The Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Belmore, a suburb in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney. They compete in the National Rugby League premiership, as well as the New South Wales Rugby League junior competitions; the club was admitted to the New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership, predecessor of the current NRL competition, in 1935. They won their first premiership in their fourth year of competition with another soon after, after spending the 1950s and most of the 1960s on the lower rungs went through a strong period in the 1980s, winning four premierships in that decade. Known in the 1990s as the Sydney Bulldogs, as a result of the Super League war the club competed in that competition in 1997 before changing their name to the geographically indistinct Bulldogs and continuing to play every season of the re-unified NRL, winning their most recent premiership in 2004. In 2012 the Bulldogs won the minor premiership, but lost to the Melbourne Storm 14–4 in the Grand Final, in October.
In 2014 they came from 7th to make the Grand Final against the Rabbitohs, but lost 30-6. In 1935 – thirteen years after a meeting above "The Ideal Milk Bar" in Campsie led to the creation of the Canterbury-Bankstown Junior Rugby League – the Canterbury club was admitted into the elite New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership, it took the new club, nicknamed "Country Bumpkins" because of their rural recruiting and CB emblem, four years to win their first premiership in 1938. The grand final-winning effort was repeated in 1942 before a 38-year premiership drought. In 1967, having ended the 11-year premiership reign of St. George by defeating them in the final, "The Berries" lost to the South Sydney Rabbitohs in the Grand Final, but the return to the top end of the table set the scene for off-field restructuring that laid the foundations for the club to become one of the most consistent achievers in the remaining decades of the 20th century. In 1978 Canterbury became known as "The Bulldogs".
Nicknames such as "Cantabs" "CBs" and "Berries" were seen to be "soft" and the club wanted something to signify determination and grit. A grand final appearance in 1979, followed by a grand final win in 1980 with a young and free-running side dubbed "The Entertainers", was the beginning of a golden era, to produce three more grand final wins in the 1980s: 1984, 1985 and 1988. In the mid-1990s’ Super League war, the Bulldogs aligned themselves with the Super League competition, playing in the 1997 premiership season. In 1998 the Bulldogs came close to adding another premiership trophy after qualifying for the Grand Final where they met the Brisbane Broncos and lost 38–12. On the way to the 1998 Grand Final, the Bulldogs had two come-from-behind wins; the first was against the Newcastle Knights in the third week of the finals – behind 16–0 in the second half, they fought back to 16-all at full-time and went on to win in extra time. A week they trailed Parramatta in the preliminary final by 16 points with 9 minutes remaining.
Three tries and a conversion in the final minutes got them back level at 18-all, the Bulldogs went on to win. Following indifferent form in 1999, 2000 and 2001 where they had varying levels of success, the club was found to have systematically and deliberately breached the NRL salary cap in 2002, was penalized all 37 competition points which it had amassed up to that point for 2002; this resulted in the club falling from first to last place on the ladder, at the end of the season the Bulldogs received their first "wooden spoon" since 1964. The Bulldogs returned to finals contention in 2003, however they fell one step short of yet another Grand Final after losing to the Roosters 28–18 in the Preliminary Final; the club went through some off-field dramas in 2004, the most serious of which included rape allegations during a pre-season match in Coffs Harbour. The team managed to focus on football and triumphed when they held out the Sydney Roosters 16–13 with a try-saving tackle by Andrew Ryan in the dying seconds of the 2004 Grand Final.
The game was to be the last for departing captain Steve Price, but he missed the match due to a leg injury. 2005 saw the Bulldogs unable to mount a serious defence of their premiership title as injuries and contract negotiations saw the year start and finish on a sour note for the club. Due to the extent of injuries suffered, the team was under-strength for most of the year; this took its toll in the final six weeks of the season, with the club suffering successive heavy losses and missing the finals series. In 2006, little was expected from the club after a poor 2005 season, but despite some doubt over the strength of their side, the Bulldogs' forward pack helped them to a better than expected result for the year, finishing a game short of the Grand Final, losing to eventual premiers the Brisbane Broncos. Inconsistency and a poor finish to the 2007 season meant the Bulldogs were knocked out of the finals in week two. In 2008, having lost Mark O'Meley to the Sydney Roosters, Willie Mason left the club.
