Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
Michael B. Donley
Michael Bruce Donley is a former senior United States government official, who served as the 22nd Secretary of the United States Air Force, amongst other positions. Donley has 30 years of experience in the national security community, including service on the staff of the United States Senate, White House and The Pentagon. Donley served as the Director of Administration and Management in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Donley was born in California, he earned his B. A. and M. A. in international relations from the University of Southern California. He attended the Program for Senior Executives in National Security at Harvard University. Donley served in the United States Army, he attended the Army's Intelligence School, Airborne school, Defense Language Institute. He served in the 18th Airborne Corps and 5th Special Forces Group. Donley was editor of the National Security Record for the Heritage Foundation in 1978 and part of 1979, he was a Legislative Assistant in the United States Senate from 1979 to 1981, a professional staff member on the Senate Armed Services Committee from 1981 to 1984.
Donley served as director of defense programs and deputy executive secretary at the National Security Council from 1984 through 1989. As deputy executive secretary, he oversaw the White House Situation Room and chaired interagency committees on crisis management procedures and continuity of government. Earlier, as director of defense programs, Donley was the NSC representative to the Defense Resources Board, coordinated the President's quarterly meetings with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he conceived and organized the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management, coordinated White House policy on the Goldwater-Nichols DOD Reorganization Act of 1986, wrote the National Security Strategy for President Ronald Reagan's second term. In 1989, Donley was appointed as the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force. In this position, he was responsible for preparing the air force budget, cost estimating of weapon systems, economic analysis, providing financial services to all air force personnel.
He served as assistant secretary until 1993. Donley served as acting secretary for seven months until July 1993. After leaving the air force, Donley became a senior fellow at the Institute for Defense Analyses, he stayed at the institute until 1996 when he became a senior vice president at Hicks and Associates, Inc. a division of Science Applications International Corporation. While there, he served as a special advisor to the United States Department of State for affairs in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On May 9, 2005, United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld appointed Donley director of administration and management. In this position, he oversaw 1,300 employees who provide administrative and support services to the Department of Defense's Washington headquarters, which includes The Pentagon, he was responsible for the $5.5 billion Pentagon Construction Program. On June 9, 2008, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates recommended that President George W. Bush nominate Donley to become the Secretary of the Air Force.
Gates announced Donley would become the acting Secretary of the Air Force effective on June 21, 2008. The U. S. Senate confirmed his nomination as the 22nd Secretary of the Air Force on October 2, 2008. Donley was reappointed as the Secretary of the Air Force by President Barack Obama in January 2009; as the Secretary of the Air Force, Donley was responsible for the operation of the Department of the Air Force, including organizing, training and providing for the welfare of more than 300,000 men and women on active duty in the U. S. Air Force and their families, the 180,000 members of the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve, 160,000 civilian employees of the air force. Donley oversaw the annual budget of the Department of the Air Force, about $110 billion. On April 13, 2009, Donley and Chief of Staff of the Air Force Norton A. Schwartz jointly published an opinion piece in The Washington Post supporting the decision by Secretary Gates to discontinue the production of the F-22 Raptor fighter plane.
Donley stated the "requirements for fighter inventories have declined and F-22 program costs have risen."On April 26, 2013, Donley announced plans to step down as the Secretary of the Air Force on June 21, 2013. He was succeeded on that date by acting secretary Eric Fanning. 1972 U. S. Army Intelligence School, Fort Huachuca, Arizona 1973 Defense Language Institute, Presidio of Monterey, California 1974 U. S. Army Airborne School, Fort Benning, Georgia 1977 Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 1978 Master of Arts degree in international relations, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 1986 Senior Executives in National Security program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Massachusetts 1972 – 1975, U. S. Army, XVIIIth Airborne Corps and 5th Special Forces Group, Fort Bragg, North Carolina 1978 – 1979, National Security Record, Heritage Foundation, Washington, D. C. 1979 – 1981, legislative assistant, U.
