Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is primate city of the Western Cape province, it forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town; the other two capitals are located in Bloemfontein. The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population, it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa and the Far East.
Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established Dutch Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony; until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Cape Town is not just the city centre area, its suburbs and non-urban areas extend from the South Peninsula to beyond Mamre in the north and as far east as Gordon's Bay; the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms", it was renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East.
Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but Portuguese ships stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies, they traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, the Fort de Goede Hoop; the settlement grew during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever; some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain, it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament and a locally accountable Prime Minister. Suffrage was established according to sexist Cape Qualified Franchise; the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won.
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, of the Republic of South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid under the slogan of "swart gevaar"; this led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished; the most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans. School students from Langa and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of
Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. Along with tobacco advertising, alcohol advertising is one of the most regulated forms of marketing; some or all forms of alcohol advertising is banned in some countries. There have been some important studies about alcohol advertising published, such as J. P. Nelson's in 2000. Scientific research, health agencies and universities have, over the decades, been able to demonstrate a correlation between alcohol beverage advertising and alcohol consumption among non-drinking youth. However, there is an significant body of research positing that alcohol advertising does not cause higher consumption and rather reflects greater public demand, with many commentators suggesting that effective alcohol campaigns only increase a producer's market share and brand loyalty; the alcohol industry has tried to mislead the public about the risk of cancer due to alcohol consumption, in addition to campaigning to remove laws that require alcoholic beverages to have cancer warning labels.
The intended audience of the alcohol advertising campaigns have changed over the years, with some brands being targeted towards a particular demographic. Some drinks are traditionally seen as a male drink beers and whiskies, while others are drunk by females; some brands have been developed to appeal to people that would not drink that kind of beverage. These ads may contribute to underage binge drinking. In 2011 a study found that twenty-two percent of twelfth graders had binge drank in the past two weeks, this figure doubled for kids in college. Studies suggest that the use of alcohol before the brain develops can alter or negatively affect the development of the brain. One area in which the alcohol industry has faced criticism and tightened legislation is in their alleged targeting of young people. Central to this is the development of alcopops – sweet-tasting, brightly coloured drinks with names that may appeal to a younger audience. However, numerous government and other reports have failed to support that allegation.
There have been several disputes over. There happens to be heavy amounts of alcohol advertising that appears to make drinking fun and exciting. Alcohol advertisements can be seen in any medium, they are known for sponsoring sporting events, concerts and they are found on the internet. Most of the vendors' websites require an age of 21 to enter, but there is no restriction besides entering a birth date. A study done by the American Journal of Public Health concluded that Boston train passengers between the ages of 11 and 18 saw an alcohol-related advertisement everyday. There have been studies similar to this, which supports the allegation that underage consumption of alcohol is in correlation with the exposure of alcohol ads. In response, many cities have recognized the effect of alcohol-related ads on adolescents and in some cities these advertisements have been banned on public transportation, it is difficult to make definite allegations regarding youth exposure to these types of advertisements but it is necessary to find ways in which these allegations may be limited.
The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse reports the rates of binge alcohol use in 2008 were 1.5 percent among 12 or 13 years old, 6.9 percent among 14 or 15 years old, 17.2 percent among 16 or 17 years old, 33.7 percent among persons aged 18 to 20. In 2009, the rates for each group of underage alcohol usage increased by a fourth. According to 2001 College Alcohol Study, continuous alcohol promotions and advertisements including lowering prices on certain types of alcohol on a college campus have increased the percentage of alcohol consumption of that college community. Alcohol advertising on college campuses have shown to increase binge drinking among students. However, it is concluded that the consistency of these special promotions and ads could be useful in reducing binge drinking and other related drinking problems on campus.. Results from one study indicate that beer advertisements are a significant predictor of an adolescent's knowledge and loyalty for beer brands, as well as current drinking behavior and intentions to drink.