Further into the off-season the Bulldogs lost halfback Brent Sherwin, prospects for the 2008 season began to look dim. Although they recorded at the start of the season a couple of victories, the injury toll and the departure Sonny Bill Williams mid-season demoralised the club and players, the Bulldogs' earned their second wooden spoon of the decade. Another source of discontent in 2008 was the battle for election to the football club board. Many contenders believed that the board of the time was steering the club in the wrong direction then-CEO Malcolm Noad
Wingham, New South Wales
Wingham is a town in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia in the Mid-Coast Council area 335 kilometres north of Sydney. According to the 2011 census, Wingham had a population of 5,313; the first land grant in the area was made at The Bight to George Rowley in 1841. Wingham was chosen as a location for a government settlement because supply boats could not proceed any further up the Manning River and was located on the road from Raymond Terrace to Port Macquarie. Named after Wingham in Kent, Wingham was proclaimed a village in 1844 but allotments were not made until 1854, the same year that Henry Flett laid out Taree as a private settlement. In the meantime, Tinonee had been established as a government settlement and in 1866 had a population of 100, compared to 90 at Wingham and 150 at Taree. Wingham was proclaimed a municipality in 1889. By 1909, Wingham consisted of 285 houses and had a population of 900, but government services had been transferred to Taree, which had a population of 1300 in 269 houses.
The municipalities were merged with each other and the Manning Valley Shire in 1981 to form the City of Greater Taree. Wingham has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 52 Farquhar Street: Wingham Memorial Town Hall Wynter Street: Wingham Post Office Wingham has a humid subtropical climate, bordering on oceanic climate and in keeping with most coastal NSW locations, receives even distribution of rainfall, with only a short dry season between July and October. Wingham supports a rare subtropical rainforest ecosystem. Wingham's main street, Isabella Street runs east west and fronts the English town square, Central Park. Around the eastern end Central Park are the Wingham Brush Public School, the Victorian style School of Arts, built in 1907 and now a council building with Library at the rear, the state heritage listed Post Office, built in 1884, a telephone exchange. Along the southern side of the park runs Farquhar Street which has a private residence, the Georgian Revival style Courthouse, built in 1934, the 1909 Federation style police station, Catholic Presbytery, St. Joseph's Catholic School, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour Catholic Church, the Manning Valley Historical Society rooms and Museum and a dental surgery.
On the corner of Bent and Farquhar Streets stands the old Gibson and Skinner Butchery, built in 1911. Bent Street runs along the western side of Central Park and is home to the Australian Hotel, the Wingham District Memorial Services Club a Returned Services League Social Club and various shops. Shops dominate the northern side of the park; the Northeast corner was occupied by the Wingham Hotel or Bottom Pub from 1926 until it burned down on 5 July 2010. Central Park itself is home to "The Log," a massive log felled in the surrounding countryside which serves to remind the townsfolk of the timber driven history of the area, a de Havilland Vampire fighter plane, a cricket pitch, some children’s play equipment, a drinking fountain commemorating the installation of mains water in the town, a small ornamental waterfall, two flag poles at opposite ends of the northern side of the park. There are five schools in Wingham. Wingham Public School is located in Murray Road, is known to the locals as Murray Road Public School.
St Joseph's Catholic School is located between the Catholic Church and Presbytery on the southern side of Central Park, Wingham Special Education primary school for young mentally challenged children, located in the north end of Richardson Street and Wingham Brush Public School is around the corner between the eastern side of Central Park and Wingham Brush. Wingham High School is located three blocks northeast of Central Park, has an extensive agricultural science department, owning three properties and a feedlot; the WHS Agricultural Show Team breeds all their own cattle through both natural mating and artificial insemination. They specialise in commercial beef animals, have won first ribbons for hoof and hook, steer competitions, as well as junior judging and parading, in such shows as the Royal Sydney Show, Royal Brisbane Show and Tamworth Show. Along the Manning River is Wingham Brush, an area of lowland tropical rainforest remnant on a floodplain, including spectacular Moreton Bay Fig trees and home to a colony of Grey Headed flying foxes.