S. Senate, Washington, D. C. 1981 – 1984, professional staff member, Senate Armed Services Committee, Washington, D. C. 1984 – 1987, director of defense programs, National Security Council, The White House, Washington, D. C. 1987 – 1989, deputy executive secretary, National Security Council, the White House, Washington, D. C. 1989 – 1993, assistant Secretary of the Air Force, Washin
The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U. S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile, in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command. As of 2018, the LGM-30G Minuteman III version is the only land-based ICBM in service in the United States. Development of the Minuteman began in the mid-1950s and as the outgrowth of basic research into solid fuel rocket motors which indicated an ICBM based on solids was possible; such a missile could stand ready for extended periods of time with little maintenance and launch on command. In comparison, existing U. S. missile designs using liquid rocket propellant required a lengthy fueling process before launch, which left them open to the possibility of a surprise attack. This potential for immediate launch gave the missile its name. Minuteman entered service in 1962 as a weapon tasked with the deterrence role, threatening Soviet cities with a second strike countervalue counterattack if the U. S. was attacked. However, the development of the U. S. Navy's Polaris missile, which addressed the same role, allowed the Air Force to modify Minuteman into a weapon with much greater accuracy with the specific intent of allowing it to attack hardened military targets, including Soviet missile silos.
The Minuteman-II entered service in 1965 with a host of upgrades to improve its accuracy and survivability in the face of an anti-ballistic missile system the Soviets were known to be developing. Minuteman-III followed in 1970, using three smaller warheads instead of one large one, which made it difficult to counter because the ABMs would have to hit all three separated warheads to be effective. Minuteman-III was the first multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle ICBM to be deployed; each missile can carry up to three thermonuclear weapons, were armed with the W62 warhead with a yield of 170 kilotons. Peaking at 1,000 missiles in the 1970s, the current U. S. force consists of 399 Minuteman-III missiles as of September 2017, deployed in missile silos around Malmstrom AFB, Montana. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; the Air Force plans to keep the missile in service until at least 2030. It is one component of the U. S. nuclear triad—the other two parts of the triad being the Trident submarine-launched ballistic missile, nuclear weapons carried by long-range strategic bombers.
Minuteman owes its existence to the efforts of the Air Force Colonel Edward N. Hall. In 1956, Hall was put in charge of the solid fuel propulsion division of General Schriever's Western Development Division, formed to lead development of the Atlas and Titan ICBMs. Solid fuels were commonly used in rockets, but for short-range uses. Hall's superiors were interested in short and medium range missiles with solids for use in Europe where the fast reaction time was an advantage for a system that might be attacked by Soviet aircraft, but Hall was convinced. To achieve the required energy, that year Hall began funding research at Boeing and Thiokol into the use of ammonium perchlorate composite propellant. Adapting a concept developed in the UK, they cast the fuel into large cylinders with a star-shaped hole running along the inner axis; this allowed the fuel to burn along the entire length of the cylinder, rather than just the end as in earlier designs. The increased burn rate meant increased thrust.
This meant the heat was spread across the entire motor, instead of the end, because it burned from the inside out it did not reach the wall of the missile fuselage until the fuel was finished burning. In comparison, older designs burned from one end to the other, meaning that at any instant one small section of the fuselage was being subjected to extreme loads and temperatures. Guidance of an ICBM is based not only on the direction the missile is traveling but the precise instant that thrust is cut off. Too much thrust and the warhead will overshoot its target, too little and it will fall short. Solids are very hard to predict in terms of burning time and their instantaneous thrust during the burn, which made them questionable for the sort of accuracy required to hit a target at intercontinental range; this appeared at first to be an insurmountable problem, but in the end, was solved in an trivial fashion. A series of ports were added inside the rocket nozzle, opened when the guidance systems called for engine cut-off.
The reduction in pressure was so abrupt that the last burning fuel ejected itself and the flame was snuffed out. The first to make use of these developments was not the Navy, they had been involved in a joint program with the US Army to develop the liquid-fueled Jupiter missile, but had always been skeptical of the system. They felt that liquid fuels were too dangerous to use onboard ships, submarines. Rapid success in the solids development program, combined with Edward Teller's promise of much lighter nuclear warheads during Project Nobska, led the Navy to abandon Jupiter and begin development of a solid fuel missile of their own. Aerojet's work with Hall would be adapted for their Polaris missile starting in December 1956; the Air Force, saw no pressing need for a solid fuel ICBM. SM-65 Atlas and SM-68 Titan ICBMs were progressing, "storable" liquids were being developed that would allow the missiles to be left in a ready-to-shoot form for extended periods, but Hall saw solid fuels not only as a way to improve launch times or safety, but part of a radical plan to reduce the cost of ICBMs so that thousands could be built.
He was aware that new com
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
West Point, New York
West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United States. Located on the Hudson River in New York, West Point was identified by General George Washington as the most important strategic position in America during the American Revolution; until January 1778, West Point was not occupied by the military. On January 27, 1778, Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons and his brigade crossed the ice on the Hudson River and climbed to the plain on West Point to intercept Lt. Major Roldan Kramer and from that day to the present, West Point has been occupied by the United States Army, it comprises 16,000 acres including the campus of the United States Military Academy, called "West Point". It is a Census Designated Place located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York, located on the western bank of the Hudson River; the population was 6,763 at the 2010 census. It is part of the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area.
West Point, was a fortified site during the Revolutionary War. Picked because of the abnormal S-curve in the Hudson River at this point, the defenses of West Point were designed by Polish military engineer Tadeusz Kościuszko, who served as a brigadier general in the Continental Army, it was manned by a small garrison of Continental Army soldiers from early in 1776 through the end of the war. A great iron chain was laid across the Hudson at this point in 1778 in order to prevent British Navy vessels from sailing further up the Hudson River, but it was never tested by the British; the site comprised multiple redoubts, as well as Fort Putnam, situated on a high hill overlooking the river. Named after its builder, Revolutionary War general and engineer Rufus Putnam, the fort is still preserved in its original design. In the most infamous act of treason in American history, General Benedict Arnold attempted to turn the site over to the British Army in 1780 for a bribe consisting of a commission as a Brigadier General in the British Army and a cash reward of £20,000.
However, Arnold's plot failed. Arnold received a decreased cash reward of £6,000 but was commissioned as a Brigadier General in the British Army. After the conclusion of the American Revolution, West Point was used as a storage facility for cannon and other military property used by the Continental Army. For two months in 1784 the United States Army consisted of only about 80 soldiers under the command of Brevet Major John Doughty at West Point; the United States Military Academy was established at West Point in 1802 and is the nation's oldest service academy. West Point has the distinction of being the longest continuously occupied United States military installation. In 1937, the West Point Bullion Depository was constructed. West Point is located at 41° 23′ N 73° 58' W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 25.1 square miles. West Point and the contiguous village of Highland Falls, New York, are on the west bank of the Hudson River. West Point has a humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons.
Summers are humid, while winters are cold with moderate snowfall. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 27.5 °F in January to 74.1 °F in July. The average annual precipitation is 50.5 inches, distributed evenly throughout the year. Extremes in temperature range from 106 °F on July 22, 1926 down to −17 °F on February 9, 1934; as of the census of 2010 there were 6,763 people, 685 households residing in the CDP. The population density was 293.4 per square mile. There were 1,044 housing units at an average density of 42.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 82.31% White, 9.09% African American, 0.50% Native American, 3.35% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 1.64% from other races, 2.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.56% of the population. There were 685 households out of which 75.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 87.8% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% were non-families. 5.4% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.69. The age distribution is 16.7% under the age of 18, 51.2% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 3.8% from 45 to 64, 0.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 207.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 259.7 males. All of these statistics are typical for military bases; the median income for a household in the CDP was $56,516, the median income for a family was $56,364. About 2.0% of families and 2.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Painter Edith Hoyt was born in West Point. Author Gore Vidal Hudson Valley portal Military of the United States portal Visit Orange County West Point, NY "West Point, N. Y.". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
United States Air Force Academy
The United States Air Force Academy, is a military academy for officer cadets of the United States Air Force. Its campus is located in the western United States in Colorado north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County; the Academy's stated mission is "to educate and inspire men and women to become leaders of character, motivated to lead the United States Air Force in service to our nation." It is the youngest of the five U. S. service academies, having graduated its first class 60 years ago in 1959, however it is the third in seniority. Graduates of the Academy's four-year program receive a Bachelor of Science degree, are commissioned as second lieutenants in the U. S. Air Force; the Academy is one of the largest tourist attractions in Colorado, attracting a million visitors each year. Admission is competitive, with nominations divided among Congressional districts. Recent incoming classes have had about 1,200 cadets. Tuition along with board are all paid for by the Air Force. Cadets receive a monthly stipend, but incur a commitment to serve a number of years of military service after graduation.