Television advertising changes attitudes about drinking. Young people report more positive feelings about drinking and their own likelihood to drink after viewing alcohol ads; the alcohol industry spends $2 billion per year on all media advertising. The beer brewing industry itself spent more than $770 million on television ads and $15 million on radio ads in 2000. Research indicates that, in addition to parents and peers, alcohol advertising and marketing affect youth decisions to drink.. "While many factors may influence an underage person's drinking decisions, including among other things parents and the media, there is reason to believe that advertising plays a role." Parents and peers affect youth decisions to drink. However, research indicates that alcohol advertising and marketing have a significant effect by influencing youth and adult expectations and attitudes, helping to create an environment that promotes underage drinking. Though people these days must put themselves into that situation, David H. Jernigan underlines how "more than fifteen percent of twelv
Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and its economic capital. It is the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region. Home to Central Africa's largest port and its major international airport, Douala International Airport, it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region comprising Gabon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic and Cameroon, it handles most of the country's major exports, such as oil and coffee, timber and fruits. As from 2018, the city and its surrounding area had an estimated population of 2,768,400; the city sits on the estuary of Wouri River and its climate is tropical. Settlements had existed in present-day Douala prior to the arrival of the Portuguese and Germans. During World War I a bitter battle was fought for control of Douala; the city surrendered to British and French forces on September 27, 1914. A joint Anglo-French condominium governed the city until a comprehensive agreement ceded it to the French. After the independence of Cameroon in 1960, Douala grew rapidly.
Local industries and other opportunities have attracted an unprecedented influx of migrants from the western region of Cameroon. People from other countries in the region have permanently settled in the city. In recent times city authorities have been overwhelmed by increasing population; the first Europeans to visit the area were the Portuguese in about 1472. At the time, the estuary of Wouri River was known as the Rio dos Camarões. By 1650, it had become the site of a town formed by immigrants, said to have arrived from Congo, who spoke the Duala language. During the 18th century it was the center of the transatlantic slave trade. In 1826 Douala appeared to be made of four different villages located in four specific locations: the village of Deido, of Akwa, of Njo and Hickory-town. Between 1884 and 1895 the city was a German protectorate; the colonial politics focused on some exploration of the unoccupied territories. In 1885, Alfred Saker organized the first mission of the British Baptist Church.
In the same year the city known as Kamerun was renamed Douala and became the capital of the territory until 1902, when the capital was moved to Buéa. In 1907 the Ministry of Colonies was established and Douala had 23,000 citizens. After World War I in 1919, the German colonial territories became British protectorates. France received a mandate to administer Douala. A treaty was signed with the local chiefs. From 1940 to 1946, it was the capital of Cameroon. In 1955 the city had over 100,000 inhabitants. In 1960 Cameroon became independent and it became a federal republic, with its capital in Yaoundé. Douala became the major economic city. In 1972 the federal republic became a unified state. Douala had a population of around 500,000. In the 1980s, in Cameroon the struggle for liberalization and multi-partitism grew. Between May and December 1991, Douala was at the center of the civil disobedience campaign called the ghost town operation during which economic activities shut down to make the country ungovernable and to force the government to allow multi-partitism and freedom of expression.
With the arrival of the Portuguese in the 15th century, the area was known as Rio dos Camarões. Before coming under German rule in 1884, the town was known as Cameroons Town, it was renamed Douala in 1907 after the name of the natives known as Dua ala Ijaws, became part of the French Cameroons in 1919. Many of the Ijaw natives migrated to the Niger Delta in Nigeria during the Portuguese era; the city is located on the banks of the two sides linked by Bonaberi Bridge. Douala features a tropical monsoon climate, with consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year, though the city experiences somewhat cooler temperatures in July and August. Douala features warm and humid conditions with an average annual temperature of 27.0 °C and an average humidity of 83%. Douala sees plentiful rainfall during the course of the year, experiencing on average 3,600 millimetres of precipitation per year, its driest month is December, when on average 28 millimetres of precipitation falls, while its wettest month is August, when on average nearly 700 millimetres of rain falls.
