Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Les Misérables (1982 film)
Les Misérables is a 1982 French drama film directed by Robert Hossein. It is one of the numerous screen adaptations of the novel of the same name by Victor Hugo, it was entered into the 13th Moscow International Film Festival. Lino Ventura as Jean Valjean Michel Bouquet as Inspecteur Javert Évelyne Bouix as Fantine Christiane Jean as Cosette Valentine Bordelet as Cosette Jean Carmet as Thénardier Françoise Seigner as La Thénardier Frank David as Marius Candice Patou as Éponine Agathe Ladner as Éponine Emmanuel Curtil as Gavroche Hervé Furic as Enjolras Louis Seigner as Monseigneur Myriel Fernand Ledoux as Gillenormand Paul Préboist as Fauchelevent Corinne Dacla as Azelma Catherine Di Rigo as Azelma Robin Renucci as Courfeyrac Christian Benedetti as Combeferre Tony Joudrier as Bossuet Christophe Odent as Bahorel Alexandre Tamar as Grantaire Roger Hanin as L'aubergiste Nathalie Nerval as La fille Gillenormand Martine Pascal as La mère supérieure Aline Bertrand as Mme Magloire Madeleine Bouchez as Mlle Baptistine Viviane Elbaz as Soeur Simplice Dominique Davray as La Magnon Claude Lancelot as Bamatabois Denis Lavant as Montparnasse Jean-René Gossart as Claquessous Jacques Blal as Petit Gervais Dominique Zardi as Chenildieu The film starts with Valjean's release from prison, followed by the opening credits and jumps to the presentation of the bishop, beginning of the novel.
Javert is shown in the opening scene, the book introduces him in Montreuil. Fantine is introduced in Montreuil, her former life in Paris is left out. Fantine dies of her illness. In the book, it is the shock of realizing that Cosette did not arrive and Javert telling her Valjean's real identity that kills her. Valjean is not sent back to the galleys, he manages to escape Javert after Fantine's death. Valjean's escape from the convent in a coffin is cut out. Valjean dies alone, making his death more tragic; the last scene is a flashback to Valjean's release from prison, with a minor change in dialogue: The first time, Javert says: "You are free.". Valjean's arrival in Digne is lengthily depicted, we see him going into the townhall to have his passport signed. Petit-Gervais is included We see Valjean lifting the cart off Fauchelevent and we learn that he sent him to the convent in Paris afterwards. One of the few adaptions, that does not change the names of the three convicts who recognize Valjean and in which Valjean proves his identity in the same way as he does in the book.
Valjean leaves the convent for the same reason. The attack in the House Gorbeau is included and takes place in nearly the same way as it does in the book; the romance between Marius and Cosette takes place in nearly the same way as in the book. Javert's letter to the Prefect is read aloud by Javert as we see him taking the coach towards the bridge. Valjean dies of grief at the end. Most dialogue is taken word for word from the book. While some scenes are anachronistic, the overall impression is a dark and sinister one, fitting the book well. Robert Hossein directed the original 1980 Paris production of the musical: this film and the musical are the only adaptations, where Fantine dies before Javert's arrival; the actor who plays Chenildieu in this adaption plays Cochepaille in the 2000 miniseries. Best Supporting Actor Nominated: Best Actor Best Adaptation Best Cinematography Best Production Design Special prize, for the contribution to the cinema Les Misérables on IMDb Les Misérables at AllMovie Review by film historian Tim Brayton
Criminal Brigade (1947 film)
Criminal Brigade is a 1947 French crime film directed by and starring Gilbert Gil. Jean-Louis Allibert as Inspecteur Ellen Bernsen as Myriam Michel Bouquet as Le tueur Raymond Cordy as Mérignac Jean Davy as Commissaire Chabrier Jacques Dufilho as Lucien Gilbert Gil as Michel Perrin Daniel Ivernel as Jean-Jacques Jean-Max as Oudrach Gaëtan Jor as Inspecteur Gisèle Préville as Christine Maurice Teynac as Fred Dayna Oscherwitz & MaryEllen Higgins; the A to Z of French Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2009. Criminal Brigade on IMDb
Borsalino is a 1970 gangster film directed by Jacques Deray and starring Alain Delon, Jean-Paul Belmondo and Catherine Rouvel. It was entered into the 20th Berlin International Film Festival. In 2009 Empire magazine named it #19 in a poll of "The 20 Greatest Gangster Movies You've Never Seen… Probably". A sequel, Borsalino & Co. was released in 1974 with Alain Delon in the leading role. In 1930, in Marseille, a gangster named Siffredi is released from prison and searches for his former girlfriend, Lola, he finds her with another gangster. The two men fight over her but become friendly and form a partnership, fixing horseraces and prizefights They are contacted by Rinaldi, a lawyer who works for Marello and Poli, the gangsters who control crime in Marseille. Rinaldi suggests that Siffredi and Capella seize control of Marello's hold on the fish market business, they succeed in doing this but become ambitious and try to control Poli's meat market operations too. Poli tries to have them killed but they succeed in killing him.