The program at the Academy is guided by the Air Force's core values of "Integrity First, Service Before Self, Excellence in All We Do", based on four "pillars of excellence": military training, academics and character development. In addition to a rigorous military training regimen, cadets take a broad academic course load with an extensive core curriculum in engineering, social sciences, basic sciences, military studies and physical education. All cadets participate in either intercollegiate or intramural athletics, a thorough character development and leadership curriculum provides cadets a basis for future officership; each of the components of the program is intended to give cadets the skills and knowledge that they will need for success as officers. Prior to the Academy's establishment, air power advocates had been pushing for a separate Air Force Academy for decades; as early as 1918, Lieutenant Colonel A. J. Hanlon wrote, "As the Military and Naval Academies are the backbone of the Army and Navy, so must the Aeronautical Academy be the backbone of the Air Service.
No service can flourish without some such institution to inculcate into its embryonic officers love of country, proper conception of duty, highest regard for honor." Other officials expressed similar sentiments. In 1919, Congressman Charles F. Curry introduced legislation providing for an Academy, but concerns about cost and location led to its demise. In 1925, air power pioneer General Billy Mitchell testified on Capitol Hill that it was necessary "to have an air academy to form a basis for the permanent backbone of your air service and to attend to the... organizational part of it much the same way that West Point does for the Army, or that Annapolis does for the Navy." Mitchell's arguments did not gain traction with legislators, it was not until the late 1940s that the concept of the United States Air Force Academy began to take shape. Support for an air academy got a boost with the National Security Act of 1947, which provided for the establishment of a separate Air Force within the United States military.
As an initial measure, Secretary of the Air Force W. Stuart Symington negotiated an agreement where up to 25% of West Point and Annapolis graduates could volunteer to receive their commissions in the newly established Air Force; this was only intended to be a short term fix and disagreements between the services led to the establishment of the Service Academy Board by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal. In January 1950, the Service Academy Board, headed by Dwight D. Eisenhower president of Columbia University, concluded that the needs of the Air Force could not be met by the two existing U. S. service that an air force academy should be established. Following the recommendation of the Board, Congress passed legislation in 1954 to begin the construction of the Air Force Academy, President Eisenhower signed it into law on 1 April of that year; the legislation established an advisory commission to determine the site of the new school. Among the panel members were Charles Lindbergh, General Carl Spaatz, Lieutenant General Hubert R. Harmon, who became the Academy's first superintendent.
The original 582 sites considered were winnowed to three: Illinois. The Secretary of the Air Force, Harold E. Talbott, announced the winning site on 24 June 1954. Meanwhile, Air Training Command began developing a detailed curriculum for the Academy program. From 1954 to 1956, the newly-created Colorado Land Acquisition Commission purchased parcels of land that would host the new academy; the first parcel purchased was the the largest. The early Air Force Academy leadership had the model of West Point and Annapolis in designing an appropriate curriculum and campus; the Academy's permanent site had not yet been completed when the first class entered, so the 306 cadets from the Class of 1959 were sworn in at a temporary site at Lowry Air Force Base in Denver on 11 July 1955. While at Lowry, they were housed in renovated World War II barracks. There were no upper class cadets to train the new cadets, so the Air Force appointed a cadre of "Air Training Officers" to conduct training; the ATOs were junior officers, many of whom were graduates of West Point, Annapolis, VMI, The Citadel.
They acted as surrogate upper class cadets until
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa