Verein für Leibesübungen Wolfsburg e. V. known as VfL Wolfsburg or Wolfsburg, is a German sports club based in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony. The club grew out of a multi-sports club for Volkswagen workers in the city of Wolfsburg, it is best known for its football department, but other departments include badminton and athletics. The men's professional football team play in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system. Wolfsburg have won the Bundesliga once in their history, in the 2008–09 season, the DFB-Pokal in 2015 and the DFL-Supercup in 2015. Professional football is run by the spin-off organization VfL Wolfsburg-Fußball GmbH, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group. Since 2002, Wolfsburg's stadium is the Volkswagen Arena; the city of Wolfsburg was founded in 1938 as Stadt des KdF-Wagen to house autoworkers building the car that would become famous as the Volkswagen Beetle. The first football club affiliated with the autoworks was known as BSG Volkswagenwerk Stadt des KdF-Wagen, a works team.
This team played in the first division Gauliga Osthannover in the 1943–44 and 1944–45 seasons. On 12 September 1945, in the aftermath of World War II, a new club was formed and was known as VSK Wolfsburg; this side began play in the white still worn by VfL today. On 15 December 1945, the club went through a crisis that ended its existence when all but one of its players left to join 1. FC Wolfsburg; the only player remaining, Josef Meyer, worked with Willi Hilbert to rebuild the side by signing new players. The new group adopted the moniker VfL standing for Verein für Leibesübungen; this can be translated as "club for gymnastics" or "club for exercises." Within a year they captured the local Gifhorn title. In late November 1946, the club played a friendly against longtime Gelsenkirchen powerhouse Schalke 04 at the stadium owned by Volkswagen, emerging as the successor to BSG as the company sponsored side; the club made steady progress in the following seasons. They captured a number of amateur level championships, but were unable to advance out of the promotion playoffs until breaking through to the top tier Oberliga Nord in 1954 with a 2–1 victory over Heider SV.
Wolfsburg, struggled in the top flight, narrowly missing relegation each season until being sent down in 1959. When Germany's first professional football league, the Bundesliga, was formed in 1963, Wolfsburg was playing in the Regionalliga Nord having just moved up from the Verbandsliga Niedersachsen, reaching the German Amateur Championship Final that same year. Wolfsburg remained a second division fixture over the next dozen years with their best performance being a second-place finish in 1970; that finish earned the club entry to the promotion round playoffs for the Bundesliga, where they performed poorly and were unable to advance. From the mid-1970s through to the early 1990s, Die Wölfe played as a third division side in the Amateur Oberliga Nord. Consecutive first-place finishes in 1991 and 1992, followed by success in the promotion playoffs, saw the club advance to the 2. Bundesliga for the 1992–93 season. Wolfsburg continued to enjoy some success through the 1990s; the team advanced to the final of the German Cup in 1995 where they were beaten 0–3 by Borussia Mönchengladbach, but went on to the top flight on the strength of a second-place league finish in 1997.
Early predictions were that the club would be sent back down, but instead, the Wolves developed into a mid-table Bundesliga side. In the 1998–99 season, under Wolfgang Wolf, were holding onto the fifth spot in the 33rd round of fixtures, they had hopes of making fourth place, to gain UEFA Champions League participation. Losing 6–1 away to MSV Duisburg in the final fixture, the Wolves finished in sixth place with 55 points and qualified for next season's UEFA Cup, they qualified for the Intertoto Cup in 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005, enjoying their best run in 2003 after reaching the final in which they lost to Italian side Perugia. This was followed by a couple of seasons of little success for the club, just narrowly avoiding relegation with two 15th-place finishes in the 2005–06 and 2006–07 seasons. For the 2007–08 season, the club hired former Bayern Munich manager Felix Magath, with whom they managed to finish in fifth place at the end of the season, the highest finish for the club at the time.
This enabled the Wolves to qualify for the UEFA Cup for only the second time in their history. In the 2008–09 season, under Magath, Wolfsburg claimed their biggest success by winning their first Bundesliga title after defeating Werder Bremen 5–1 on 23 May 2009. During this campaign, Wolfsburg equalled the longest winning streak in one Bundesliga season with ten successive victories after the winter break, they became the only team in the Bundesliga to have had two strikers scoring more than 20 goals each in one season, with Brazilian Grafite and Bosnian Edin Džeko achieving this feat in their title-winning season, scoring 28 and 26 with Zvjezdan Misimović adding record 20 assists. As a result of their title win, Wolfsburg qualified for the UEFA Champions League for the first time in their history. In the 2009–10 season, Wolfsburg dismissed their newly appointed trainer Armin Veh after the winter break due to lack of success, with the club sitting tenth in the league. In the Champions League, they came third in their group, behind Manchester United and CSKA Moscow, losing the chance for a place in the competition's successive round.