The story of the restoration of Wingham Brush from a weed infested area of public land is an epic tale of a small band of dedicated volunteers battling entrenched regeneration doctrine, competing interests and public opinion. Thankfully the volunteers and local know-how prevailed and Wingham Brush remains a fantastic tropical rainforest remnant that brings tourists from around the world to view the rainforest and the flying foxes nightly exit over the Manning River at Wingham Riverside Reserve overnight camping area. For many years the flying foxes were considered pests and various initiatives were taken to remove them, including offering free ammunition to those willing to shoot them; these efforts proved ineffective and, in more recent years, moves have been taken to protect the flying foxes, which have become a tourist attraction. Wingham is the gateway to the Ellenborough Falls on the Bulga Plateau, the second longest single drop waterfall in the Southern Hemisphere; the Bank Guesthouse the local branch of the Westpac Bank, featured on the Seven Network's Sydney Weekender with Mike Whitney in 1999.
The infamous murderer and fugitive Jimmy Governor was incarcerated in Wingham after his capture
Hooker (rugby league)
Hooker is one of the positions in a rugby league football team. Wearing jersey number 9, the hooker is one of the team's forwards. During scrums the hooker plays in the front row, the position's name comes from their role of'hooking' or'raking' the ball back with the foot. For this reason the hooker is sometimes referred to as the rake. Hookers have a great deal of contact with the ball, as they play the role of acting halfback or dummy half, picking the ball up from the play-the-ball that follows a tackle. Hookers therefore have a lot of responsibility in that they decide what to do with the ball, whether that be to pass it, run with it, or to kick it. Therefore, together with the two half backs and fullback, hooker is one of the four key positions that make up what is sometimes called a team's'spine'. A trend of halfbacks converting into hookers followed the introduction of the 10 metre rule, many players have switched between these positions in their careers such as Geoff Toovey, Andrew Johns, Craig Gower and Peter Wallace.
The laws of rugby league state that the hooker is to be numbered 9. However, in some leagues, such as Super League, players can wear jersey numbers which do not have to conform to this system. One book published in 1996 stated that in senior rugby league, the hooker and stand-off/five-eighth handled the ball more than any other position. In the 2013 NRL season the top six players with the most tackles were all hookers. Hookers that feature in their nations' rugby league halls of fame are New Zealand's Jock Butterfield and Australia's Ken Kearney, Sandy Pearce, Cameron Smith and Noel Kelly; the most-capped British international hooker was Wales' Tommy Harris. Rugby league gameplay Rugby union positions#Hooker
Warrington Wolves are a professional rugby league club in Warrington, that competes in the Super League. They play at the Halliwell Jones Stadium, having moved there from Wilderspool in 2004. Founded as Warrington Zingari Football Club in 1876, they are one of the original twenty-two clubs that formed the Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895 and the only one that has played every season in the top flight, they are nicknamed "The Wire" in reference to the wire-drawing industry in the town. Warrington have local rivalries with St. Helens and Wigan, they have won three League Championships and are the fourth most successful team in the Challenge Cup with eight victories, behind Wigan, St. Helens and Leeds, their most successful season came in 1953–54 when they completed a Championship and Challenge Cup'Double', beating Halifax twice in the space of four days to first win the Challenge Cup 8–4 in a replay at Odsal clinch the Championship 8–7 at Maine Road. 1955 was the last time. Warrington are the 11th most successful rugby league club in England behind Wigan Warriors, St Helens, Bradford Bulls, Hull FC, Leeds Rhinos, Salford Red Devils, Widnes Vikings, Hull Kingston Rovers and Swinton Lions.
