Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Spadina Avenue is one of the most prominent streets in Toronto, Canada. Running through the western section of downtown, the road has a different character in different neighbourhoods. Spadina Avenue runs south from Bloor Street to the Gardiner Expressway, just north of Lake Ontario. Lower Spadina Avenue continues the last block to the lake after the expressway. Another street named Spadina Road continues north from Bloor, but with new street address numbering starting over at zero. For much of its extent, Spadina Road is a less busy residential road. Spadina Avenue is pronounced with the i as /aɪ/ as in mine; the name originated under the latter pronunciation, with the former a colloquialism that evolved as Spadina Avenue was extended from the wealthy neighbourhoods north of Bloor into the more working-class and immigrant areas to the south. The /aɪ/ variation is now predominant among most Torontonians, to the point that in 2011 a minor controversy emerged when the Toronto Transit Commission's new automated announcement system pronounced the upcoming subway stop with /iː/.
The name originates from the Ojibwa word ishpadinaa, meaning "high place/ridge" or "sudden rise in the land." The Ishpatina Ridge, in Northern Ontario, the highest point of land in the province of Ontario, the city of Ishpeming, in the state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula in Marquette County both derive their name from the same preverb. Spadina was the original name of the street from Bloor Street to Queen Street West, built by Dr. William Baldwin beginning in 1815; the street's name did not appear in published maps until 1834. The southern portion was named Brock Street and remained so until after 1884. Brock Street was named in honour of Sir Issac Brock. Baldwin designed the original Spadina, choosing its extra large width and placing the circle, today 1 Spadina Crescent, he named the connecting Baldwin Street after himself, Phoebe Street to the south was named after his wife Phoebe Baldwin. For a number of decades, Spadina Avenue and nearby Kensington Market were the centre of Jewish life in Toronto with the area around Spadina being the home of the garment district—where many Jews worked—as well as numerous Jewish delis, bookstores, Yiddish theatres and other political and cultural institutions.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Jewish community moved north along Bathurst Street, but signs of Spadina's Jewish history can still be found in many locations. The city's Chinatown moved west along Dundas onto Spadina when much of the original Chinatown was expropriated to build Toronto's new City Hall and Nathan Phillips Square. Most of the section known as Spadina Avenue is a six-lane urban arterial, with a speed limit of 50 km/h, although it is unposted; the section known as Spadina Road is a two- to four-lane collector road with speed limits alternating between 40–50 km/h. The 77 Spadina bus route inspired a song, "Spadina Bus", which became a surprise Top 40 hit in Canada for the jazz fusion band The Shuffle Demons in 1986. In the 1990s, the TTC rebuilt and reinstated the 510 Spadina streetcar line, which runs in a dedicated right-of-way along the median strip of the street since its opening in 1997. Prior to the construction of the Spadina LRT, streetcars ran down the street until it was replaced by the 77 Spadina bus.
Bricked road bed was used along the streetcar route. Small sections of the brick road bed remained. In the 1960s, city hall was planning to tear up Spadina and most of the buildings on either side to construct the Spadina Expressway, a proposed highway that would have run straight into downtown. After a long public battle, with the opposition to the project led by Toronto urban writer Jane Jacobs and former Toronto mayor John Sewell, the plans were halted in 1971; the Forest Hill Jewish Centre has announced plans to rebuild the façade of the Great Synagogue of Jasło, destroyed by the German Army in World War II, as the façade of its new building on Spadina Road. Lake Shore to Queen StreetThe southern section of Spadina was the heart of Toronto's industrial area for most of the 20th century, but in the 1970s, most of the factories left. Most of the land south of Front Street is infill on Lake Ontario; the Rogers Centre was opened just east of Spadina in 1989. This area was the site of the CNR Spadina Roundhouse.
Some land along this portion of Spadina has been redeveloped into the condominium tower complex of CityPlace. The road once cross the railway lands with a pony truss bridge built in 1926-1927 and replaced with the current Box girder bridge in the 1990s. From Front Street, Spadina runs through the Fashion District and along the western edge of the Entertainment District, which contains a number of office buildings. Queen Street to College StreetNorth of Queen Street West, the avenue passes along the eastern side of the Alexandra Park neighbourhood, made up of a number of public housing projects; the intersection of Dundas Street West and Spadina is the centre of Toronto's second-oldest Chinatown, with many restaurants and shops catering to the Chinese community. The Chinese Spadina began in the 1970s after the departure of Jewish Toronto from the area, it supplanted an older Chinatown centred on Dundas Street West and Elizabeth Street, disrupted when New City Hall was constructed in the ea
The Minto Midtown is a residential complex on Yonge Street in Toronto in the Davisville neighbourhood near Yonge and Eglinton consisting of two towers and Quantum 2 developed by Minto Developments Inc. The proposed project--which exceeded existing height and zoning limits--met with substantial neighborhood and city opposition, until Minto appealed to the Ontario Municipal Board and worked out a deal with the City of Toronto. Quantum is 37 storeys and was completed in 2007. Quantum 2 is 52 storeys and was completed in 2008; the initial conceptual design was done by Owings & Merrill. The construction of the towers, the tallest in the neighbourhood, was controversial. In March 2000, the developer bought the land to be developed and submitted an application for the project in December of the same year, which included the plan for the two towers and demolition of a ten-storey building; the project was in excess of the existing height and density limits. However, chief planner was considering zoning changes to increase development in the area.
The local ward councilor, Michael Walker, kicked the developer out of his office when approached with the proposal and remained steadfastly against the project. Walker had the backing of a number of neighborhood groups the North Toronto Tenants Network. Other councilors were amenable to the proposal. After delays and the City's plans to reject the project, Minto appealed to the Ontario Municipal Board a pro-development board. Minto reached an agreement with city council, by reducing the height by several storeys, providing Can $1.2 Million for social housing, Can$200,000 for transit connections. The OMB Decision set a new standard for development; the buildings still sparked strong response from a community group named the North Toronto Tenants Network. The OMB ruled in favour of Minto; the debate over the towers proved central in the 2003 municipal election. Incumbent city councillor Anne Johnston had helped broker the compromise, she was opposed by Karen Stintz, who took a strong stand against the development and intensification.
In a result that surprised many, longtime incumbent Johnston lost by 2,321 votes. This development has achieved Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold certification, making it the largest multi-residential LEED certified condominium in North America in 2009. List of tallest buildings in Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Toronto—St. Paul's is a federal electoral district in Toronto, Canada, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1935, its current MP is Carolyn Bennett. Prior to the 2015 election, the riding was known as St. Paul's; the small but densely populated riding covers the area to the north of Downtown Toronto. In the past, it had been considered a bellwether riding, having been represented by only three opposition MPs. However, like most Toronto-based ridings, the Liberals have dominated recent elections. Since the Liberals won all but one seat in Ontario in their 1993 landslide, they have won all but one election in St. Paul's by 10,000 votes or more. According to the Canada 2006 CensusEthnic groups: 76.08% White, 5.31% Black, 4.04% Filipino, 3.73% Chinese, 2.85% Latin American, 2.46% South Asian Languages: 67.47% English, 1.87% French, 30.47% Others Religions: 29.28% Catholic, 25.01% Protestant, 19.60% Non religious, 14.03% Jewish, 4.18% Christian Orthodox, 2.62% Other Christian, 2.52% Muslim, 1.35% Buddhist Average income: $34,617 It was created in 1933 from parts of Toronto East Centre, Toronto Northeast, Toronto South and Toronto West Centre ridings.
It consisted of the central part of the City of Toronto. It was bounded on the south by Toronto Bay, on the east by Sherbourne Street and on the north and west by a line drawn from Sherbourne Street west along Bloor Street, north along Yonge Street, northwest along the belt line railway and west along the western limit of the city, south along Dunvegan Road, east along St. Clair Avenue, south along Poplar Plains Road, west along Dupont Street, south along St. George and Beverley Streets, east along Queen Street, south along John Street. In 1947, it was redefined to consist of the part of the city of Toronto bounded on the south by Toronto Bay, on the east by a line drawn from the Bay north along Sherbourne Street, west along Bloor Street East and north along Yonge Street, on the north by the south boundary of Ward Nine of the city of Toronto, on the west by a line drawn from the Bay north on John Street, west along Queen Street West, north on Beverley Street and along St. George Street, east along Dupont Street, north along Davenport Road and Poplar Plains Road, west along St. Clair Avenue West, north along Dunvegan Road and north along the city limit to the southern boundary of Ward Nine.