As a result
The Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition; the Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal; the winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup. 54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 27 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them; the Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2017–18 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons.
The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries; the Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes; the Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga, below that, the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German football since 1974; the Bundesligen are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga in Germany has been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, Südwest and West divisions.
Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas; the league structure has changed and reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany; every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations; as in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division: A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides. 1. Bundesliga teams draw greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game — more than twice the average of the 2.
Bundesliga. Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues and marketing of their team brands; this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities. The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, reflecting an higher standard of professional play. Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time. In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, in use from 1981 until 1991: The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2.
Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their places; the third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged tie with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga. From 1992 until 2008, a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either or in promotion play-offs; the season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of
FC Bayern Munich
Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V. known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 28 national titles and 18 national cups. FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by 11 football players, led by Franz John. Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963; the club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row. Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally and the only German club to have won both international titles.
Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football, winning 27 titles, including six consecutively since 2013. They have traditional local rivalries with 1860 Munich and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mid-1990s. Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena; the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria. In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the fourth highest-earning football club in the world, generating €587.8 million in 2017. For the 2017–18 season, Bayern reported a revenue of €657.4 million and an operating profit of €136.5 million. This was Bayern's 26th year in a row with a profit. In November 2018, Bayern had 291,000 official members and there are 4,433 registered fan clubs with over 390,000 members; the club has other departments for chess, basketball, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1,100 active members.
As of January 2019, FC Bayern is ranked joint second in the current UEFA club coefficient rankings. FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club; when a congregation of members of MTV 1879 decided on 27 February 1900 that the footballers of the club would not be allowed to join the German Football Association, 11 members of the football division left the congregation and on the same evening founded Fußball-Club Bayern München. Within a few months, Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all local rivals, including a 15–0 win against FC Nordstern, reached the semi-finals of the 1900–01 South German championship. In the following years, the club won some local trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded "Kreisliga", the first regional Bavarian league; the club won this league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914, which halted all football activities in Germany. By the end of its first decade of founding, FC Bayern had attracted its first German national team player, Max Gaberl Gablonsky.
By 1920, it had over 700 members, making it the largest football club in Munich. In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions before winning its first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later, its first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard "Little Dombi" Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final. The advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayern's development. Club president Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country. Many others in the club were purged. Bayern was taunted as the "Jew's club", while local rival 1860 Munich gained much support. Josef Sauter, inaugurated 1943, was the only NSDAP member as president; as some Bayern players greeted Landauer, watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination. Bayern was affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, achieving mid-table results in its regional league instead.
After the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, split five ways at that time. Bayern struggled and firing 13 coaches between 1945 and 1963. Landauer returned from exile in 1947 and was once again appointed club president, the tenure lasted until 1951, he remains as the club's president with the longest accumulated tenure. Landauer has been deemed as inventor of Bayern as a professional club and his memory is being upheld by the Bayern ultras Schickeria. In 1955, the club was relegated but returned to the Oberliga in the following season and won the DFB-Pokal for the first time, beating Fortuna Düsseldorf 1–0 in the final; the club struggled financially though, verging on bankruptcy at the end of the 1950s. Manufacturer Roland Endler provided the necessary funds and was rewarded with four years at the helm of the club. In 1963, the Oberligas in Germany were consolidated into one national league, the Bundesliga. Five teams from the Oberliga South were admitted.
Bayern finished third in that year's southern division, but another Munich team, 1860 Munich, had won the championship. As the DFB preferred not to include two teams from one city, Bayern was not chosen for the Bundesliga, they ga
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The DFB-Pokal is a German knockout football cup competition held annually by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund. Sixty-four teams participate in the competition, including all clubs from the Bundesliga and the 2. Bundesliga, it is considered the second-most important club title in German football after the Bundesliga championship. Taking place from August until June, the winner qualifies for the DFL-Supercup and the UEFA Europa League unless the winner qualifies for the UEFA Champions League in the Bundesliga; the competition was founded in 1935 called the Tschammer-Pokal. The first titleholder were 1. FC Nürnberg. In 1937, Schalke 04 were the first team to win the double; the Tschammer-Pokal was suspended in 1944 due to World War II and disbanded following the demise of Nazi Germany. In 1952–53, the cup was reinstated in West Germany as the DFB-Pokal, named after the DFB, was won by Rot-Weiss Essen. Bayern Munich have won the most titles with 18 wins, while Eintracht Frankfurt are the incumbent title holders.