The official foundation date for the club is given as 1876, but rugby football was played in the town before that date and there was an earlier club bearing the name of Warrington Football Club. Under the heading'Outdoor Sports – Football' the Widnes Guardian of 25 January 1873 reports on a recent game between Warrington and Wigan at the unnamed ground of the former. On 6 December 1873 that same newspaper carried details of a match involving Warrington and Zingari and in subsequent weeks there were matches with Sale and Free Wanderers; this club folded. Warrington Zingari Football Club was formed in 1876 by seven young local men; when the earlier club folded, they decided to take the vacant Warrington Football Club name for the start of the 1877/8 season. Another local club, Padgate Excelsior amalgamated with Warrington in 1881–82, Warrington Wanderers joined in 1884 to form a representative town side. In 1886, the club won the West Lancashire and Border Towns Trophy. On 28 August 1895, the Committee decided to join with 21 other clubs throughout Lancashire and Yorkshire to form a new'Northern Union' and resigned from the RFU.
In 1900 -- 01, Warrington reached the final of the Challenge Cup. A crowd of 29,000 turned out at Leeds to see Warrington battle hard but be beaten by two tries to nil. Warrington appeared in the renamed South West Lancashire Cup against Leigh two days later; the strenuous game against Batley took its toll on the Warrington players and the match ended in a 0–0 draw, the replay never took place. In 1903–04, Warrington defeated Bradford Northern in a semi-final replay to earn a place in the final of the Challenge Cup. Warrington put up a fine performance against Halifax but lost 8–3. In 1904–05, Warrington beat Hull Kingston Rovers 6–0 to win the Challenge Cup final in front of a crowd of 19,638. In 1908, 14 November the first touring Australian rugby league team visit Warrington; the Kangaroos embarked upon a massive six months tour of Britain taking in 45 matches. Their timing was not good as the north of England was hit by strikes in the cotton mills, which badly affected attendances as fans could not afford to watch the pioneering Aussies.
On Saturday 14 November 1908 Warrington played the Kangaroos. Warrington won the match 10-3, with Jackie Fish the hero scoring one try and Ike Taylor the other and George Dickenson kicked a goal each. A crowd of 5,000 watched the match at Wilderspool; the Warrington team that day was Jimmy Tilley, Jack Fish, George Dickenson, Ike Taylor, Lewis Treharne, Ernest Brooks, John Jenkins, William Dowell, Alfred Boardman, Billy O'Neill, George Thomas, Peter Boardman, John Willie Chester. The Australians came back to Wilderspool for "revenge" in the tour but tries from Jack Fish, John Jenkins earned the'Wirepullers' an 8-8 draw. Two members of the Kangaroo squad, Dan Frawley and Larry O'Malley signed for Warrington and played the next season at Wilderspool. Warrington have the best record of any club side against the touring Kangaroos with eight wins, one draw, seven defeats from sixteen matches. In 1913, 5th challenge cup final, Warrington reached their fifth Challenge Cup Final, with wins over Keighley, Hull Kingston Rovers and Dewsbury.
The Final was lost 9–5 to the mighty Huddersfield team of "All-Stars". Warrington scored first through a try by Bradshaw converted by Jolley and gave a wonderful display in what was considered to be the best Cup Final of the pre-war era. A disappointing league season had seen Warrington finish their lowest pre Great War. So the Challenge Cup performances were a tremendous achievement. Warrington closed for the 1915-16 season but recommenced playing in 1916 following the introduction of conscription which meant that would not be accused of keeping men from volunteering for the First World War. After a bad start to the 1921 -- 22 season, Warrington won; this included an 8–5 victory over the visiting Australasian team of the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain. Warrington beat Leigh to reach the final of the Lancashire County Cup. Wire beat Oldham 7–5, despite playing with only 12 men for most of the match after centre Collins sustained a broken collar bone. After a bad start to the 1927–28 current and a poor previous season Warrington notched up victories over Hull Kingston Rovers and Leeds in the semi-final of the Challenge Cup.
