Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Michaela Schaffrath is a German television actress. A former nurse, she got started in the adult film industry after she posed nude for Coupé, a German adult magazine, she gained international notoriety during her career as a pornographic actress under the stage name Gina Wild. She won two Venus Awards, for Best New Starlet in 1999 and Best German Actress in 2000. In 2001, Schaffrath retired from pornography and moved into mainstream acting, has since appeared in numerous German television series, such as TV total, In aller Freundschaft and Wer wird Millionär?. After being recognised by a fan, she admitted in 2003 that she was working in a Frankfurt brothel, but she stated it was because she was addicted to sex, rather than to make money. In 2005, she put the rights to her stage name and the brand Gina Wild up for sale, in an attempt to shed her porn star past, she is managed by her former husband, and, as of 2009 she lived in both Frankfurt and Hamburg. Official website Michaela Schaffrath on IMDb Michaela Schaffrath at the Internet Adult Film Database Michaela Schaffrath at the Adult Film Database Michaela Schaffrath at the European Girls Adult Film Database
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Michaela Denis was a British-born wildlife documentary film-maker and presenter, working with her husband, Armand Denis. She was born Michaela Holdsworth in London, was brought up by her White Russian mother and grandmother after her father, an archaeologist, was killed in the First World War when she was three months old, she won a scholarship to fashion school, trained as a dress designer in Paris, returning to London at the outbreak of the Second World War. She became engaged to an American admiral and travelled to New York, but after some time in America, after delaying her wedding, she met and began an affair with Armand Denis, he was a Belgian-born adventurer and film-maker who had had wide experience of making documentary films in remote areas around the world, many made with his first wife, Leila Roosevelt Denis. Armand and Leila Denis divorced, in 1948 Michaela and Armand married by special licence in Potosi, Bolivia. In order to finance their plans to make wildlife documentaries, the couple travelled to Africa in 1950 to work on the feature film, King Solomon's Mines, in which Michaela acted as Deborah Kerr's double.
In 1953 they made a new film together, Below The Sahara, appeared on BBC radio to promote it. The BBC saw the couple's potential for television work, in 1954 they produced a pioneering and successful TV programme, Filming Wild Animals; the quality of Armand Denis' film-making, combined with his heavy accent and Michaela's enthusiasm and glamorous appeal, made them fixtures on BBC TV screens in Britain during the 1950s and early 1960s. Accompanied by Armand's commentary, the two would be filmed getting as close to animals as possible, in a style much parodied. There would be a trademark moment for Michaela to apply lipstick or comb her hair; the couple made several series for both BBC and ITV, including Filming In Africa and Michaela Denis, On Safari, Safari to Asia, which were repeated until well into the 1960s. Michaela Denis wrote books, including Leopard in My Lap and Ride on a Rhino; the couple made their home in Kenya. Armand Denis died in 1971. Michaela apparently discovered she had healing powers, opened a spiritual healing clinic at their home.
In 1975 she married her lawyer, Sir William O'Brien Lindsay, the former Chief Justice of the Sudan, who died in his sleep three months later. She dealt in property in Kenya. Michaela Denis died in Nairobi in 2003, aged 88
Michael is a masculine given name that comes from Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל / מיכאל, derived from the question מי כאל mī kāʼēl, meaning "Who is like God?". Patronymic surnames that come from Michael include Carmichael, DiMichele, MacMichael, McMichael, Micallef, Michalka, Mihály, Mikhaylov, Mitchell, Michalski and Mikaelyan; the name first appears in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Numbers, 13:13 where Sethur the son of Michael is one of 12 spies sent into the Land of Canaan. Michael is the name of an archangel in the Book of Daniel 12:1, he is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church. For the Roman Catholic Church, 29 September is the feast day of the three archangels: Michael and Raphael. For the Orthodox Church, 8 November is the feast day commemorating the archangels Michael and Gabriel, as well as the whole host of angels, while the Monday of each liturgical week corresponds to the "Bodiless Powers." In the Coptic Orthodox Church, his main feast days are 12 Hathor and 12 Paoni, with lesser feast days on the 12th day of each month of the Coptic calendar.
Michael is one of the most common given names for men in the world. In the United States, Michael was the most popular name of the 20th century, ranking No. 1 from 1954 to 1998. It was among the top three most popular names for each year since 1953, only falling out of the top five in 2011 for the first time since 1949. In 2014, Michael was the 20th most popular name in Northern Ireland, 27th in Canada and 42nd in Australia. In England and Wales, Michael ranked 53rd in 2011 and 2012. Michael ranked as the eighth most popular name for boys in Ireland in 2013. Variants of Michael rank among the most popular masculine names in multiple countries, it was the third most popular in Finland from 2010 – March 2015, seventh in Russia in 2009, 14th in Spain in 2012, 15th in Denmark. List of people with given name Michael Michael Michael Michael, Carrack of the 16th century Kingdom of Scotland Mike, common name derived from Michael Micky, common name derived from Michael List of most popular given names
How to Get Away with Murder
How to Get Away with Murder is an American drama television series that premiered on ABC on September 25, 2014. The series was created by Peter Nowalk, produced by Shonda Rhimes and ABC Studios; the series airs on ABC as part of a night of programming, all under Rhimes's Shondaland production company. Viola Davis stars as Annalise Keating, a law professor at a prestigious Philadelphia university who, with five of her students, becomes entwined in a murder plot; the series features an ensemble cast with Alfred Enoch, Jack Falahee, Aja Naomi King, Matt McGorry, Karla Souza as Keating's students, Charlie Weber and Liza Weil as her employees, Billy Brown as a detective with the Philadelphia Police Department, Annalise's lover. From the third season onward, Conrad Ricamora was promoted to the main cast after recurring in the first two seasons. For her portrayal, Davis has received critical acclaim. Davis has received nominations from the Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress in a Television Series, the Critics' Choice Awards for Best Actress in a Drama Series, the Television Critics Association at the TCA Awards for Individual Achievement in Drama.
Other cast members have received recognition for their performances, with Enoch and King being nominated by the NAACP as Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series and Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series at the GLAAD Awards. On May 11, 2018, ABC renewed the series for a fifth season, which premiered on September 27, 2018. Annalise Keating is a prominent criminal defense attorney and law professor at Middleton University in Philadelphia, she selects five of her first year students to intern at her firm: Wes Gibbins, Connor Walsh, Michaela Pratt, Asher Millstone, Laurel Castillo. They work with Frank Delfino and Bonnie Winterbottom, an associate lawyer; as the first season introduces occasional clients for Keating, it explores two related murders through both flashback and flashforward sequences: Lila Stangard, mistress of Annalise's husband and a student at Middleton, Sam Keating, Annalise's husband, killed by Annalise's interns. The first nine episodes alternate between the present-day timeline in medias res, depicting Wes, Connor and Laurel covering up Sam's murder by disposing of his body, flashbacks detailing the course of events leading up to Sam's death, including Annalise's becoming involved in the Lila Stangard investigation, at Wes' urging, leading her to discover Sam's affair and creating suspicion that he killed Lila.
The final six episodes explore Annalise's attempt to help her interns cover up Sam's murder and implicate Sam in Lila's death, flashbacks to Lila's final moments before her murder. The first nine episodes focus on Annalise's defense of Caleb and Catherine Hapstall, who were accused of torturing and murdering their adoptive parents. Wes, in the meantime, teams up with Rebecca's foster brother to try and find Rebecca. Connor struggles with his relationship with Oliver, while Asher works with A. D. A. Emily Sinclair, in order to protect his secrets. In the mid-season finale, Sinclair is murdered, Annalise helps cover it up, at the expense of her being shot in the stomach by Wes; the second part of the season focuses on Wes' investigation of his mother's suicide 10 years ago. The season ends with Annalise's finding out that Frank was responsible for the car crash that killed her baby, Annalise sends him away. Michaela and Asher hook up, Wes meets with his biological father right before the latter is shot dead by an unknown shooter.
In the aftermath of Wallace Mahoney's death, all five of the students attempt to move on. A new mystery arises around the burning down of Annalise's house and, found dead inside; the events leading up to it involve Annalise's starting a free legal clinic and struggling with alcoholism. Oliver starts working for Annalise, he leaves Connor when becoming disgusted with himself for rejecting Connor's Stanford acceptance. Michaela and Asher's relationship starts to progress, as does Wes and Laurel's, Frank starts working to atone for the death of Annalise's child, it is revealed that it was Wes who died, that he was killed before the fire. Annalise is arrested for Wes' death. Frank attempts to help Annalise by confessing to killing Wes, it is further revealed that Wes' death was commissioned by Laurel's father, who disapproved of their relationship. In the fourth season, Annalise works with a therapist, Dr. Isaac Roa, to see through her recovery from alcoholism, she cuts ties with Bonnie and the interns, gets a woman with a long rap sheet freed from jail, commits to a major class action against the state for miscarriages of justice caused by an underfunded public defender's office.