Evolution of population in Douala With 1,9 million inhabitants in 2005, Douala is the most populated city of Cameroon. Cameroon is home to nearly 250 dialects. French and English are official languages, but Douala is francophone. In 2014, 63.7 % of Douala inhabitants of over 15 years knew how to read and write French, while 76.4% knew how to speak and understand French. The city of Douala is divided into seven districts and it has more than 120 neighborhoods; some of the neighborhoods of Douala include Akwa. Akwa is Bonanjo its administrative district. Plateau Joss is the name used for the current district of Akwa; the name of the districts refer to the Douala lineage, as well as the neighborhoods. For example, Akwa was divided between Bell and Deido into Bonadibong, Boneleke, Bonal
Brand awareness refers to the extent to which customers are able to recall or recognise a brand. Brand awareness is a key consideration in consumer behavior, advertising management, brand management and strategy development; the consumer's ability to recognise or recall a brand is central to purchasing decision-making. Purchasing cannot proceed unless a consumer is first aware of a product category and a brand within that category. Awareness does not mean that the consumer must be able to recall a specific brand name, but he or she must be able to recall sufficient distinguishing features for purchasing to proceed. For instance, if a consumer asks her friend to buy her some gum in a "blue pack", the friend would be expected to know which gum to buy though neither friend can recall the precise brand name at the time. Different types of brand awareness have been identified, namely brand recognition. Key researchers argue that these different types of awareness operate in fundamentally different ways and that this has important implications for the purchase decision process and for marketing communications.
Brand awareness is related to concepts such as the evoked set and consideration set which describe specific aspects of the consumer's purchase decision. Consumers are believed to hold between three and seven brands in their consideration set across a broad range of product categories. Consumers will purchase one of the top three brands in their consideration set. Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand's competitive market performance. Given the importance of brand awareness in consumer purchasing decisions, marketers have developed a number of metrics designed to measure brand awareness and other measures of brand health; these metrics are collectively known as Awareness and Usage metrics. To ensure a product or brand's market success, awareness levels must be managed across the entire product life-cycle - from product launch through to market decline. Many marketers monitor brand awareness levels, if they fall below a predetermined threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified until awareness returns to the desired level.
Brand awareness is related to the functions of brand identities in consumers’ memory and can be measured by how well the consumers can identify the brand under various conditions. Brand awareness is central to understanding the consumer purchase decision process. Strong brand awareness can be a predictor of brand success, it is an important measure of brand strength or brand equity and is involved in customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and the customer's brand relationships. Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand's market performance; every year advertisers invest substantial sums of money attempting to improve a brand's overall awareness levels. Many marketers monitor brand awareness levels, if they fall below a predetermined threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified until awareness returns to the desired level. Setting brand awareness goals/ objectives is a key decision in marketing planning and strategy development. Brand awareness is one of major brand assets that adds value to the service or company.
Investments in building brand awareness can lead to sustainable competitive advantages, leading to long-term value. Marketers identify two distinct types of brand awareness; these types of awareness operate in different ways with important implications for marketing strategy and advertising. Brand recall is known as unaided recall or spontaneous recall and refers to the ability of the consumers to elicit a brand name from memory when prompted by a product category. Brand recall indicates a strong link between a category and a brand while brand recognition indicates a weaker link; when prompted by a product category, most consumers can only recall a small set of brands around 3–5 brand names. In consumer tests, few consumers can recall more than seven brand names within a given category and for low-interest product categories, most consumers can only recall one or two brand names. Research suggests that the number of brands that consumers can recall is affected by both individual and product factors including.
For instance, consumers who are involved with a category, such as heavy users or product enthusiasts, may be able to recall a larger set of brand names than those who are less involved. Brand recognition is known as aided recall and refers to the ability of the consumers to differentiate the brand when they come into contact with it; this does not require that the consumers identify the brand name. Instead, it means that consumers can recognise the brand when presented with it at the point-of-sale or after viewing its visual packaging. In contrast to brand recall, where few consumers are able to spontaneously recall brand names within a given category, when prompted with a brand name, a larger number of consumers are able to recognise it. Consumers will purchase one of the top three brands in their consideration set; this is known as top-of-mind awareness. One of the goals for most marketing communications is to increase the probability that consumers will include the brand in their consideration sets.
