Charles Joseph "Joe" Clark, is a Canadian elder statesman, businessman and politician who served as the 16th prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. Despite his relative inexperience, Clark rose in federal politics, entering the House of Commons in the 1972 election and winning the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1976, he came to power in the 1979 election, defeating the Liberal government of Pierre Trudeau and ending sixteen years of continuous Liberal rule. Taking office the day before his 40th birthday, Clark is the youngest person to become Prime Minister, his tenure was brief as he only won a minority government, it was defeated on a motion of non-confidence. Clark's Progressive Conservative Party lost the 1980 election and Clark lost the leadership of the party in 1983, he returned to prominence in 1984 as a senior cabinet minister in Brian Mulroney's cabinet, retiring from politics after not standing for re-election for the House of Commons in 1993.
He made a political comeback in 1998 to lead the Progressive Conservatives in their last stand before the party's eventual dissolution, serving his final term in Parliament from 2000 to 2004. Clark today serves as president of his own consulting firm. Charles Joseph Clark was born in High River, the son of Grace Roselyn and local newspaper publisher Charles A. Clark. Clark attended local schools and the University of Alberta, where he earned bachelor's and master's degrees in political science. While in high school, he gained journalism experience with the High River Times and the Calgary Albertan. In his first year at the University of Alberta, Clark joined the staff of the campus newspaper Gateway and became editor-in-chief. Clark was a member of the University of Alberta Debate Society, he worked one summer at the Edmonton Journal where he met his future biographer, David L. Humphreys, he worked one summer with The Canadian Press in Toronto, for a time considered a career in journalism. Clark attended Dalhousie Law School.
However, he spent more time with the Dalhousie Student Union, Progressive Conservative politics and the Dalhousie Gazette, than on his courses. After leaving Dalhousie, he unsuccessfully pursued first-year law studies at the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law in Vancouver. Clark again became active in student politics, serving as president of the Progressive Conservative Youth wing for two terms, he worked full-time for the Progressive Conservative Party. In 1973, Clark married law student Maureen McTeer, they met. McTeer has developed her own career as a well-known author and lawyer, caused something of a fuss by keeping her maiden name after marriage; that feminist practice was not common at the time, but was taken up by other political wives, such as Hillary Clinton. Their daughter, Catherine has pursued a career in public relations and broadcasting. Clark became politically active while at university, although he had been aware from a young age of politics in Canada and was an admirer of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker.
He competed with the University of Alberta Debate Society. He served as president of the University of Alberta Young Progressive Conservatives, served as national president for the Young PCs group. Clark sparred with future political rival Preston Manning in debate forums on campus between the Young PCs and the Youth League of the Alberta Social Credit Party. Clark encountered another future rival when he met Brian Mulroney at a national Young PCs meeting in 1958. Clark spent time in France to improve his fluency in the French language, took courses in French while he was living in Ottawa, he became comfortable speaking and answering questions in French, which helped his political standing in Quebec. He entered politics at age 28 but was unsuccessful as candidate for the provincial Progressive Conservatives in the 1967 provincial election. Clark served as a chief assistant to provincial opposition leader and future Premier Peter Lougheed, served in the office of federal opposition leader Robert Stanfield, learning the inner workings of government.
Clark missed being elected to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in the 1971 provincial election. However, he ran in the federal election held a year and was elected to Parliament as the MP for Rocky Mountain, a rural riding in southwestern Alberta. Clark was the first Canadian politician to take a strong stand for decriminalization of marijuana in Canada, for a guaranteed minimum income for everyone. In many ways his social liberalism was as bold in the 1970s; these positions put Clark at odds with the right-wing members of his caucus, several members of which were not afraid to confront him. For example, in the lead-up to the 1979 election, the bulk of Clark's riding was merged into the newly created riding of Bow River during a redistribution of ridings. Fellow Tory MP Stanley Schumacher had much of his old riding of Palliser merged into Bow River as well. Though Clark was now party leader, Schumacher refused to step aside in Clark's favour, forcing Clark to run in nearby Yellowhead. Following the resignation of PC party leader Robert Stanfield, Clark sought and won the leadership of the PC Party at the 1976 leadership convention.
The favourite among Red Tories was Flora MacDonald.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health known by its acronym CAMH, is a psychiatric teaching hospital with central facilities located in Toronto and ten community locations throughout the province of Ontario, Canada. The hospital was formed in 1998 from the amalgamation of four separate institutions. CAMH has a total of 530 inpatient beds with 3000 staff and scientists, an annual operating budget of over $300 million, its central facilities include 90 distinct services across inpatient, day treatment, partial hospitalization models. Several notable scientists conducted their research at CAMH, yet CAMH's administration has come under criticism including from staff who report safety problems and from donors who withdrew their funding citing accountability problems. Among the clinical focuses of the hospital are the assessment and treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, personality disorders, addictions to alcohol and problem gambling. Psychiatrist and Clarke Institute President Paul E. Garfinkel was appointed the first President and CEO of CAMH in 1998.
He was followed by neurologist Catherine Zahn in 2009. Upon CAMH's formation, Peter Catford was appointed Vice President for Information Technology. In 2002, Catford outsourced the public hospital's computer needs to H. I. Next, a private company which Catford co-owned; when the Toronto Star reported on what it deemed an apparent conflict of interest regarding the spending of public money, the hospital would not reveal how much it paid Catford or his company, nor would CAMH disclose any details of its contract with H. I. Next or what other firms bid on the work. Catford commented only that "I feel honoured to work with and I feel like it has been done ethically." In interviews with the Toronto Star, Dev Chopra, executive vice-president of CAMH first said there was nothing inappropriate about Catford's role. "We got into it with our eyes open. There is no conflict." However, Chopra said there were "some optics from a conflict perspective" noting the hospital might revisit the issue that day. Catford left his CAMH position two days but the Star reported that hospital officials said changes were being considered months before the Star published its story about the issue.
Soon after CAMH was founded, its administration was embroiled in a scandal involving Eli Lilly, who donated $1.5 million to CAMH, David Healy, a prominent critic of Prozac, the used antidepressant manufactured by Lilly. CAMH hired Healy to be the head of its Mood and Anxiety Program, but withdrew the job offer after hearing about Healy's views. CAMH aggressively recruited Healy, CAMH Physician-in-Chief, David Goldbloom, offered Healy a job as the head of the Mood and Anxiety Program. Healy accepted and soon after gave a lecture in which he reiterated his views about Prozac increasing risk of suicide. A few days Goldbloom withdrew the job offer, saying "Essentially, we believe that it is not a good fit between you and the role as leader of an academic program in mood and anxiety disorders at the centre and in relation to the university…. We do not feel your approach is compatible with the goals for development of the academic and clinical resource that we have."The decision caused an "uproar" among Canadian academics, with the Canadian Association of University Teachers calling CAMH actions "an affront to academic freedom in Canada."
Scientists from 13 countries, including Nobel laureates Julius Axelrod and Arvid Carlsson, protested CAMH's actions as did the Society for Academic Freedom and Scholarship. Healy sued CAMH and the University of Toronto, alleging breach of contract and denial of academic freedom; the lawsuit sought damages of $9.4 million, including $2.6 million from CAMH CEO Paul Garfinkel, $1.4 million from the U of T Dean of Medicine. The university distanced itself from CAMH: According to U of T President, Robert Birgeneau, "Everyone is trying to blame the university for something that happened at one of our hospitals."The lawsuit was settled with Healy receiving an appointment as visiting professor as the University of Toronto. The president of the Canadian Association of University Teachers, Vic Catano, said "We see the settlement as a complete vindication for Dr. Healy." In 1975, psychiatrist Susan Bradley founded a clinic in CAMH to work with gender dysphoric children. Bradley collaborated for many years with psychologist Kenneth Zucker, they established the clinic as the largest gender identity service in Canada and an international center for research.