Another gangster, The Dancer, kills Rinaldi. Capella and Siffredi dispose of his body and establish themselves as the rulers of the Marseille crime world. Capella is killed by an assassin. Siffredi decides to leave Marseille himself. Jean-Paul Belmondo – François Capella Alain Delon – Roch Siffredi Arnoldo Foà – Marello Catherine Rouvel – Lola Françoise Christophe – Simone Escarguel Corinne Marchand – Mme Rinaldi Laura Adani – Mme Siffredi, la mère de Roch Nicole Calfan – Ginette Hélène Rémy – Lydia Odette Piquet – La chanteuse Mario David – Mario Lionel Vitrant – Fernand Dennis Berry – Nono Jean Aron – Martial Roger, le compatible André Bollet – Poli Pierre Koulak – Spada The film is based on real life gangsters Paul Carbone and François Spirito, who joined the Carlingue that collaborated with the Germans during World War Two, it was produced by Alain Delon, looking for a vehicle for him to co-star with Belmondo. He found the story in a book he was reading about French gangsters from 1900 to 1970.
Under the terms of their contracts, each actor had to have the same number of close-ups. Delon dyed his hair black for his role, it was one of the most expensive French movies made. Finance came from Paramount Picture; the movie was going to be called Carbone and Spirito but there were objections and it was decided to fictionalise the characters. The title Borsalino comes from the name of the hat company that made the men's hats that appear in the film; the Borsalino Company made fedora style hats from the late 19th century to the 20th century: the golden age was in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, when sales went through the roof. Alain Delon said he wanted a title like Vera Cruz which did not have to be translated all around the world; the film was a large success at the French box office, breaking records throughout the country. It had admissions in France of 4 710 381; this made it the fourth most watched film of the year, after The Gendarme Takes Off, Atlantic Wall, Rider on the Rain. It was followed by The Red Circle, MASH, Once Upon a Time in the West, Things of Life, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, Donkey Skin and The Damned.
The film was very popular elsewhere in Europe but did not break through in the US the way the filmmakers hoped. While it was released the Markovic Affair was still being publicised, adding to the film's notoriety; the movie saw a revival in the popularity of Borsalino hats. Jean Paul Belmondo sued Delon over the matter of billing – the words "an Alain Delon Production" appeared before Belmondo's name in the credits, resulting in Belmondo taking Delon to court. Delon said when promoting the film in the US: We are still what you in America call pals or buddies, but we are not friends. There is a difference, he was my guest in the film but still he complained. I like him as an actor but as a person, he's a bit different. I think his reaction was a stupid reaction... like a female reaction. But I don't want to talk about him anymore. Delon's associate producer, Pierre Caro claimed at the same time: If you ask me, I think Belmondo was afraid from the first to make a picture with Alain, he demanded the same number of close ups.
Alain had to cancel a lot of his best scenes. My own feeling is. Alain says they will but he lies. Director Jacques Deray reflected, "All through production Delon was impeccable, never interfered, but when the film was completed Delon the producer stepped in and took it over." The film was aired in the early morning hours of August 31, 1997 in the United Kingdom on BBC One, where it was interrupted at 1:45am, 45 minutes into the film, to bring the first news report of the car crash in Paris involving Diana, Princess of Wales which claimed her life. BBC newsreader Martyn Lewis gave a short update about the crash, BBC One went back to airing the rest of the film, they would interrupt the film one more time in the following hour to bring more news on the car crash. Borsalino on IMDb Borsalino at Le Film Guide Review of film at The New York Times Borsalino at TCMDB
Night and Fog (1956 film)
Night and Fog is a 1956 French documentary short film. Directed by Alain Resnais, it was made ten years after the liberation of Nazi concentration camps; the title is taken from the notorious Nacht und Nebel program of abductions and disappearances decreed by the Nazis on 7 December 1941. The documentary features the abandoned grounds of Auschwitz and Majdanek while describing the lives of prisoners in the camps. Night and Fog was made in collaboration with scriptwriter Jean Cayrol, a survivor of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp; the music of the soundtrack was composed by Hanns Eisler. Resnais was hesitant about making the film and refused the offer to make it until Cayrol was contracted to write the script; the film was shot in the year 1955 and is composed of contemporary shots of the camps plus stock footage. Resnais and Cayrol found the film difficult to make due to its graphic nature and subject matter; the film faced difficulties with French censors unhappy with a shot of a French police officer in the film, with the German embassy in France, which attempted to halt the film's release at the Cannes Film Festival.
Night and Fog was released to critical acclaim, still receives high praise today. It was re-shown on French television nationwide in 1990 to remind the people of the "horrors of war". Night and Fog is a documentary that alternates between past and present, using both black-and-white and color footage; the first part of Night and Fog shows remnants of Auschwitz while the narrator Michel Bouquet describes the rise of Nazi ideology. The film continues with comparisons of the life of the Schutzstaffel to the starving prisoners in the camps. Bouquet addresses the sadism inflicted upon the doomed inmates, including torture and medical "experiments", rape; the next section is shown in black-and-white, depicts images of gas chambers and piles of bodies. The final topic of the film depicts the liberation of the country, the discovery of the horror of the camps, the questioning of, responsible for them. From 1954 to 1955, a number of activities took place observing the tenth anniversary of the liberation of France and of the concentration camps.
One of these was an exhibition curated by Olga Wormser and Henri Michel, Liberation, which opened on 10 November 1954 at the Institut Pédagogique National in Paris. The exhibit was based on Michel and Wormser's monograph which had appeared earlier in 1954 in a special issue of Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale; the first public notice of a proposed film project was given during a radio broadcast on 10 November 1954, the opening day of the exhibition. Although Michel was under pressure from veterans' organizations to create a film document that would honor French Resistance fighters, Wormser argued for a scholarly approach that would show the concentration camps as a systematic microcosm of the German war economy. Michel recognized that this approach would enable broader financing, both re-envisioned the film as "communicating historical research through contemporary media." Michel thought the film could take the form of a montage of news reports. But as a result of the exhibit Resistance, Deportation, both he and Wormser had received many items created by former inmates during their internment, making Michel and Wormster believe that a unique perspective would be created by providing an inside view of the camps.
"The genocide of the Jews was treated in French remembrance as more of a side issue—something, in any case a matter for the Jews themselves and not for the majority of society. Michel and Wormser might have wanted scholarly objectivity instead of the heroism favoured by the deportees' association...but the Holocaust had remained a blind spot for them."Film producers Anatole Dauman, Samy Halfton and Philippe Lifchitz were invited to this exhibit and felt that a film should be made on the subject. Anatole Dauman from Warsaw, undertook the production for Argos Films and arranged for co-financing by Films Polski, the Polish state production company. Dauman approached filmmaker Alain Resnais who had experience with documentary films since 1948. Resnais turned down the offer for over a week, feeling that only someone with first hand experience of concentration camps should attempt the subject matter. Resnais agreed, providing that poet and novelist Jean Cayrol, a concentration camp prisoner, would collaborate on the project.
Resnais signed his contract for the film on 24 May 1955. Cayrol had written in 1946 about his experience as a survivor of Mauthausen in Poèmes de la nuit et brouillard, which gave the documentary its title. For Resnais, the film was meant to showcase a warning that the horrors of Nazism may be repeated during the Algerian War where torture and internment were under way; the film was commissioned by two organizations, the first of, the Comité d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, a government commission assigned the tasks of assembling documentary material on, of launching historical inquiries and studies of, the period of the French occupation from 1940 to 1945. The other commissioner was the Réseau du souvenir, an association devoted to the memory of those deported to camps. A pre-production meeting was held on 28 May 1955, during the course of which it was decided "to explain how the concentration-camp system flowed automatically from fascism"; the film's working title and Deportation, was changed to the French
Malpertuis is a 1971 Belgian fantasy horror film directed by Harry Kümel, based on the 1943 novel of the same name. It was selected for the official selection and was presented "in competition" at the 1972 Cannes Film Festival. A Flemish "director's cut" version of it was released in 1973. Jan, a young seaman, returns to land, while searching for his childhood home, is mysteriously abducted, he awakens in an isolated old mansion called Malpertuis, where he find himself among various relatives, including his sister Nancy, as well as a strange taxidermist and a resident madman called Lampernisse. The mansion turns out to be a labyrinth of corridors and secret chambers, belonging to his family, his bedridden occultist uncle Cassavius is about to divide the estate to his heirs, but, as it turns out, only if they commit themselves never to leave the premises. They find themselves trapped in a mystery where they enact gods from Greek mythology, which Cassavius believes them to be, while anyone who tries to escape is found horribly murdered.