By definition, top-of-mind awareness is "the first brand that comes to mind when a customer is asked an unprompted question about a category." When discussing top-of-mind awareness among larger groups of consumers (as opposed to a
A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, military unit, or brand name. Mascots are used as fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products, such as the rabbit used in advertising and marketing for the General Mills brand of breakfast cereal, Trix. In the world of sports, mascots are used for merchandising. Team mascots are related to their respective team nicknames; this is true when the team's nickname is something, a living animal and/or can be made to have humanlike characteristics. For more abstract nicknames, the team may opt to have an unrelated character serve as the mascot. For example, the athletic teams of the University of Alabama are nicknamed the Crimson Tide, while their mascot is an elephant named Big Al. Team mascots may take the form of a logo, live animal, inanimate object, or a costumed character, appear at team matches and other related events, sports mascots are used as marketing tools for their teams to children.
Since the mid-20th century, costumed characters have provided teams with an opportunity to choose a fantasy creature as their mascot, as is the case with the Philadelphia Phillies' mascot, the Phillie Phanatic, the Philadelphia Flyers' mascot, Gritty. Costumed mascots are commonplace, are used as goodwill ambassadors in the community for their team, company, or organization such as the U. S. Forest Service's Smokey Bear, it was organisations that first thought of using animals as a form of mascot to bring entertainment and excitement for their spectators. Before mascots were fictional icons or people in suits, animals were used in order to bring a somewhat different feel to the game and to strike fear upon the rivalry teams; as the new era was changing and time went on, mascots evolved from predatory animals, to two-dimensional fantasy mascots, to what we know today, three-dimensional mascots. Stylistic changes in American puppetry in the mid-20th century, including the work of Jim Henson and Sid and Marty Krofft, soon were adapted to sports mascots.
It allowed people to not only have visual enjoyment but interact physically with the mascots. Marketers realized the great potential in three-dimensional mascots and took on board the costumed puppet idea; this change encouraged other companies to start creating their own mascots, resulting in mascots being a necessity amongst not only the sporting industry but for other organisations The word'mascot' originates from the French term'mascotte' which means lucky charm. This was used to describe anything; the word was first recorded in 1867 and popularised by a French composer Edmond Audran who wrote the opera La mascotte, performed in December 1880. The word entered the English language in 1881. However, before this, the terms were familiar to the people of France as a slang word used by gamblers; the term is a derivative of the word'masco' meaning sorceress or witch. Before the 19th century, the word'mascot' was associated with inanimate objects that would be seen such as a lock of hair or a figurehead on a sailing ship.
But from on until the present day, the term was seen to be associated with good luck animals, objects etc. The choice of mascot reflects the desired quality. Mascots may symbolize a local or regional trait, such as the Nebraska Cornhuskers' mascot, Herbie Husker: a stylized version of a farmer, owing to the agricultural traditions of the area in which the university is located. Pittsburg State University uses Gus the Gorilla as its mascot, "gorilla" being an old colloquial term for coal miners in the Southeast Kansas area in which the university was established. In the United States, controversy surrounds some mascot choices those using human likenesses. Mascots based on Native American tribes are contentious, as many argue that they constitute offensive exploitations of an oppressed culture. However, several Indian tribes have come out in support of keeping the names. For example, the Utah Utes and the Central Michigan Chippewas are sanctioned by local tribes, the Florida State Seminoles are supported by the Seminole Tribe of Florida in their use of Osceola and Renegade as symbols.
FSU chooses not to refer to them as mascots because of the offensive connotation. This has not, prevented fans from engaging in "Redface"—dressing up in stereotypical, Plains Indian outfits during games, or creating offensive banners saying "Scalp'em" as was seen at the 2014 Rose Bowl; some sports teams have "unofficial" mascots: individual supporters or fans that have become identified with the team. The New York Yankees have such an individual in fan Freddy Sez. Former Toronto Blue Jays mascot BJ Birdie was a costumed character created by a Blue Jays fan hired by the team to perform at their home games. USC Trojans mascot is Tommy Trojan. See also: Lists of sports mascots: Australian sports, Brazilian football, MLB, NBA, NFL, NHL, Olympics and Paralympics, U. S. colleges See also: Native American mascot controversy, List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples Many sports teams in the United States have official mascots, sometimes enacted by costumed humans or live animals.
One of the earliest was a taxidermy mount for the Chicago Cubs, in 1908, a live animal used in 1916 by the same team. They abandoned the concept shortly thereafter and remained with
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea