France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Francis Fox Tuckett
Francis Fox Tuckett FRGS was an English mountaineer. He was vice-president of the Alpine Club from 1866 to 1868, Tuckett was born in 1834 at the Old House, Frenchay Common, near Bristol, the eldest child of Francis and Mariana Tuckett. His father, Francis Tuckett of Frenchay, was a traveller as well as a leather merchant, social reformer, philanthropist. Himself the son of Philip Debell Tuckett, Francis Tuckett married Mariana Fox, a daughter of Robert Were Fox the Elder, Francis Tuckett was in Naples when he died in 1868. Francis Fox Tuckett was the eldest of five children, and his parents only son and his eldest sister Elizabeth Fox Tuckett, born in 1835, died young, and his other sisters were a second Elizabeth Fox, followed by Mariana Fox and Charlotte Fox. Tuckett entered his fathers business as a factor and was a gentleman farmer all of his life. In 1882, his business, under the name of Tuckett and Rake, was at 18 &20, Victoria Street and was described as Leather and Raw Hide factors. On 17 January 1896, at the age of 62, Tuckett married Alice Fox while he was in New Zealand and he died in 1913 at his birthplace, the Old House, Frenchay Common, and was buried at the Friends Meeting House in Frenchay.
Tuckett was one of the figures of the Golden age of alpinism, making the ascent of 269 peaks. In Scrambles amongst the Alps Edward Whymper called Tuckett that mighty mountaineer, geoffrey Winthrop Young called Tucketts approach to climbing encyclopaedic. His first trip to the Alps was in 1842 in the company of his father and they went to Chamonix and he explored the Mer de Glace. On 18 June 1859 he made the first ascent of the Aletschhorn in the Swiss Alps together with the guides Johann Joseph Bennen, Peter Bohren and V. Tairraz. Here he showed his passion for scientific observation, making barometric calculations during the climb and on the summit in the teeth of a strong gale. but. I unhesitatingly maintain that there is a joy in these measurings of the strength of nature in her wildest moods, in 1861, Tuckett tested a prototype Alpine sleeping bag. Within a few years he had perfected a bag design which consisted of material with rubber-coated fabric on the underside. He made an attempt, with the party, on the highest mountain in the range.
In Tucketts own words, Arrived on the plateau a most striking view of the Ecrins burst upon us, and a hasty inspection encouraged us to hope its ascent would be practicable. The snow was in bad order, and as we sank at each step above the knee
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with risks, challenges. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist, the details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown, sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top. Today, first ascents are generally recorded and usually mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a first ascent is a one, especially in places such as Africa. There may be little or no evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents, particularly for difficult routes, involved a mix of free, as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only.
Some other first ascents could be recorded for particular mountains or routes, one is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name easily suggests, the first ascent made during winter season. This is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route, in the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. Also in the Himalayan area, although Nepal and Chinas winter season permits start on December 1, another is the First Solo Ascent, which is the first ascent made by a single climber. This is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or even when climbing without any protection at all, another type of ascent, known as FFA is the first female ascent. The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has changed to such an extent – often because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists.
It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb that is so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent partys ordeal. List of first ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimers First Ascent, Issue 17
The Grande Casse is the highest mountain of the Vanoise Massif in the Graian Alps in the region of Savoie, France. It is located in the heart of the Vanoise National Park, near the village of Pralognan-la-Vanoise and it has a steep 600 m high north face. The other sides of the mountain are gentle, mostly consisting of broken rocks. A high ridge connects it to the peak of Grande Motte. The ridge connecting the Grande Casse and the Grande Motte is the watershed between the Tarentaise Valley in the north and Maurienne valley to the south, despite its height it has a relatively easy normal route to the summit. Climbers usually start from the Les Grands Couloirs glacier and ascend the southwest side of the mountain, the north face is an extreme skiing destination. The first ascent was made by William Mathews along with guides Michel Croz, the north face was climbed on 6 August 1933 by the Italians Aldo Bonacossa and L. Binaghi. The Refuge Félix Faure, used for the route, is located at the Col de la Vanoise.