In their studies, 80% of the children grow out of the behavior. They therefore use different approaches with children than adolescents because, over time, children are more to identify with their birth sex. Regarding adolescents, Zucker "will support a teenager or adult who wants to transition using hormones and surgeries." Regarding children, Zucker says "We are trying to help a child feel more comfortable with the gender identity that matches their birth sex" and that they use a variety of techniques to "help a child think more flexibly" about their gender. According to The New York Times, Zucker does this by "encouraging same-sex friendships and activities like board games that move beyond strict gender roles." He said a child could be asked to make a list of pros and cons about being different genders so that the child realizes that "there are both good and not so good things about being a boy and being a girl."Activists have criticized Zucker's approach, claiming that it amounts to a form of conversion therapy.
In 2015, following complaints from activists, CAMH commissioned an external review of the clinic. The review was inconclusive
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland. Co-headquartered in the cities of Zürich and Basel, it maintains a presence in all major financial centers as the largest Swiss banking institution in the world. UBS client services are known for their strict bank–client confidentiality and culture of banking secrecy; the bank's large positions in the Americas, EMEA, Asia Pacific markets make it a global systemically important financial institution. UBS was founded in 1862 as the Bank in Winterthur alongside the advent of the Swiss banking industry. During the 1890s, the Swiss Bank Corporation was founded, forming a private banking syndicate that expanded aided by Switzerland's international neutrality; the Bank of Winterthur merged with Toggenburger Bank in 1912 to form the Union Bank of Switzerland and grew after the Banking Law of 1934 codified Swiss banking secrecy. Following decades of market competition between the SBC and UBS, the two merged in 1998 to create a single company known as "UBS".
During the early 2000s, the commensurate rise of UBS and Credit Suisse established a legally-sanctioned oligopoly on Swiss private market activity. After UBS managed heavy losses during the 2008 financial crisis with an asset relief recovery program, it was hit with the 2011 rogue trader scandal resulting in a US$2 billion trading loss. In 2012 the bank limited its sell side operations. Apart from private banking, UBS provides wealth management, asset management, investment banking services for private and institutional clients with international service. UBS manages the largest amount of private wealth in the world, counting half of the world's billionaires among its clients. Despite its trimming of sell side operations, UBS is among the world's nine "Bulge Bracket" investment banks and is considered a global primary market maker; the bank maintains numerous underground bank vaults and storage facilities for gold bars around the Swiss Alps and internationally. Due to its banking secrecy, it has been at the center of numerous tax avoidance investigations undertaken by U.
S. French, German and Belgian authorities. UBS operations in Switzerland and the United States were ranked first and second on the 2018 Financial Secrecy Index; as of 2017, UBS is the 11th largest bank in Europe with a market capitalization of $64.5 billion. It has over CHF 3.2 trillion in assets under management CHF 2.8 trillion of which are invested assets. In June 2017, its return on invested capital was 11.1%, followed by Goldman Sachs' 9.5%, JPMorgan Chase's 9.2%. In late 2016, UBS established a blockchain technology research lab in London to advance its cyber security and encryption of client activities. Based on regional deal flow and political influence, UBS is considered one of the "biggest, most powerful financial institutions in the world"; the company's capital strength, security protocols, reputation for discretion has yielded a substantial market share in banking and high level of brand loyalty. Alternatively, it receives routine criticism for facilitating tax noncompliance and off-shore financing.
UBS is a joint-stock company pursuant to Swiss laws. Its shares are listed at the New York Stock Exchange; as of December 2018, UBS is present in all major financial centers worldwide, having offices in 50 countries, with about 31% of its approx. 66,900 employees working in the Americas, 32% in Switzerland, 19% in Europe, the Middle East and Africa and 18% in the Asia Pacific region. The bank has its major presence in the United States, its American headquarters for investment banking are located in New York City, for private wealth management in Weehawken, New Jersey. They used to have sales & trading in Stamford, but that office has since closed; the company's global business groups are global wealth management, investment bank, asset management and personal & corporate banking. UBS is the leading provider of retail banking and commercial banking services in Switzerland, as established in 2009. Overall invested assets are $3.101 billion, shareholders' equity is $52.928 billion and market capitalization is $45.907 billion by the end of 2018.
