Francis Bacon (artist)
Francis Bacon was an Irish-born British figurative painter known for his charged raw imagery, fixation on personal motifs, heavy experimentation. Bacon is best known for his depictions of popes and portraits of close friends, his abstracted figures are isolated in geometrical cages which give them vague 3D depth, set against flat, nondescript backgrounds. Bacon said that he saw images "in series", his work, which numbers c. 590 extant paintings along with many others he destroyed focuses on a single subject for sustained periods in triptych or diptych formats. His output can be broadly described as variations on single motifs. Bacon took up painting in his twenties, having drifted in the late 1920s and early 1930s as an interior decorator, bon vivant and gambler, he said that his artistic career was delayed because he spent too long looking for subject matter that could sustain his interest. His breakthrough came with the 1944 triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, which sealed his reputation as a uniquely bleak chronicler of the human condition.
From the mid-1960s he produced portraits of friends and drinking companions, either as single or triptych panels. Following the suicide of his lover George Dyer in 1971 his art became more sombre, inward-looking and preoccupied with the passage of time and death; the climax of this period is marked by masterpieces, including his 1982's "Study for Self-Portrait" and Study for a Self-Portrait—Triptych, 1985–86. Despite his bleak existentialist outlook, solidified in the public mind through his articulate and vivid series of interviews with David Sylvester, Bacon in person was engaging and charismatic, well-read and gay, he was a prolific artist, but nonetheless spent many of the evenings of his middle age eating and gambling in London's Soho with like-minded friends including Lucian Freud, John Deakin, Muriel Belcher, Henrietta Moraes, Daniel Farson, Tom Baker, Jeffrey Bernard. After Dyer's suicide he distanced himself from this circle, while his social life was still active and his passion for gambling and drinking continued, he settled into a platonic and somewhat fatherly relationship with his eventual heir, John Edwards.
Robert Hughes described Bacon as "the most implacable, lyric artist in late 20th-century England in all the world" and along with Willem de Kooning as "the most important painter of the disquieting human figure in the 50s of the 20th century." Francis Bacon was the subject of two Tate retrospectives and a major showing in 1971 at the Grand Palais. Since his death Bacon's reputation and market value have grown and his work is among the most acclaimed and sought-after. In the late 1990s a number of major works assumed destroyed, including early 1950s popes and 1960s portraits, reemerged to set record prices at auction. In 2013 his Three Studies of Lucian Freud set the world record as the most expensive piece of art sold at auction. Francis Bacon was born on 28 October 1909 in a nursing home in old Georgian Dublin at 63 Lower Baggot Street, his father, Captain Anthony Edward Mortimer Bacon, was born in Adelaide, South Australia, to an English father and an Australian mother. His father, a veteran of the Boer War, was a racehorse trainer.
His mother, Christina Winifred Firth, known as Winnie, was heiress to a Sheffield steel business and coal mine. His father was a descendant of Sir Nicholas Bacon, elder half-brother of Sir Francis Bacon, the Elizabethan statesman and essayist. Bacon had an older brother, two younger sisters and Winifred, a younger brother, Edward, he was raised by the family's nanny, Jessie Lightfoot, from Cornwall, known as'Nanny Lightfoot', a maternal figure who remained close to him until her death. In his life during the early 1940s, Bacon would rent the ground floor of 7 Cromwell Place, South Kensington, John Everett Millais' old studio, along with Nanny Lightfoot would install an illicit roulette wheel there, organised by Bacon and his friends, for their financial benefit; the family moved house crossing back and forth between Ireland and England several times, leading to a sense of displacement which remained with Francis throughout his life. The family lived in Cannycourt House in County Kildare from 1911 moving to Westbourne Terrace in London, close to where Bacon's father worked at the Territorial Force Records Office.
They returned to Ireland after the First World War. Bacon lived with his maternal grandmother and step-grandfather and Kerry Supple, at Farmleigh, County Laois, although the rest of the family again moved to Straffan Lodge near Naas, County Kildare. Bacon enjoyed dressing up. This, coupled with his effeminate manner, upset his father. A story emerged in 1992 of his father having had Francis horsewhipped by their grooms. In 1924 his parents moved to Gloucestershire, first to Prescott House in Gotherington Linton Hall near the border with Herefordshire. At a fancy-dress party at the Firth family home, Cavendish Hall in Suffolk, Francis dressed as a flapper with an Eton crop, beaded dress, high heels, a long cigarette holder. In 1926, the family moved back to Straffan Lodge, His sister, twelve
Alberto Giacometti was a Swiss sculptor, painter and printmaker. Beginning in 1922, he lived and worked in Paris but visited his hometown Borgonovo to see his family and work on his art. Giacometti was one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century, his work was influenced by artistic styles such as Cubism and Surrealism. Philosophical questions about the human condition, as well as existential and phenomenological debates played a significant role in his work. Around 1935 he gave up on his Surrealistic influences in order to pursue a more deepened analysis of figurative compositions. Giacometti wrote texts for periodicals and exhibition catalogues and recorded his thoughts and memories in notebooks and diaries, his self-critical nature led to great doubts about his work and his ability to do justice to his own artistic ideas but acted as a great motivating force. Between 1938 and 1944 Giacometti's sculptures had a maximum height of seven centimeters, their small size reflected the actual distance between his model.
In this context he self-critically stated: "But wanting to create from memory what I had seen, to my terror the sculptures became smaller and smaller". After the war, Giacometti created his most famous sculptures: his tall and slender figurines; these sculptures were subject to his individual viewing experience—between an imaginary yet real, a tangible yet inaccessible space. In Giacometti's whole body of work, his painting constitutes only a small part. After 1957, his figurative paintings were as present as his sculptures, his monochromatic paintings of his late work do not refer to any other artistic styles of modernity. Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland, in the canton Graubünden's southerly alpine valley Val Bregaglia near the Italian border, as the eldest of four children of Giovanni Giacometti, a well-known post-Impressionist painter, Annetta Giacometti-Stampa, he was a descendant of Protestant refugees escaping the inquisition. Coming from an artistic background, he was interested in art from an early age.
Alberto attended the Geneva School of Fine Arts. His brothers Diego and Bruno would go on to become architects as well. Additionally, Zaccaria Giacometti professor of constitutional law and chancellor of the University of Zurich, grew up together with them, having been orphaned at the age of 12 in 1905. In 1922, he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor an associate of Rodin, it was there that Giacometti experimented with Cubism and Surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading Surrealist sculptors. Among his associates were Miró, Max Ernst, Bror Hjorth, Balthus. Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the sitter's gaze, he preferred models he was close to -- the artist Isabel Rawsthorne. This was followed by a phase. Obsessed with creating his sculptures as he envisioned through his unique view of reality, he carved until they were as thin as nails and reduced to the size of a pack of cigarettes, much to his consternation. A friend of his once said that if Giacometti decided to sculpt you, "he would make your head look like the blade of a knife".
During WWII Giacometti took refuge in Switzerland. There in 1946 he met a secretary for the Red Cross. After his marriage his tiny sculptures became larger, but the larger they grew, the thinner they became. For the remainder of Giacometti's life, Annette was his main female model, his paintings underwent a parallel procedure. The figures appear isolated and attenuated, as the result of continuous reworking. Subjects were revisited: one of his favorite models was his younger brother Diego. In 1958 Giacometti was asked to create a monumental sculpture for the Chase Manhattan Bank building in New York, beginning construction. Although he had for many years "harbored an ambition to create work for a public square", he "had never set foot in New York, knew nothing about life in a evolving metropolis. Nor had he laid eyes on an actual skyscraper", according to his biographer James Lord. Giacometti's work on the project resulted in the four figures of standing women—his largest sculptures—entitled Grande femme debout I through IV.