The plot remains obscure to the end, as Jan tries to unravel the mystery and seems to spiral into a dreamlike madness. Orson Welles as Cassavius Susan Hampshire as Nancy / Euryale / Alice / Nurse / Charlotte Michel Bouquet as Dideloo Mathieu Carrière as Jan Jean-Pierre Cassel as Lampernisse Daniel Pilon as Mathias Crook Walter Rilla as Eisengott Dora van der Groen as Sylvie Dideloo Charles Janssens as Philarette Sylvie Vartan as Bets Jet Naessens as Eleonora Cara Van Wersch as Rosalie Jenny Van Santvoort as Elodie Fanny Winkler as Mother Griboin Robert Lussac as Griboin Edouard Ravais as Doucedame Gella Allaert as Gerda Hugo Dellas as Hans Cyriel Van Gent as Thick Man The English language version of the film that premiered at the 1972 Cannes Film Festival had been edited, by the American distributor, from the original 1971 version, retitled The Legend of Doom House, it was subsequently edited further by other distributors. The Royal Belgian Film Archive, together with director Harry Kümel, worked to restore the uncut Flemish version of the film, released in 1973 as "the director's cut".
This version is 20 minutes longer, containing some of the best scenes of the film, edited out. Although this version is more complete, the original voice of Orson Welles is missing from it. Neil Smith of BBC gave the film 2/5 stars, calling it "Bizarre and baffling". Michael Barrett from PopMatters rated it 7/10 stars, calling it "ragged and dizzy, full of sharp zooms and frantic cuts." On his website Fantastic Movie Musings and Ramblings, Dave Sindelar called it " disorienting disturbing and sometimes infuriating movie" Orson Welles filmography Malpertuis at AllMovie Malpertuis on IMDb Malpertuis: The Legend of the Doom House at Rotten Tomatoes Malpertuis: Histoire d'une maison Maudite at the TCM Movie Database
Robert Hossein December 1927) is a French film actor and writer of Iranian Azerbaijani and Jewish origin. He directed the 1982 adaption of Les Misérables, appeared in Vice and Virtue, Le Casse, Les Uns et les Autres and Venus Beauty Institute, his other roles include Michèle Mercier's husband in the Angélique series, a gunfighter in the Spaghetti Western Cemetery Without Crosses, a Catholic priest who falls in love with Claude Jade and becomes a communist in Forbidden Priests. Hossein started directing films in 1955 with Les Salauds vont en enfer, from a story by Frédéric Dard whose novels and plays went on to furnish Hossein with much of his film material. Right from the start Hossein established his characteristic trademarks: using a straightforward suspense plot and subverting its conventions in order to concentrate on ritualistic relationships; this is the director's running preoccupation, always stressed in his films by an extraordinary command of film space and striking frame compositions where the geometry of human figures and set design is used to accentuate the psychological set-up of the scene.
The mechanisms of guilt and the way it destroys relationships is another recurring theme influenced by Hossein's lifelong interest in the works of Dostoyevski. In 1967, he was a member of the jury of the 5th Moscow International Film Festival, his 1982 film Les Misérables was entered into the 13th Moscow International Film Festival where it won a Special Prize. Although Hossein had some modest international successes with films like Toi, le venin and Le Vampire de Dusseldorf, he was much singled out for scorching criticism by the critics and followers of the New Wave for the unashamedly melodramatic frameworks of his films; the fact that he was an auteur director with a consistent set of themes and an extraordinary mastery of original and unusual approaches to staging his stories, was never appreciated. He was not averse to trying his hand at different genres and was never defeated, making the strikingly different spaghetti western Cemetery Without Crosses and the low-budgeted but daringly subversive period drama I Killed Rasputin.
However, because of the lack of wider success and continuing adverse criticism, Hossein ended his film directing career in 1970, having concentrated on theatre where his achievements were never questioned, subsequently returning to film directing only twice. With two or three exceptions, his films remain commercially unavailable and difficult to see. Robert Hossein is the son of André Hossein, a composer of both Persian and Iranian Azerbaijani origin, of a Jewish comedy actress from Soroca Anna Mincovschi, he was married three times: first to Marina Vlady on 7 June 1962, to Caroline Eliacheff, daughter of Françoise Giroud. She was fifteen at the time and he was 34. In 1973, he dated for a short while Michèle Watrin, before she died the following year in a car accident. In 1976, he married actress Candice Patou, with whom he has a son. At the age of forty, Hossein was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church. According to an article written by Emannuel Peze, Hossein experienced a conversion to Catholicism in 1971 during a visit to the Marian apparition at San Damiano in Lombardo Italy.
In 2007, he presented a piece entitled Do not be afraid of the life of Pope John Paul II. He has a special devotion to Saint Therese of Lisieux. France: Commander of the Légion d'honneur, 2005 Monaco: Commander of the Order of Cultural Merit Member of Eurasian Academy. Robert Hossein on IMDb