Fortuna Düsseldorf hold the record for most consecutive tournament game wins between 1978 and 1981, winning the cup in 1979 and 1980. The competition format has varied since the inception of the Tschammer-Pokal in 1935; the DFB-Pokal begins with a round of 64 teams. The 36 teams of the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga, along with the top four finishers of the 3. Liga are automatically qualified for the tournament. Of the remaining slots 21 are given to the cup winners of the regional football associations, the Verbandspokale; the three remaining slots are given to the three regional associations with the most men's teams. They may assign the slot as they see fit but give it to the runner-up in the association cup; as every team taking part in the German football league system is entitled to participate in local tournaments which qualify for the association cups, every team can in principle compete in the DFB-Pokal. Reserve teams like Borussia Dortmund II are not permitted to enter. For the first round, the 64 teams are split into two pots of 32.
One pot contains the 18 teams from the previous season of the Bundesliga and the top 14 teams from the previous season of the 2. Bundesliga; the other pot contains the bottom 4 teams from the previous season of the 2. Bundesliga, the top 4 teams from the previous season of the 3. Liga and the 24 amateur teams that qualified through regional football tournaments. Teams from one pot are drawn against teams from the other pot. Since 1982, the teams from the pot containing amateur teams play the game at home. For the second round, the teams are again divided into two pots according to the same principles. Depending on the results of the first round, the pots might not be equal in terms of number. Teams from one pot are drawn against teams from the other pot; the remaining teams are drawn against each other with the team first drawn playing the game at home. For the remaining rounds, other than the final, the teams are drawn from one pot. Since 1985 the final has been held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin.
Extra time will be played if the scores are level after 90 minutes with a penalty shootout following if needed. The number of participants in the main tournament has varied between four from 1956 until 1960 and 128 from 1973 through 1982 resulting in tournaments of two to seven rounds. Since the inception of the Bundesliga in 1963 all clubs from the Bundesliga are automatically qualified for the DFB-Pokal as are all clubs from the 2. Bundesliga since its inception in 1974. Reserve sides for most of the time were allowed to participate in the DFB-Pokal but have been excluded since 2008; the final has been held at the Olympic Stadium in Berlin every season since 1985. Before 1985, the host of the final was determined on short notice. In the decision, the German Football Association took into consideration that, due to the political situation between Germany and East Germany, Berlin was not chosen to be a venue for the UEFA Euro 1988; the cup games were held over two 45 minute halves with two 15 minute overtime periods in case of a draw.
If the score was still level after 120 minutes the game was replayed with the home field right reversed. In the 1939 Tschammer-Pokal the semi-final between Waldhof Mannheim and Wacker Wien was played to a draw three times before the game was decided by lot; the German Football Association decided to hold a penalty shootout if the replay was another draw after a similar situation arose in the 1970 cup, when the match between Alemannia Aachen and Werder Bremen had to be decided by lot after two draws. In 1971–72 and 1972–73, the matches were held over two legs; the second leg was extended by two additional 15-minute overtime periods if the aggregate was a draw after both legs. In case the extension brought no decision, a penalty shootout was held. In 1977, the final 1. FC Köln vs. Hertha BSC had to be replayed. In the aftermath, the DFB opted not to replay cup finals in the future, instead holding a penalty shootout after extra time; this change was extended to all cup games in 1991. Since 1960, the winner of the DFB-Pokal qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup.
If the cup winner had qualified for the European Club Champions Cup, the losing finalist moved into the Cup Winners' Cup instead. Following the abolition of the Cup Winners' Cup in 1999, the winner of the DFB-Pokal qualified for the UEFA Cup, known as the UEFA Europa League since 2009. If the DFB-Pokal winner or both finalists qualify through the B
Heidenheim an der Brenz
Heidenheim an der Brenz is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is located near the border with Bavaria 17 km south of Aalen and 33 km north of Ulm. Heidenheim is the largest town and the seat of the district of Heidenheim, ranks third behind Aalen and Schwäbisch Gmünd in size among the towns in the region of East Württemberg. Heidenheim is the economic center for all the communities in Heidenheim district and is the headquarters of the Voith industrial company; the town's population passed the 20,000 mark in 1925. Heidenheim collaborates with the town of Nattheim in administrative matters; the residents of Heidenheim and its surrounding area speak the distinct German dialect of Swabian. Heidenheim is situated between Albuch and the Härtsfeld region in the northeast corner of the Swabian Alb where the valley of the Brenz meets the Stubental at the foot of Hellenstein Mountain; the source of the Brenz enters Heidenheim from the northwest. It runs through the boroughs of Schnaitheim before it gets to Heidenheim.
