir Howard George Frank, 1st Baronet was a UK estate agent, head of the firms of Knight, Frank & Rutley of London and Walton & Lee of Edinburgh and was president of the Estate Agents' Institute from 1912 to 1914. 1897: The first recorded business property sale is achieved in November, when Knight, Frank & Rutley sells a ‘cycle machinery and plant’ business in Battersea for £270 11s 6d. 1911: The Crystal Palace is sold to Lord Plymouth for £210,000. 1914: Howard Frank, the senior partner, is knighted.
1915: Cecil Chubb buys Stonehenge through Knight, Frank & Rutley for £6,600 as a present for his wife Alice. Mr & Mrs Chubb gave it "to the Nation" three years later. 1921: The town of Reigate is sold by Knight, Frank & Rutley for £203,840 – the first time the firm has disposed of an entire town. 1922: The firm handles the sale of Winston Churchill’s house and sells Chartwell to him. 1924: The Duke of Westminster sells Grosvenor House in Park Lane through Knight, Frank & Rutley. 1927: The firm advises on the site assembly for the BBC’s world-famous headquarters, Broadcasting House in London. 1937: Most of the town of Lytham St Annes in Lancashire is sold – including the celebrated golf course. 1974: Fountains Abbey, dating back to 1132, is sold for £1 million. 1981: In New York, Douglas Elliman Knight Frank sells Pan-American World Airways Intercontinental Hotels Corporation to Grand Metropolitan for $500 million. 1996: On 1 January, ‘Rutley’ is dropped from the Knight Frank name as part of a plan to expand international market share.
2000: Knight Frank sells the Duke of York’s Headquarters in Chelsea, London, on behalf of the Ministry of Defence. 2005: The firm is appointed to advise on the development of the London Olympic Village for the 2012 Games. 2006: With effect from 1 January, Knight Frank establishes a global real estate partnership with leading New York-based real estate service firm Newmark Knight Frank Newmark. 2012: February, presents Battersea Power Station to the global property market. 2013: Participated in the founding of OnTheMarket The Knight Frank Global House Price Index is compiled using official government statistical office or central bank data where possible. The Knight Frank/Markit House Price Sentiment Index provides the earliest view of how the UK housing market is faring; the monthly survey gauges the sentiment of households across the country, is a lead indicator of future house price movement. The Knight Frank Country House Index is a valuation based index, compiled quarterly from valuations prepared by professional valuers in every Knight Frank Country House office in the UK.
The index is based on the valuation of a comprehensive basket of properties throughout all United Kingdom regions based on actual sales evidence. The Knight Frank Prime Central London Index, established in 1976, covers the prime central London residential marketplace; the index is based on a repeat valuation methodology that tracks capital values of prime central London residential property. The Wealth Report is an annual publication produced by Knight Frank; the Wealth Report looks at global prime property trends and wealth, examines the prime and super-prime property markets. The Wealth Report focuses on the investment activity of global single and multi family offices. In their latest report of 2018, the Knight Frank Wealth Report expounded on the increase in family office real estate activity, citing both WeWork and the FINTRX Family Office Platform; the report stated that 57% of North American family offices had real estate exposure, while 48% European family offices were allocated to the real estate sector.