In November 2014, the shares in UBS Group AG were listed and started trading as a new holding company at the NYSE and SIX Swiss Exchange. Upon application and with the effect as of 14 January 2015, the shares of the USB AG, the subsidiary of the UBS Group AG, were delisted from the NYSE; as of July 2018, the largest institutional shareholders are: As of 30 June 2018, the geographical distribution of the shareholders presents itself as follows: UBS' corporate structure includes four divisions in total as of June 2018: Starting on 9 June 2003, all UBS business groups, including UBS Paine Webber and UBS Warburg, were rebranded under the UBS moniker following company's start of operations as a unified global entity. UBS's global wealth management division offers high-net-worth individuals around the world a range of advisory and investment products and services; as of the end of 2016, UBS Wealth Management's invested assets totaled CHF 977 billion. The whole companies assets under management amounted to US$1,737.5 billion in 2015, representing a 1% decrease in AuM compared to the equivalent data of 2014.
As of 2018, UBS manages the largest amount of private wealth in the world, counting half of the world's billionaires among its clients. More than 60% of total invested assets in UBS Wealth Management belong to individuals with a net-worth of CHF 10 million or more. Of the remaining 40% of total invested assets, 30%
Spoons is a Canadian new wave band, formed in 1979 in Burlington, Canada. They recorded several Canadian chart hits between 1982 and 1989, in 1983, they won Group of the Year at the U-Know awards, their most popular songs include "Romantic Traffic", "Nova Heart", "Old Emotions", "Tell No Lies". Spoons was formed in Burlington, Ontario, in 1979; the band consisted of Gordon Deppe, Sandy Horne, Brett Wickens, Peter Shepherd. Deppe and Wickens attended Aldershot High School, Deppe and Horne dated in high school; the band got their name. While tossing around potential names, they all stared at their spoons in union and "there was no turning back."Early in their history, they would play the work of their European influences. Audiences were not enamored by the styles of Genesis and other progressive rock groups, making the band switch courses for something more "light, and...danceable". This switch gained a larger response from audiences, the style stuck. In late 1979, Shepherd was replaced by Derrick Ross on drums.
Spoons released an independent single, "After the Institution", in 1980 on Mannequin Records, produced by the band and former member Shepherd. Shortly thereafter, Wickens left the band to release an electronica album as part of the duo Ceramic Hello on Mannequin Records, became a graphic designer designing album covers for such artists as Peter Gabriel, he was replaced by keyboardist Rob Preuss, only fifteen when he joined Spoons. The band's first album, Stick Figure Neighbourhood, was released in 1981, is notable for being one of the earliest new wave albums engineered by Daniel Lanois; the album was popular on the Canadian University charts, allowed the group to tour Ontario and Quebec with bands like Martha and the Muffins. Carl Finkle, who left Martha and the Muffins in 1981, would go on to manage the Spoons during their "Nova Heart" fame; the following year, Spoons released their breakthrough album Symphonies. This album spawned three Top 40 hits in Canada: "Nova Heart", "Arias & Symphonies", "Smiling in Winter".
All were dance-oriented new wave hits, the band was awarded a U-Know Award for Most Promising Group. Around this time, Spoons' higher profile allowed them to become the opening act for bands such as Culture Club, Simple Minds, The Police. Spoons' 1983 album, was produced by Nile Rodgers. Rodgers had been approached to produce tracks for Culture Club, but after seeing them in concert, he was unimpressed with that band's reliance on backing tapes – he was, taken with Spoons' opening set, elected to produce them instead; the Talkback album included the hit "Old Emotions", but was not issued outside of Canada – a disappointment for the band after working with a producer of Rodgers' international stature. Following that, the band expanded their sound somewhat, releasing a two-sided hit in 1984 with "Tell No Lies" b/w "Romantic Traffic", both produced by Rodgers; the upbeat "Tell No Lies" featured a more mainstream pop sound. "Romantic Traffic" was a downtempo song with adult-oriented radio-friendly leanings that would become the group's most enduring hit.