Laurel deduces that her father, Jorge Castillo, is responsible for Wes' murder and hatches a scheme to steal incriminating evidence from his law firm with the help of Michaela, Oliver and Asher. During the data heist, their classmate Simon accidentally shoots himself with Laurel's gun, leading to Asher's arrest, Laurel goes into premature labor after being accidentally struck by Frank. Annalise saves the baby. However, Jorge claims custody of his grandchild by submitting evidence of Laurel's past addictions and history of mental illness to a judge. Laurel
Bones (TV series)
Bones is an American crime procedural comedy-drama television series that aired on Fox in the United States from September 13, 2005, until March 28, 2017. It has 246 episodes over twelve seasons; the show is based on forensic anthropology and forensic archaeology, with each episode focusing on an FBI case file concerning the mystery behind human remains brought by FBI Special Agent Seeley Booth to forensic anthropologist Dr. Temperance "Bones" Brennan, it explored the personal lives of the characters. The rest of the main cast includes Michaela Conlin, T. J. Thyne, Eric Millegan, Jonathan Adams, Tamara Taylor, John Francis Daley, John Boyd. Created by Hart Hanson, the series is loosely based on the life and novels of Kathy Reichs, a forensic anthropologist, who produced the show, its title character, Temperance Brennan, is named after the protagonist of Reichs' crime novel series. In the Bones universe, Dr. Brennan writes successful mystery novels featuring a fictional forensic anthropologist named Kathy Reichs.
Bones is a joint production by Josephson Entertainment, Far Field Productions and 20th Century Fox Television. The series is the longest-running one-hour drama series produced by 20th Century Fox Television. On February 25, 2016, the series was renewed for a twelfth and final season, consisting of twelve episodes that premiered on January 3, 2017; the series finale aired on March 28, 2017. The premise of the show is an alliance between forensic anthropologist Dr. Temperance "Bones" Brennan and FBI Special Agent Seeley Booth. Brennan is the central character and team leader of the fictional Jeffersonian Institute Medico-Legal Lab, a federal institution that collaborates with the FBI; this reflects the historical relationship between the FBI and scientists of the Smithsonian Institution. Set in Washington, D. C. the show revolves around solving Federal legal cases by examining the human remains of possible murder victims. Dr. Brennan and her team provide scientific expertise and Special Agent Seeley Booth provides FBI criminal investigation technique.
In addition to the prospective murder cases featured in each episode, the series explores the backgrounds and relationships of its characters. An important ongoing dynamic between Brennan and Booth is their disagreement about science and faith. Brennan argues for science and atheism. Booth argues for intuition and God; the series is known for its dark comedic undertones, featuring human bodies in advanced state of decay, which serve to lighten the gravity of the show's intense subject matter. Emily Deschanel as Dr. Temperance "Bones" Brennan: A brilliant forensic anthropologist working at the renowned Jeffersonian Institute located in Washington, D. C, her birth name was Joy Keenan, which her parents changed after they turned away from a life of crime. She is an author of crime fiction drawn from her experiences, she is agnostic and a staunch believer in facts and evidence, to the exclusion of feelings. She has shown compassion, her dearth of social skills provides most of the show's lighthearted humor through her catchphrase, "I don't know what that means," whenever a pop culture reference is introduced into conversation.
She is noted to have a high IQ and impressive reasoning skills. She and her FBI partner, Seeley Booth, begin a relationship near the end of season six. In season seven, they have a daughter together whom they name Christine, in honor of Temperance's late mother, they marry in season nine. Their son, named for Booth's paternal grandfather, is born in season 11. David Boreanaz as Seeley Booth: FBI Special Agent Booth seeks out Brennan's professional help in his investigations involving human remains that cannot be identified without her skills, his character is used as an audience surrogate to provide a layman's translation of the scientific jargon-filled dialog in the "squints" conversations, or lab scenes. He gives Brennan "Bones", which she first hates but comes to accept, he is a skilled investigator and interrogator who relies on his "gut" and "cop instincts". A decorated veteran of the United States Army Rangers, where he was a sniper, Booth has a son Parker from a previous relationship, a younger brother, Jared.
He has two children with Brennan: a son Hank. Raised in the Roman Catholic church, Booth is a devout believer in heaven, he debates spiritual issues with Brennan, who regards all religion as primitive superstition unsupported by empirical evidence. He is purportedly a member of the well-known Booth Family and, as such, is related to assassin John Wilkes Booth. Michaela Conlin as Angela Montenegro: A forensic artist at the Jeffersonian Institute and Brennan's best friend, Montenegro is her team specialist in forensic facial reconstruction—helping to identify the victims, she can generate holograms using her three-dimensional graphics program to simulate various scenarios of a crime to help determine cause of death. She and Dr. Brennan are best friends and argue, she is open and caring, tries to draw Brennan out of the lab. Angela's father is played by Billy Gibbons, guitarist of ZZ Top, who guest stars as a fictional version of himself. In season five, Montenegro marries co-worker Dr. Jack Hodgins.
They have an on-and-off relationship starting from season 2, she gives birth to their son, Michael Vincent, in season six. Her birth name is Pookie Noodlin. Eric Millegan as Dr. Zack Addy: Introduced in season one as Dr. Brennan's graduate student and intern, in sea