From there it continues on to the south through the borough of Mergelstetten, before it leaves the city limits to head for Herbrechtingen. Heidenheim shares borders with the following cities and towns, listed clockwise starting from the North: Aalen and Neresheim, Syrgenstein, as well as Herbrechtingen, Steinheim am Albuch and Königsbronn. Heidenheim an der Brenz consists of Heidenheim and the subdivisions of Schnaitheim, Mergelstetten and Großkuchen; each of the four boroughs include their own neighbourhoods that either have a long history of their own or were created as new developments. But while these neighbourhoods received their names during construction, their boundaries have not been defined. Oggenhausen and Großkuchen became part of Heidenheim during the last district reform in the 1970s and are municipalities under state administrative law; this designation entitles them to a borough council, elected by registered voters in municipal elections. The Municipal Council is headed by a president.
Schnaitheim, to the north, was at one time a politically independent small town but is now Heidenheim's largest borough known as Heidenheim-Schnaitheim. Expansion of both towns has now eradicated any geographical separation between the two. Although residential, Schnaitheim is home to a number of Heidenheim's "Big Box"-style retailers, its commercial districts are an important part of the city's infrastructure, it has about 10,900 residents. Within Schnaitheim, neighbourhoods include Wehrenfeld on the east side, which consists of wealthier homes as well as a large recreational area featuring the town's largest sports club, TSG Schnaitheim. Other neighbourhoods include Hagen on the west side, located on the slope of a hill and Aufhausen, once a separate farming village to the north but now amalgamated. Mergelstetten is located to the south of Heidenheim center. With about 7900 residents, Mergelstetten retains a rural feel. Within Mergelstetten, the residential area of Reutenen sits elevated on a hill.
About 5 kilometers to the east of Heidenheim, separated by the major road European route E43 the village of Oggenhausen is home to about 1550 residents. The town voted to merge into Heidenheim by popular vote in 1970. About 8 kilometres north-east of Heidenheim, geographically separate Großkuchen is a popular recreational areas with hiking trails and cross-country skiing, it is home to a local small-scale charcoal industry. The town has about 1550 residents and merged politically into Heidenheim in 1974. There is evidence that human life existed within the city limits of Heidenheim as far back as 8,000 years ago. However, a permanent settlement was not established until 1300 BC. Extensive ruins remain of settlements dating, predominantly, to the period from 1200 to 800 BC. At the time of the Roman Empire from about 85 AD on, Heidenheim was the location of Castle Aquileia with attached cavalry of more than 1,000 mounted soldiers; the unit, called ala II flavia milliaria was around 159 AD, moved further North to Aalen.
At first, the Castle marked the Eastern end of the Alb Limes. But it did not take long until a civilian settlement was founded at this strategically important spot, marked by the intersection of five Roman roads; this settlement was the largest Roman city in, what is today, Baden-Württemberg and archeological finds suggest that it covered an area of 37 - 50 acres. More excavations have found the remains of a representative Roman administrative building, its exact function is not yet known. But because of Aquileia's size and other indicators, it is believed that it was the capital of a Roman administrative district. From 233 on, the Alamanni attacked the Roman limes fortifications; the Roman surrender of the limes in 260 spelled the end of the Roman city of Heidenheim. It is not clear to what extent Romans stayed on under the new, Alammanic rule but it is likely that some did. Nothing is known about Aquileia/Heidenheim during the period of the Great Migration; however in the 8th century Heidenheim was mentioned for the first time in official documents.
The creation of the city in the Middle Ages went hand in hand with the construction of Hellenstein Castle. The city wall was built in segments in 1190 and 1420 and Emperor Charles IV granted or confirmed the city as a market to
Fussball Club Vaduz is a Liechtenstein football club from Vaduz that plays in the Swiss Football League. The club plays at the national Rheinpark Stadion, which has a capacity of 5,873 when all seated but has additional standing places in the North and South ends of the ground, giving a total stadium capacity of 7,838, they play in the Swiss Challenge League following relegation from the Swiss Super League after a poor 2016–17 season. Vaduz is unique in that it represents its own national association in the UEFA Europa League when winning the domestic cup, whilst playing in another country's league; this is due to Liechtenstein not organising its own league. Vaduz have had many players from Liechtenstein, many of whom have played for the Liechtenstein national team, but nearly all these players have moved abroad, now the majority of the first team squad are foreign players from different areas of the world; the signing of experienced goalkeeper Peter Jehle from Tours and Franz Burgmeier from Darlington boosted the Liechtensteiner contingent to six by the start of the 2009–10 season.