In 1966, it was redefined to consist of the part of Metropolitan Toronto bounded by a line drawn from Bloor Street, north along Yonge Street, northwest along the Canadian National Railway line, north along Elmsthorpe Avenue, west along Eglinton Avenue, north along Castlewood Road, west along Briar Hill Avenue, south along Old Park Road and Glen Cedar Road, southeast along Claxton Boulevard, south along Bathurst Street and east along Bloor Street to Yonge Street. In 1987, it was redefined to consist of the part of the cities of Toronto and York bounded by a line drawn from the Canadian Pacific Railway line north along Ossington Avenue, east along Davenport Road, north along Winona Drive, west along Eglinton Avenue West and east along the eastern limit of the City of York and north along the northern limit of the City of Toronto, south along Yonge Street and westerly along the CPR line to Ossington Avenue. In 1996, it was redefined to consist of the part of the cities of Toronto and York bounded by a line drawn from the Canadian Pacific Railway north along Ossington Avenue, east along Davenport Road, north along Winona Drive, west along Eglinton Avenue West, north along the eastern limit of the City of York, east along the northern limit of the City of Toronto, south along Bathurst Street, southeast along the Belt Line, east along Eglinton Avenue West, north along Yonge Street, east along Broadway Avenue and east along the eastern limit of the City of Toronto, west along the south side of the Mount Pleasant Cemetery, south along the ravine situated east of Avoca Avenue, west along Rosehill Avenue and east along the west side of the Rosehill Reservoir, west along Woodlawn Avenue East, south along Yonge Street, west along the Canadian Pacific Railway to Ossington Avenue.
In 2003, it was redefined to consist of the part of the City of Toronto bounded by a line drawn from the Canadian Pacific Railway north along Ossington Avenue, east along Davenport Road, north along Winona Drive, west along Holland Park Avenue, north along Oakwood Avenue, west along Rogers Road, north along Dufferin Street, east along Eglinton Avenue West, north along Yonge Street, east along Broadway Avenue, south along the former eastern limit of the City of Toronto, west along the south side of the Mount Pleasant Cemetery, southeast along the Don River Tributary situated east of Avoca Avenue, west along Rosehill Avenue, south along the west side of the Rosehill Reservoir, west along Jackes Avenue, south along Yonge Street and west along the Canadian Pacific Railway to Ossington Avenue. In the 2012 electoral redistribution, St. Paul's lost territory to Don Valley West, gained a small fraction from Davenport and was renamed Toronto—St. Paul's. From its creation until 1966, the electoral district included two prominent churches named for St Paul the apostle: St. Paul's, Bloor Street at 227 Bloor Street East, the largest Anglican church in Toronto by seating capacity.
The electoral district ceased to include 227 Bloor Street East after a redefinition of the district's boundaries in 1966. In 1980, the congregation at St. Paul's-Avenue Road United Church moved to 427 Bloor Street West during a church merger creating Trinity-St. Paul's United Church; the electoral district ceased to include 427 Bloor Street West after a boundary
2006 Toronto municipal election
The 2006 Toronto municipal election took place on 13 November 2006 to elect a mayor and 44 city councillors in Toronto, Canada. In addition, school trustees were elected to the Toronto District School Board, Toronto Catholic District School Board, Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest and Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud; the election was held in conjunction with those held in other municipalities in the province of Ontario. In the mayoral race, incumbent mayor David Miller was re-elected with 57% of the popular vote. There were 38 candidates running for Mayor of Toronto and 238 candidates running for 44 city councillor positions. To date, this represents the largest number of candidates to run in a Toronto municipal election. In contrast to the previous election, no candidates were unopposed. Provincial legislation passed in May 2006 extended municipal council terms in Ontario from the previous three years to four; the council elected in 2006 thus served until 2010.