Around this time, the band recorded commercials for Maxwell's, Pepsi-Cola, signed a six-figure promotional deal with Thrifty's Clothing Stores, a cross-Canada chain, were featured in the store's radio, TV, print ads. Both "Tell No Lies" and "Romantic Traffic" found their way onto the soundtrack for the film Listen To The City, in which Horne was featured in a supporting role. However, Listen To The City was not a Spoons album, as it consisted of instrumental music and was credited to Gordon Deppe. Late in 1985, Spoons left their label, new wave imprint Ready Records, unable to secure international releases for their material; the band signed to the more rock-oriented Anthem Records label and welcomed Bob Muir, former Virgin Records Canada president, as manager. Muir believed that the deal with Thrifty's may have damaged the credibility of the band due to the commercial sponsorship "shifting the public's emphasis from their music to their consumer image". Around this time and Ross left Spoons, were replaced by Scott MacDonald and Steve Kendry, respectively.
The 1986 single "Bridges Over Borders" marked a departure from their characteristic sound and showcased a harder rock orientation, as did single "Rodeo". Both singles appeared on the 1986 Spoons album Bridges Over Borders, but the release was a commercial disaster as it did not chart in the Canadian Top 100, nor did any of the three singles pulled from the LP; the follow-up LP Vertigo Tango reunited the band with Arias & Symphonies producer John Punter, was a partial return to the band's new wave roots. The album featured the band's final hit single, "Waterline", a languid, introspective ballad. Spoons took a break from recording in the 1990s to allow time to focus on family, but Deppe and various other players reunited for several Spoons reunion gigs in the 1990s and into the next decade. In 2007, Spoons released Unexpected Guest at a Cancelled Party, a collection of unreleased material recorded between 1982 and 1985 by the Deppe, Preuss, Ross line-up. In 2008, Limited Edition was released.
It is a greatest-hits of sorts and was released on the Ready Records Imprint to replace the out-of-print Collectible Spoons. The band continues to play occasional shows in the Toronto and Hamilt
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Etobicoke Centre (electoral district)
Etobicoke Centre is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1979. The riding includes the neighbourhoods of Eatonville, Islington-City Centre West, Humber Heights - Westmount, Eringate – Centennial – West Deane, Markland Wood, Princess Gardens, Thorncrest Village and Humber Valley Village in the former city of Etobicoke, Toronto; the riding was created in 1976 from part of the Etobicoke riding in what was a constituent municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. On May 18, 2012, the Ontario Superior Court declared the 2011 federal election results for this district to be null and void; the judge ruled that 79 votes should not have been counted when the margin of victory in the riding was only 26 votes. On May 28, 2012, the incumbent Member of Parliament, Ted Opitz, filed an appeal with the Supreme Court of Canada. On October 25, 2012, the Supreme Court allowed Mr. Opitz's appeal and quashed the order for a by-election. In its decision, the Supreme Court restored 59 of the 79 tossed votes leaving Mr. Optiz with a 6 vote margin of victory.
This riding lost territory to Etobicoke North and gained territory from Etobicoke—Lakeshore during the 2012 electoral redistribution. It has elected four members of the House of Commons of Canada: Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election. Since 2000 Toronto City Council Wards 4 shares the same name. Ward 3 Stephen Holyday 2014–present Peter Leon 2013-2014 Doug Holyday 2000-2013 Ward 4 John Campbell 2014–present Gloria Lindsay Luby 2000-2014 List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. House of Commons of Canada historical ridings section 2011 Results from Elections Canada, Results certified by judicial recount Campaign expense data from Elections Canada
David Robert Peterson, was the 20th Premier of the Province of Ontario, from June 26, 1985 to October 1, 1990. He was the first Liberal premier of Ontario in 42 years. Peterson was born in Toronto, Ontario, to Clarence Marwin Peterson and Laura Marie Scott, has two siblings, former MPP Tim Peterson and former MP Jim Peterson, he earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Western Ontario in political science and philosophy and his law degree from the University of Toronto. He was called to the bar in 1969, he was made a Queen's Counsel in 1980 and was appointed to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada in 1992 on advice from Brian Mulroney. At the age of twenty-six, he became president of C. M. Peterson Company Limited, a wholesale electronics firm founded by his father, he holds four Honorary degrees including a doctor of laws from the University of Western Ontario and is a knight of the Order of the Legion of Honour of France and a member of the Order of La Pléiade. In 2009, he became a member of the Order of Ontario.