Fussball Club Vaduz was founded on 14 February 1932 in Vaduz, the club's first chairman was Johann Walser. FC Vaduz is the only professional football club in Liechtenstein. In its first training match, which Vaduz played in Balzers on 24 April of that year, the newly-born team emerged as 2–1 winners; the club played in Vorarlberger Football Association in Austria for the 1932–33 season. In 1933, Vaduz began playing in Switzerland. Over the years Vaduz struggled through various tiers of Swiss football and won its first Liechtensteiner Cup in 1949. Vaduz enjoyed a lengthy stay in the Swiss 1. Liga from 1960 to 1973, the third tier of the Swiss football league system. Vaduz has been required to pay a fee to the Swiss Football Association in order to participate as a foreign club, around £150,000 a year. There have been calls for this agreement to be revoked, but discussions have meant that a permanent arrangement has now taken place for a Liechtenstein representative to be allowed to participate in the Challenge League or Super League in future.
From the 2001–02 season, Vaduz played in the Swiss Challenge League, the second tier of the Swiss league system. Since Vaduz have been one of the best teams in the Challenge League and gave serious challenges towards promotion to the Super League in 2004 and 2005, playing two-leg play-offs in both cases. In the 2007–08 season, Vaduz secured promotion to the Swiss Super League on 12 May 2008 by winning the Challenge League on the final day of the season, giving Liechtenstein a representative at the highest level of Swiss football for the first time. Vaduz, were relegated back to the Challenge League after one season in the top flight. Vaduz returned to top level after five years in the Challenge League. In May 2010, the two Liechtenstein teams FC Vaduz and USV Eschen/Mauren decided on a better cooperation on the exchange and the development possibilities of the players of both teams. In principle, the agreement should replace the missing substructure at FC Vaduz and promote cooperation in the sense of Liechtenstein football.
FC Vaduz is the first address for professional footballers. In 1992, Vaduz qualified for European football for the first time, entering the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup as Liechtenstein Cup winners, but lost 12–1 on aggregate to Chornomorets Odesa of Ukraine in the qualifying round. In 1996, Vaduz qualified for the first round proper with their first European victory, winning 5–3 on penalties against Universitate Riga of Latvia, after a 2–2 aggregate scoreline, although Vaduz lost their first round tie to Paris Saint-Germain of France 7–0 on aggregate. After the Cup Winners' Cup was abolished, Vaduz have annually entered the UEFA Cup as a result of winning the Liechtenstein Cup every year since 1998 due to being the top team, only team, in Liechtenstein. However, they have never got past the qualifying rounds to date. However, Vaduz did come within one second of reaching the first round proper of the UEFA Cup in 2002. With the aggregate scores level, with opponents Livingston scheduled to go through on away goals, Vaduz won a late corner.
The ball was sent into the box, Marius Zarn hit a goal-bound shot. However, the referee blew the whistle for full-time just before the ball crossed over the line, Livingston progressed through in controversial circumstances. For the 2005-06 season, Mats Gren was a coach. In the first round of the 2005–06 UEFA Cup qualifying, FC Vaduz defeated Moldovan opponent FC Dacia Chişinău. In the second round they met the Istanbul club Beşiktaş J. K. against which they have been eliminated. FC Vaduz started their European campaign in 2009–10 by beating Scottish side Falkirk in the second qualifying round of the Europa League. However, they lost 3–0 on aggregate to Czech side Slovan Liberec in the third qualifying round. In the 2014–15 Swiss Super League season, Vaduz survived for the first time in their history in the Swiss Super League, they finished in 9th place with 31 points won. They won their 43rd Liechtenstein cup, becoming world record holders of a domestic cup in the process. In season 2015-16 FC Vaduz started their European campaign in the 2015–16 UEFA Europa League by beating S.
P. La Fiorita from San Marino in the first qualifying round of the Europa League. In the second round, Vaduz progressed against Nõmme Kalju FC to progress into the third qualifying round of the Europa League where they were drawn against fellow Swiss Super League club FC Thun. FC Thun won 2–2 on the away goals rule. Vaduz were eighth in the Swiss Super League, they won a team record thirty-si