Local activist David Meslin created City Idol — an initiative and contest to encourage local citizens who were otherwise alienated from politics to seek office in this election. The contest selected four candidates to assist in their quests for city council seats; the contest ran from February to June 2006. On 27 September 2006, former councillor Chris Korwin-Kuczynski filed papers to run in his old riding of Ward 14; however the next day he withdrew his nomination. This allowed him to retain a fundraising surplus of $21,742 left over from his last campaign. If he had not run in this election, the money would have flowed into the city coffers; as of the close of nominations, the majority of local media coverage was focused around three mayoralty candidates — current Mayor David Miller, outgoing Ward 26 Councillor Jane Pitfield and former Liberal Party of Canada President Stephen LeDrew. Several incidents occurred during Ward 8 advanced polling on the weekend of 4–5 November 2006, leading to candidates Peter Li Preti and Anthony Perruzza accusing each other of dirty campaigning and the breaking of numerous election and criminal laws.
Although no criminal charges were laid by police, the City of Toronto has hired off-duty police officers at a cost of $23,200 to guard each of the ward's 40 voting locations on election day to assure voters will remain safe and free from harassment. Gun-related crime and violence Garbage and waste disposal Streetcar right-of-way on St. Clair Avenue TTC governance and management Toronto City Centre Airport expansion, battle with the Toronto Port Authority Budget shortfall and taxes Waterfront revitalization Housing and homelessness Councillor and mayoral pay raises Scarborough subway expansion Future of the elevated section of the Gardiner Expressway Aggressive Panhandlers The Guardian Angels The City of Toronto Act? statistic not stated/unknown* percentage of decided voters only— option not available/given at time of polling Official Results Michael Alexander was 42 years old, worked as a filmmaker, described himself as an eschatologist. His political hero was Pierre Trudeau, he promoted "city autonomy with a central bank, laws guided by eschatological principles from Scriptures, a constitution based on the U. N.
Declaration of Human Rights." His strong showing may be explained, in part, by the fact that he appeared first on the alphabetical ballot. Jaime Castillo was born in Peru, had studied mechanical engineering at Humber College, had worked in construction and real estate, he first ran for Mayor of Toronto in 2003 as part of a pro-multiculturalism slate, calling for an increase in property taxes to support programs for immigrants. He received 1,616 votes for an eighth-place finish. Castillo promoted multicultural issues again in 2006 calling for improved tourism services and an environmental program to produce bio-gas and fertilizers from garbage. Hazel Jackson campaigned for Mayor of Toronto in 1997 and 2000. Homeless, she was a resident of Toronto's "Tent City" for a period. Jackson was a 45-year-old student at George Brown College in the 2000 election and called for more popular involvement in politics, saying "If everyone had access to a hand-held computer that plugged into the Net, we could have instant votes on major issues."
She worked at the Parkdale Activity & Recreation Centre in 2006, promoted green rooftops, windmills and "more community gardens". Lee Romano was a successful businesswoman in Toronto, she created the Consumer's Guide to Insurance Inc. in 1996, providing telephone callers with advice on car insurance rates. She moved her service online. Since 2005, she had written a column in the Toronto Star's "Wheels" section under the name Lee Romanov. Romano made a successful $9,000 bid at a "Mayor for a Day" charity event in 2002, won the right to oversee activities at Toronto's city hall for 11 June of the same year, she held a gala "inauguration" ball in May, with the proceeds going to charity. She did not campaign for mayor in 2006. Shaun Bruce was a 22-year-old fourth-year media studies student at the University of Guelph-Humber, he decided to run for mayor after a class discussion on low voter turnout among youth, following suggestions that a student candidate would bring more young voters to the polls.