The final against Swinton was played at Central Park, with an estimated 1
Taree is a town on the Mid North Coast, New South Wales, Australia. Taree and nearby Cundletown were settled in 1831 by William Wynter. Since Taree has grown to a population of 26,000, is the centre of a significant agricultural district, it is 16 km from the Tasman Sea coast, 317 km north of Sydney. Taree can be reached by train via the North Coast Railway, by the Pacific Highway. Taree is within the local government area of Mid-Coast Council, the state electorate of Myall Lakes and the Federal electorate of Lyne; the name Taree is derived from "tareebit" the local native Biripi word meaning tree by the river, or more the Sandpaper Fig. Taree was laid out as a private town in 1854 by Henry Flett, the son-in-law of William Wynter who had settled the area in 1831. 100 acres had been set aside for the private township and 40 lots were sold. Taree was declared a municipality on 26 March 1885 and the first municipal council was elected by the residents. In the early 1800s the road from Newcastle to Port Macquarie came via Gloucester and forded the river near Wingham.
Boats could not go further upstream than this due to narrowing of rapids. Hence a town formed about a day's ride from Gloucester. Timber getting cedar, ensured goods were brought to Wingham and shipped to Newcastle and beyond by boat. Coopernook formed a local shipping hub. In 1844, the government of New South Wales had established Wingham as its administrative centre; when the North Coast railway line came through in 1913, it ended at Taree. Before the rest of the line was completed it became apparent that it was safer to send goods by rail to Newcastle and Sydney rather than hazarding the bar at the outlet to the river at Harrington where many ships had been lost. Although connected to the railway, sea transport continued to dominate along the North Coast until the 1930s; this changed when the Martin Bridge replaced the ferry across the Manning River in 1940. River traffic reduced after this, ensuring Taree's place as the centre of business; the oldest surviving building in Taree is the old St Paul's Presbyterian Church, built in 1869 in the Victorian Gothic Revival style, next door to the current building, in Albert Street.
Taree has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: North Coast railway: Taree railway station Taree experiences a humid subtropical climate. Taree gets around 102.5 sunny days annually. Of the 17,820 people resident in Taree; the unemployment rate is double the national average. The most common industries of employment is retail and aged care; the median weekly household income is $719. This compares with a national average of $1,234. A plurality of children live in families with no one in employment. 41.3% of households have a gross weekly income of less than $600. The median age in Taree is 44. 8.0% of the population is Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, with the average age amongst this group being 19. Taree has a higher proportion of people aged 65+; this compares with a national average of 14%. 4.2% of residents are aged 85+, more than double the national average of 1.9%. 86.9% of residents report being born in Australia. Other than Australia the most common countries of birth are England, New Zealand and the Netherlands.
82.9% report both parents being born in Australia, notably higher than the national average of 53.7%. The top religious groups in Taree are Anglican 32.7%, Catholic 19.1%, No Religion 16.2%, Uniting Church 7.3% and Presbyterian and Reformed 4.2%. There are several public schools in the Taree area including Taree Public School, Taree High School, Taree West Public School, Manning Gardens Public School, Chatham Public School, Chatham High School, Cundletown Public School. Private schools in and around Taree include Manning District Adventist School, Manning Valley Anglican College, Taree Christian College, Kolodong, St Joseph's Primary School, St Clare's High School. Several post-secondary education and training facilities have a presence in Taree: the North Coast Institute of TAFE, Taree Community College, the Australian Technical College - Manning Valley Campus; the Manning River Times is based in Taree. All major digital-only television channels are available in Taree; the networks and the channels they broadcast are listed as follows: Prime7/Channel Seven, 7Two and 7Mate.