This is an overview of the most common routes to the summit, Normal route, Les Grands couloirs, commonly climbed by skiers and climbers
Castor is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the border between Valais and the Aosta Valley in Italy. It is the higher of a pair of peaks, the other being Pollux. Castors peak is at an elevation of 4,223 m and it is separated from Pollux by a pass at 3,847 m, named Passo di Verra in Italian and Zwillingsjoch in German. Ascents are usually made from the alpine hut Capanna Quintino Sella on the Italian side, by means of the Felikjoch, from the Swiss side, ascents start from Klein Matterhorn and go by way of the Italian glacier Grand Glacier of Verra and the mountains west flank. The first ascent was made on August 23,1861, Castor and Pollux are a pair of summits in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, USA. Located in the Absaroka Range, Castor is 3,308 m,65 m lower than its twin
The Glacier Blanc is a glacier in the French département of Hautes-Alpes. Its name derives from the fact that – unlike the nearby Glacier Noir – its surface appears pristinely white due to an absence of morainic debris, a glacier that is largely free of such moraines is generally described in French as a glacier blanc. The Glacier Blanc begins on the slopes of the most southwesterly of the four-thousanders in the Alps. It is separated from the Glacier Noir to the south by the crest of Crête de lEncoula, the upper part of the glacier is sometimes named Glacier de lEncula after this arête, on several older maps this name is used for the whole glacier. With its 5.9 km-long tongue, the Glacier Blanc is the longest glacier in the Massif des Écrins and the largest in the southern French Alps. Its area of 5.34 km² is not, however, as great as that of the Glacier de la Girose and the Glacier du Mont-de-Lans, which form a common system. The Glacier Blanc is a valley glacier, which initially runs in a curve towards the northeast below the Barre, before its tongue turns southeast.
Its average incline is about 30%, but it is flatter in its central section than on the slope of the Barre des Écrins or in the icefall of its lower section. The glacier is bounded on its orographically left-hand side by, inter alia, the summits of the Roche Faurio, Pic de Neige Cordier and the Montagne des Agneaux. The Crête de lEncoula forms the boundary, running from the Barre des Écrins over Barre Noir, Pointe Mettrier. Between the peaks that surround the basin are smaller side glaciers that feed the main stream. In its centre section the main stream of the Glacier Blanc is about 800 to 1000 metres wide, the greatest depth of ice occurs at the Refuge des Écrins where it is up to 250 metres deep, some 30 metres less than it was in 1985. The glacier flows at a speed of around 40 metres per year in its central section, from its head at over 4,000 m high to its foot, currently at about 2,400 m the Glacier Blanc descends through a height of around 1,600 metres. The glaciers mass balance, an indicator of its health, has not been fully investigated, the Glacier Blanc drains via the Torrent du Glacier Blanc, the Gyr, the Gyronde, the Durance and finally the Rhône into the Mediterranean Sea.
Around 100 metres lower down the trail passes the Ancien Refuge Tuckett and this primitive hut that, today, is an exhibit, was built immediately next to a large stone slab that had hitherto acted as a camping place from which the area could be explored. The shelter was named the Hotel Tuckett, after the alpinist Francis Fox Tuckett. Two hours by foot further on the Refuge des Écrins is situated high above the Glacier Blanc on a prominent rocky pulpit, at a height of 3,170 m, with expansive views of the area. The hut trail runs for the most part immediately above the glacier, the high alpine base with 119 beds is often overbooked during the peak season
The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Mont Dolent is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif which lies on the border between Italy and France. As a mountain, Mont Dolent is regarded as the tripoint between Italy and France, although the tripoint itself lies at 3,749 metres, less than 100 metres north-west of its summit. The first ascent of the mountain was made on 9 July 1864 by A. Reilly and Edward Whymper with guides Michel Croz, H. Charlet, Whymper described the ascent in Scrambles amongst the Alps, We occupied the 9th with a scramble up Mont Dolent. It contained a little of everything, Mont Dolent has four faces, offering good quality snow and ice climbs of various levels of difficulty. However the only route to the summit is on its southern flank via the Glacier de Pre de Bar, finishing along a short. The Fiorio Bivouac Hut provides the closest start point for this four-hour ascent from the Italian side, the next easiest route of ascent is via the mountains east ridge, starting from the similarly-named Bivouac du Dolent hut on its Swiss side