Many of his classmates worked on his campaign. Bruce wanted to introduce discounted public-transportation fees for students, improve community safety, introduce an online directory of affordable student housing. Monowar Hossain campaigned for the Toronto District School Board in 2000 and fo
Toronto City Council
The Toronto City Council is the governing body of the City of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. Members represent wards throughout the city, are known as councillors; the passage of provincial legislation in the summer of 2018 established that the number of wards be reduced from 44 to 25 and that they be based upon the city's federal electoral districts as of the year 2000. While the federal districts have been redistributed since the ward boundaries remain the same; the city council had at its peak 45 members: 44 ward councillors plus the mayor. On September 19, 2018 an Ontario Court of appeals granted a stay order of a previous court decision that would have prevented this reduction, thus re-establishing the move to 25 wards; the actual court appeal of Bill 5 has yet to be scheduled, but was heard subsequent to the municipal election on October 22, 2018. The current decision-making framework and committee structure at the City of Toronto was established by the City of Toronto Act and came into force January 1, 2007.
The decision-making process at the City of Toronto involves committees. Committees propose and debate policies and recommendations before their arrival at City Council for debate. Citizens and residents can only make deputations on policy at committees, citizens cannot make public presentations to City Council; each City Councillor sits on one committee. The Mayor is entitled to one vote. There are three types of committees at the City of Toronto: the Executive Committee, Standing Committees and other Committees of Council; the City posts agendas for council and committee meetings on its website. The Executive Committee is an advisory body; the Executive Committee is composed of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, the chairs of the seven standing committees who are appointed by the Mayor and four "at-large" members appointed by City Council. The role of the Executive Committee is to set the City of Toronto's priorities, manage financial planning and budgeting, labour relations, human resources, the operation of City Council.
The Executive Committee makes recommendations to city council on: strategic policy and priorities governance policy and structure financial planning and budgeting fiscal policy intergovernmental and international relations Council operations Human resources and labour relationsSeveral committees report to the Executive Committee: Budget Committee, Affordable Housing Committee, Employee and Labour Relations Committee. Source: City of Toronto Following the sudden decision by the Provincial government to reduce the size of City Council in summer 2018, the committee structure is under review. There were eleven other committees; the seven standing policy committees were: There are four other committees that report to Council: Source: City of Toronto All members of Toronto city council serve on a community council. Community Councils report to City Council but they have final decision-making power on certain items, such as front yard parking and appointments to local boards and Business Improvement Areas.
The city is divided into four community councils. Their meeting locations are as follows: Etobicoke York – Etobicoke Civic Centre North York – North York Civic Centre Scarborough – Scarborough Civic Centre Toronto and East York – Toronto City Hall The current council term began on December 1, 2018. In 2014, the Mayor's salary was $177,499 and Councillors was $105,397. Starting January 1, 2017, the Mayor's salary was increased to $188,544 and Councillors to $111,955, a 2.1 per cent change. The Office of the Mayor is located on the second floor at Toronto City Hall; the general public and media can access it via stairs. The current staff of the office consists of: Chief of Staff - Luke Robertson Deputy Chief of Staff - Courtney Glen Principal Secretary - Vince Gasparro Executive Assistant to the Mayor - Dee Dee Heywood Executive Assistant to the Chief - Karen Cooper Executive Director of Communications & Strategic Issues Management - Don Peat Executive Director of Budget & Finance - Sophia Arvanitis Director, Legislative Affairs - Edward Birnbaum Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Daniela Magisano Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Matt Buckman Senior Advisor, Tour - Emily Hillstrom Advisor, Constituency Affairs - Farnaz Patel Advisor, Communications - Avi Yufest Advisor, Communications & Tour - Louise Brunet Special Assistant, Outreach - Kema Joseph Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Tour - Abinaya Chandrabalan Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Outreach - Cindy Lee Special Assistant, Communications & Tour - Gabe Ciufo Assistant, Constituent Affairs - Steevan Sritharan Current members of the Committee: Paul Ainslie Ana Bailão Gary Crawford Denzil Minnan-Wong Frances Nunziata James Pasternak Michael Thompson John Tory The committee existed in the old City of Toronto beginning in 1969.
Before that Toronto had a Board of Control, as did former cities North Etobicoke. Vacancies in a council seat may be filled in one of two ways, either by the holding of a by-election or through direct appointment of an interim councillor chosen by the council in an internal vote; the council is allowed to decide which process to follow in each individual case. The process results in public debate, however; the by-election process is seen as more democratic, while the appointment process is seen as less expensive for the city t