Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Christian Wolff (composer)
Christian G. Wolff is an American composer of experimental classical music. Wolff was born in Nice, France, to the German literary publishers Helen and Kurt Wolff, who had published works by Franz Kafka, Robert Musil, Walter Benjamin. After relocating to the U. S. in 1941, they helped to found Pantheon Books with other European intellectuals who had fled Europe during the rise of fascism. The Wolffs published a series of notable English translations of European literature as well as an edition of the I Ching that came to impress John Cage after Wolff had given him a copy. Wolff became an American citizen in 1946; when he was sixteen his piano teacher Grete Sultan sent him for lessons in composition to the new music composer John Cage. Wolff soon became a close associate of Cage and his artistic circle, which included the fellow composers Earle Brown and Morton Feldman, the pianist David Tudor, the dancer and choreographer Merce Cunningham. Cage relates several anecdotes about Wolff in his one-minute Indeterminacy pieces.
Self-taught as composer, Wolff studied music under Sultan and Cage. Wolff studied classics at Harvard University and became an expert on Euripides. Wolff taught Classics at Harvard until 1970. After nine years, he became Strauss Professor of Music there, he stopped teaching at Dartmouth in 1999. In 2004, he received an honorary degree from the California Institute of the Arts, he was awarded the Foundation for Contemporary Arts John Cage Award. With his wife Holly, Wolff has four children: Hew, a computer programmer living in Oakland, CA. Wolff's early compositional work included a lot of silence and was based on complicated rhythmic schema, on a system of aural cues, he innovated unique notational methods in his early scores and found creative ways of dealing with improvisation in his music. During the 1960s he developed associations with the composers Frederic Rzewski and Cornelius Cardew who spurred each other on in their respective explorations of experimental composition techniques and musical improvisation, from the early 1970s, in their attempts to engage with political matters in their music.
For Wolff this involved the use of music and texts associated with protest and political movements such as the Wobblies. His pieces, such as the sequence of pieces Exercises, offer some freedom to the performers; some works, such as Changing the System, Braverman Music, the series of pieces Peace March have an explicit political dimension, in that they respond to contemporary world events and express political ideals. Wolff collaborated with Merce Cunningham for many years and developed a style, more common now, but was revolutionary when they began working together in the 1950s – a style where music and dance occur yet somewhat independently of one another. Wolff stated, of any influence or affect, the greatest influence on his music over the years was the choreography of Cunningham. Wolff said of his work that it is motivated by his desire "to turn the making of music into a collaborative and transforming activity, the cooperative character of the activity to the exact source of the music.
To stir up, through the production of the music, a sense of social conditions in which we live and of how these might be changed." Wolff's music reached a new audience when Sonic Youth's "Goodbye, 20th Century" featured works by avant-garde classical composers such as John Cage, Yoko Ono, Steve Reich, Christian Wolff played by Sonic Youth along with several collaborators from the modern avant-garde music scene, such as Christian Marclay, William Winant, Wharton Tiers, Takehisa Kosugi and others, as well as Wolff himself. Duo For Violins For Prepared Piano Duo for Pianists I For Piano With Preparations For Pianist Summer For 1, 2, or 3 People Edges Pairs Prose Collection Tilbury 1, 2, 3 Snowdrop Burdocks Exercises Wobbly Music I Like to Think of Harriet Tubman Piano Trio Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp The Seneca Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justice Piano Miscellany Percussionist Songs Spring Berlin Exercises Ordinary Matter John Heartfield Microexercises Winter Exercise Trio IX - Accanto Resistance Wolff, Cues: Writings & Conversations/Hinweise: Schriften und Gespräche, Köln: Musiktexte G. Gronemeyer & R.
Oehlschagel. Robert Carl, Christian Wolff: On tunes and mystery, in Contemporary Music Review. Issue 4, pp. 61–69. Christian Wolff. "A Chance Encounter with Christian Wolff". NewMusicBox. Interviewed by Frank J. Oteri. Stephen Chase & Clemens Gresser,'Ordinary Matters: Christian Wolff on his Recent Music', in Tempo 58/229, pp. 19–27. Rzewski, Frederic "The Algebra of Everyday Life". Liner note essay on Christian Wolff. New World Records. Steenhuisen, Paul. "Interview with Christian Wolff". In Sonic Mosaics: Conversations with Composers. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2009
John Milton Cage Jr. was an American composer, music theorist and philosopher. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century, he was instrumental in the development of modern dance through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham, Cage's romantic partner for most of their lives. Cage is best known for his 1952 composition 4′33″, performed in the absence of deliberate sound; the content of the composition is not "four minutes and 33 seconds of silence," as is assumed, but rather the sounds of the environment heard by the audience during performance. The work's challenge to assumed definitions about musicianship and musical experience made it a popular and controversial topic both in musicology and the broader aesthetics of art and performance. Cage was a pioneer of the prepared piano, for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces.
The best known of these is Interludes. His teachers included Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg, both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various East and South Asian cultures. Through his studies of Indian philosophy and Zen Buddhism in the late 1940s, Cage came to the idea of aleatoric or chance-controlled music, which he started composing in 1951; the I Ching, an ancient Chinese classic text on changing events, became Cage's standard composition tool for the rest of his life. In a 1957 lecture, Experimental Music, he described music as "a purposeless play", "an affirmation of life – not an attempt to bring order out of chaos nor to suggest improvements in creation, but a way of waking up to the life we're living". Cage was born September 1912, at Good Samaritan Hospital in downtown Los Angeles, his father, John Milton Cage Sr. was an inventor, his mother, Lucretia Harvey, worked intermittently as a journalist for the Los Angeles Times. The family's roots were American: in a 1976 interview, Cage mentioned that George Washington was assisted by an ancestor named John Cage in the task of surveying the Colony of Virginia.