NBN, GO! and GEM. WIN Television, ONE and ELEVEN. ABC1, ABC2/ABC4Kids, ABC3 and ABC News 24, part of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. SBS ONE, SBS2 and NITV, part of the Special Broadcasting Service. NBN Television and Channel Seven broadcast local news bulletins at 6.00pm. Prime Television, NBN Television and WIN Television all maintain offices in the city. There are four local radio stations, commercial stations 2RE and Max FM and community stations 2BOB and 2TLP; the ABC broadcasts ABC Classic FM, Radio National and ABC Mid North Coast into Taree. Rhema FM Manning Great Lakes broadcasts from studios in nearby Wingham and Racing Radio is broadcast to Taree. Nearby towns include historic Wingham and the beachside town of Old Bar. A local tourist attraction is a building called "The World's Largest Oyster" called "The Big Oyster". Big Things are a common form of tourist attraction in Australia. Like the Big Merino and Big Banana, the'Oys
Nick Youngquest is an Australian model and former professional rugby league footballer. He played in the National Rugby League for the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, St. George Illawarra Dragons, Penrith Panthers and the Bulldogs, in the UK for the Gateshead Thunder, Celtic Crusaders and the Castleford Tigers as a winger. Youngquest was born in Australia. Youngquest made his first grade debut for Cronulla-Sutherland in Round 1 2003 against Melbourne. Youngquest played for St George between 2004 and 2005. Youngquest spent two seasons with Penrith in 2006 and 2007. In late 2007, Youngquest agreed to a one-year deal with the Wests Tigers, his fourth club in six years, but failed to make the NRL squad. Youngquest was released midway through the 2008 season and signed with Canterbury as a replacement for the released Cameron Phelps. After failing to make an impact in the NRL after six seasons, Youngquest moved to play for the French rugby league team Salanque Meditérrannée PIA XIII following the conclusion of the 2008 NRL season.
In 2009, Youngquest played for English Championship team Gateshead Thunder, where he caught the eye of Brian Noble, the coach for Crusaders RL. Youngquest signed with the Crusaders shortly before the start of the 2010 Super League season. 2011 brought a move to Super League team Castleford Tigers, Youngquest played his best rugby there making 40 appearances and scoring 29 tries and 2 goals. Youngquest scored his last try at the last home game of the season against Catalans Dragons. First Grade Debut: 2003 - Round 1, Cronulla v Melbourne Storm, Toyota Park, 16 March First Career hat-trick 2010 - Round 24, Crusaders v. Salford City Reds, The Racecourse Ground, 1 August In 2006, Youngquest posed nude for the Naked Rugby League Calendar 2007-08, stirring controversy after his revealing pose - in which one hand is placed over his genitalia; the NRL reacted by distancing itself from the project, stating that they do not endorse nor authorise the calendar. The sales of the calendar helped to raise funds for the National Breast Cancer Foundation.
Youngquest has worked as a professional model. He is hired by agencies Ford Models and DT Model Management, has done advertising campaign for designer fragrances Paco Rabanne. During his time as a professional Rugby League player, Youngquest gained exposure from his involvement with a variety of charitable organizations and was featured on the cover of numerous magazines worldwide. In 2008, Youngquest was discovered by David Todd and has since been represented by DT Model Management in the U. S. In late 2012, Youngquest decided to step away from rugby to pursue opportunities in modeling, appearing in a campaign for Abercrombie & Fitch shot by Bruce Weber, he resides in New York City. In 2013, he became the face of the new masculine fragrance INVICTUS by Paco Rabanne. In 2014, Youngquest became the head coach for semi-professional rugby league club, the Brooklyn Kings, who play in the USARL. Youngquest has been developing new and older players with the goal of expanding rugby league in the United States, as well as develop star players for team USA for the Rugby League World Cup
Cleo is a Malaysian, Singaporean and Indonesia monthly women's magazine. The magazine was founded in 1972 in Australia. Aimed at an older audience than the teenage-focused Australian magazine Dolly, Cleo was published by Bauer Media Group in Sydney and was known for its Cleo Bachelor of the Year award. Launched in November 1972 under the direction of Ita Buttrose, the magazine's founding editor, Cleo became one of Australia's most iconic titles due to its mix of controversial content, including the first nude male centerfold and detailed sex advice. According to the magazine's editorial philosophy, "Cleo gets women, it strikes the perfect balance, offers a bright, light-hearted tone and aesthetic without shying away from the more serious issues that are important to their readers.". Audited circulation in June 2014 was 53,221 copies monthly. Readership numbers for September 2014 are estimated to be 173,000. With a strong online presence of 300,000+ visitors monthly, the magazine established its brand online.