Peterson married actress Shelley Matthews in 1974 and they have since raised three children. He is the younger brother of Jim Peterson a federal Liberal MP and cabinet minister. Both his sister-in-law Deb Matthews and Tim Peterson, a third brother, were elected to the Ontario legislature in the 2003 provincial election while Deb Matthews was re-elected in 2007, 2011 and 2014. Peterson was elected as the Liberal Member of Provincial Parliament for London Centre in the 1975 provincial election. Less than one year he campaigned for the leadership of the party following Robert Nixon's resignation. Despite his inexperience, Peterson came within 45 votes of defeating Stuart Smith on the third and final ballot of a delegated convention held on January 25, 1976. Smith presented an image of an articulate intellectual who some delegates said reminded them of Pierre Trudeau while Peterson came across as similar to Premier Bill Davis. Convention delegates thought that Peterson, at 31 years old, was too young and his convention address which he characterized as the "worst speech in modern political history" came across as stilted and over rehearsed.
Peterson was re-elected in the provincial elections of 1977 and 1981. He ran for the Liberal leadership a second time after Smith resigned in 1982; the convention was held on February 21, 1982. This time his convention speech was better. Although not inspiring, it was viewed as'statesmanlike' and effective, he won on the second ballot defeating the more left-leaning Sheila Copps with 55% of the vote. In his acceptance speech Peterson said that he would move party to the'vibrant middle, the radical centre', stressed economic growth as a way to increase support for social services. Observers from the other parties felt he was trying to move the Liberal party more to the right, away from values that Smith promoted. Peterson worked to pay off the party's debt from the 1981 election and accomplished that by the end of the year and was working on long-term debt. Peterson was popular in the press; the party started to use him as a label rather than'Liberal' referring to'David Peterson's Ontario'. A by-election loss to the NDP was attributed to dislike of Federal Liberals.
In 1984, a Liberal backbencher, J. Earl McEwen crossed the floor to join the Tories. Polling in late 1984 showed Peterson's Liberals trailing behind the Progressive Conservatives. Premier Davis still polled as the most popular leader. Peterson's fortunes improved when Davis retired as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party in early 1985, his successor, Frank Miller, took the party further to the right, was unable to convince the electorate of his leadership abilities. Though Miller's Tories began the election in 1985 with a significant lead, Peterson's Liberals increased their support throughout the campaign. To the surprise of many, Peterson won a narrow plurality of the popular vote. However, at the time rural areas were still over represented in the Legislative Assembly; as a result, the Liberals won 48 seats, while the Progressive Conservatives 52, enough for a minority government. Shortly after the election, NDP leader Bob Rae entered into negotiations. Rae initiated talks with Premier Miller but the talks with the Liberals proved more fruitful.
Rae and Peterson signed a "Liberal-NDP Accord" in which the NDP agreed to support a Liberal government in office for two years. The Liberals, in turn, agreed to implement some policies favoured by the NDP. Rae wanted to have a coalition with representation in cabinet but Peterson indicated that he would not accept a coalition; the Liberals and NDP defeated Miller's government on June 18, 1985 on a motion of no confidence on the speech from the throne, Peterson was sworn in as Premier of Ontario eight days later. Robert Nixon, Sean Conway, Ian Scott were Peterson's top cabinet ministers. After the expiration of the Liberal-NDP Accord in 1987, the Liberals called another provincial election, won the second-largest majority government in Ontario's history, taking 95 seats out of 130, at the expense of the NDP and the Progressive Conservatives who dropped to third place in the legislature. Peterson's government introduced several pieces of progressive legislation, it eliminated "extra billing" by doctors, brought in pay equity provisions, reformed the province's rent review and labour negotiation laws.
His government brought in pension reform, expanded housing construction, resolved a long-standing provincial controversy by honouring the Davis Tories promise to extend full funding to Catholic secondary schools. Peterson was a vocal opponent of free trade with the Un