Cage described his mother as a woman with "a sense of society", "never happy", while his father is best characterized by his inventions: sometimes idealistic, such as a diesel-fueled submarine that gave off exhaust bubbles, the senior Cage being uninterested in an undetectable submarine. John Milton Sr. taught his son that "if someone says'can't' that shows you what to do." In 1944 -- 45 Cage wrote two small character pieces dedicated to his parents: Dad. The latter is a short lively piece that ends abruptly, while "Crete" is a longer melodic contrapuntal work. Cage's first experiences with music were from private piano teachers in the Greater Los Angeles area and several relatives his aunt Phoebe Harvey James who introduced him to the piano music of the 19th century, he received first piano lessons when he was in the fourth grade at school, but although he liked music, he expressed more interest in sight reading than in developing virtuoso piano technique, was not thinking of composition. During high school, one of his music teachers was Fannie Charles Dillon.
By 1928, Cage was convinced that he wanted to be a writer. He graduated that year from Los Angeles High School as a valedictorian, having in the spring given a prize-winning speech at the Hollywood Bowl proposing a day of quiet for all Americans. "By being hushed and silent, he said,'we should have the opportunity to hear what other people think'," anticipating 4′33″ by more than thirty years. Cage enrolled at Pomona College in Claremont as a theology major in 1928. Crossing disciplines again, though, he encountered at Pomona the work of artist Marcel Duchamp via professor José Pijoan, of writer James Joyce via Don Sample, of philosopher Ananda Coomaraswamy and of Cowell. In 1930 he dropped out, having come to believe that "college was of no use to a writer" after an incident described in the 1991 autobiographical statement: I was shocked at college to see one hundred of my classmates in the library all reading copies of the same book. Instead of doing as they did, I went into the stacks and read the first book written by an author whose name began with Z.
I received the highest grade in the class. That convinced me. I left. Cage persuaded his parents that a trip to Europe would be more beneficial to a future writer than college studies, he subsequently sailed to Le Havre, where he took a train to Paris. Cage stayed in Europe for some 18 months. First he studied Gothic and Greek architecture, but decided he was not interested enough in architecture to dedicate his life to it, he took up painting and music. It was in Europe that, encouraged by his teacher Lazare Lévy, he first heard the music of contemporary composers and got to know the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, which he had not experienced before. After several months in Paris, Cage's enthusiasm for America was revived after he read Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass – he wante
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
R. Andrew Lee
R. Andrew Lee is an American pianist of contemporary classical music, with a particular emphasis on Minimal music and music of the Wandelweiser collective, he has recorded ten albums for Irritable Hedgehog Music. R. Andrew Lee received a BM in piano performance from Truman State University in 2004, where he studied under Dr. David McKamie, he continued his education in piano performance at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, where he met David McIntire, with whom he would help launch Irritable Hedgehog Music. Lee cites McIntire as having introduced him to William Duckworth's The Time Curve Preludes, which sparked his interest in minimalist music. Lee received his MM in 2006 and his DMA in 2011 from UMKC. R. Andrew Lee began his career as Artist-in-Residence at Avila University in Kansas City, Missouri in January 2009. On 30 October 2010, he released his first album with Irritable Hedgehog Music, Tom Johnson: An Hour for Piano; this album, the first recording of An Hour for Piano to be one hour marked the first release for Irritable Hedgehog.
In August 2011, Lee took a position at Regis University in Denver, becoming the Associate University Minister for Liturgical & Sacred Music. There he oversees music for liturgical celebrations while teaching in the music department. Lee continued garnering increasing attention from critics, his third album, William Duckworth: The Time Curve Preludes was named by a 2012 Critics' Choice by Gramophone Magazine. His fifth album, Dennis Johnson: November was named by Steve Smith of Time Out NY as the best classical album of 2013, his sixth album, Eva-Maria Houben: Piano Music was selected by Alex Ross of The New Yorker as one of ten notable classical recordings of 2013. Lee has performed across the United States, including cities such as Seattle, Los Angeles, Austin, Chicago and New York, he has performed abroad in Canada, France and Italy. As a performer, Lee has taken an interest in music of an extended duration and commissioning works that are multiple hours long; the intersection of temporality is a primary research avenue for R. Andrew Lee, having published work with the CeReNeM Journal.
Lee writes reviews and opinion pieces for NewMusicBox and I CARE IF YOU LISTEN. Lee resides in Denver, with his wife and three children, he takes "grilling and drinking seriously" and notes a "penchant for interesting socks." Adrian Knight: Obsessions - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2016 Paul A. Epstein: Piano Music - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2015 Jay Batzner: as if to each other - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2015 Jürg Frey: Pianist, Alone - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2014 Eva-Maria Houben: Piano Music - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2013 Dennis Johnson: November - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2013 Jürg Frey: Piano Music - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2012 William Duckworth: The Time Curve Preludes - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2011 Ann Southam: Soundings for a New Piano - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2011 Tom Johnson: An Hour for Piano - Irritable Hedgehog Music, 2010 Official Website Irritable Hedgehog Label