In addition, Beauty Bites, Cleo's digital app, offered an interactive component to technologically minded Gen Y readers, including how-to video tutorials, expert advice and reader-generated content. Bauer announced on 20 January 2016. In the early 1970s, journalist and editor, Ita Buttrose, Kerry Packer, heir to what was Australia's most influential publishing house, Australian Consolidated Press, created a new and bold Australian women's magazine which would become an instant sensation. Cleo was modelled in a large part on Cosmopolitan after the Packers lost the rights to the latter title to rivals Fairfax; the first issue was launched in November 1972, the same month that Gough Whitlam came to power in Australia. In the original promotional video for Cleo, Buttrose observes "the changing personality of the Australian woman." In an era when hopes for social and political change were high, Cleo was a fitting and welcome addition for women aged between 20 and 40 who were looking for something more than the recipes, knitting tips and coverage of royal births and weddings that the Australian Women's Weekly focused on at the time.
Cleo was politically provocative with its journalism. Alongside articles on group sex, contraception, "happy hookers" and Jack Thompson as the first nude "Mate of the Month", the launch issue featured tips on "How to be a sexy housekeeper." In stark contrast to the lack of literary content in modern glossy magazines, Buttrose ran a short story by Norman Mailer, a prominent author at the time. This trend continued in subsequent issues. In two days, 105,000 copies of the first issue were sold and by the end of its first year circulation reached 200,000; when the magazine conducted the first national readership survey in 1974, figures revealed that 30 percent of women aged between 13 and 24 read Cleo every month. Through Cleo, feminism became a part of their identity. Ita Buttrose and her staff were committed to many of the ideas of sexual liberation. However, it is important to note that Cleo's editorial agenda was that of liberal rather than radical feminism. In her first editorial letter, Buttrose described who she thought the Cleo reader was: "You're an intelligent woman who's interested in everything that's going on, the type of person who wants a great deal more out of life.
Like us, certain aspects of Women's Lib appeal to you but you're not aggressive about it.". The feminist tone and ideas proliferated on the pages of Cleo throughout the 1970s; every month, there were feature articles covering issues including: the work/life balance, the pressure to get married and raise a family, contraception, women's education, domestic violence and rape. "The celebrities Cleo chose to interview were women who had succeeded in politics and culture. There were discussions of the Women's Liberation Movement itself, with writers for and against". Ordinary, every-day women gained understanding of feminism through the pages of Cleo; the magazine helped create the feminist public sphere, opening doors for discussions about new ideas which modern women treat as mainstream today. Cleo pushed boundaries in mainstream publishing with candid articles on topics ranging from sex toys and orgasms, to lesbianism and contraception. "We wrote about sex as if we had discovered it", recalls Buttrose.
Cleo was the first Australian women's magazine to feature non-frontal nude male centrefolds in 1972, with Jack Thomson, a prominent Australian actor at the time, the magazine's first Mate of the Month. What Buttrose thought would be a light hearted, one-off feature became an essential component of what made Cleo so popular. Other mates were Eric Oldfield, Peter Blasina and the band Skyhooks; the centrefold feature was discontinued in 1985, the last being a bare-chested picture of Mel Gibson. University of Sydney media academic Megan Le Masurier interprets the centerfold phenomenon as an incentive for popular feminist desire; the centerfold attempted to reverse the dominant tradition of representing men as viewers, women as viewed. The representation of the male nude "offered women the chance to imagine themselves as active sexual agents, quite capable of holding the gaze"; the naked man was a reminder that women could, should, enjoy sex, reaffirmed their right to talk about sex. In 2013, new editor Sharri Markson announced.
More than 40 years after revamping women's magazines with male centrefolds, it was the first time that sex had not