The commission was never completed, because Giacometti was unsatisfied by the relationship between the sculpture and the site, abandoned the project. In 1962, Giacometti was awarded the grand prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennale, the award brought with it worldwide fame; when he had achieved popularity and his work was in demand, he still reworked models destroying them or setting them aside to be returned to years later. The prints produced by Giacometti are overlooked but the catalogue raisonné, Giacometti – The Complete Graphics and 15 Drawings by Herbert Lust, comments on their impact and gives details of the number of copies of each print; some of his most important images were in editions of only 30 and many were described as rare in 1970. In his years Giacometti's works were shown in a number of large exhibitions throughout Europe. Riding a wave of international popularity, despite his declining health, he traveled to the United States in 1965 for an exhibition of his works at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
As his last work he prepared the text for the book Paris sans fin, a sequence of 150 lithographs containing memories of all the places where he had l
André-Aimé-René Masson was a French artist. Masson was born in Balagny-sur-Thérain, but when he was eight his father's work took the family first to Lille and to Brussels, he began his study of art at the age of eleven at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, under the guidance of Constant Montald, he studied in Paris. He fought for France during World War I and was injured, his early works display an interest in cubism. He became associated with surrealism, he was one of the most enthusiastic employers of automatic drawing, making a number of automatic works in pen and ink. Masson experimented with altered states of consciousness with artists such as Antonin Artaud, Michel Leiris, Joan Miró, Georges Bataille, Jean Dubuffet and Georges Malkine, who were neighbors of his studio in Paris. From around 1926 he experimented by throwing sand and glue onto canvas and making oil paintings based around the shapes that formed. By the end of the 1920s, however, he was finding automatic drawing rather restricting, he left the surrealist movement and turned instead to a more structured style producing works with a violent or erotic theme, making a number of paintings in reaction to the Spanish Civil War.
Under the German occupation of France during World War II, his work was condemned by the Nazis as degenerate. With the assistance of Varian Fry in Marseille, Masson escaped the Nazi regime on a ship to the French island of Martinique from where he went on to the United States. Upon arrival in New York City customs officials inspecting Masson's luggage found a cache of his erotic drawings. Living in New Preston, Connecticut his work became an important influence on American abstract expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock. Following the war, he returned to France and settled in Aix-en-Provence where he painted a number of landscapes. Masson drew the cover of the first issue of Georges Bataille's review, Acéphale, in 1936, participated in all its issues until 1939, his brother-in-law, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, was the last private owner of Gustave Courbet's provocative painting L'Origine du monde. His son, Diego Masson, is a conductor and percussionist, while another son, Luis Masson, is an actor.
His daughter, Lily Masson, is a painter. Hélène Parant, Fabrice Flahutez, Camille Morando. La bibliothèque d'André Masson. Une archéologie. Paris: Artvenir, 2011. ISBN 2-9539406-0-X. André Masson. Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, 1919–1941. Vaumarcus: Éditions ArtAcatos, 2010. Catalog by Guite Masson, Martin Masson, Catherine Loewer, preface by Bernard Noël, "André Masson" de Dawn Adès, Biographie d'André Masson by Camille Morando. André Masson. Published on the intiative of Robert Desnos and Armand Salacrou in 1940; each copy initialed by André Masson. Text by Jean-Louis Barrault, Georges Bataille, André Breton, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Armel Guerne, Pierre Jean Jouve, Madeleine Landsberg, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Benjamin Péret. Reprinted 1993 by Éditions André Dimanche, in Marseille. Dawn Ades. André Masson. Collection Les grands maîtres de l’art contemporain. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel, 1994.. André Breton. Le Surréalisme et la Peinture. Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1965. Jean-Claude Clébert, Mythologie d'André Masson.
Genève: Éditions Pierre Cailler, 1971. Daniel Guérin. Eux et Lui. suivi de commentaires, ornés de cinq dessins originaux d’André Masson. Lille: 2000. Armel Guerne. André Masson ou. 2007. Hubert Juin. André Masson. Paris: Le musée de poche, 1963. Jean-Clarence Lambert. André Masson. Paris: Éditions Filipacchi, 1979. Françoise Levaillant. Massacre de signes. Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 1995. Georges Limbour et Michel Leiris André Masson et son univers. Lausanne: Les Trois collines, 1947. Georges Limbour André Masson, dessins. Collection "Plastique". Paris: Éditions Braun, 1951. André Masson. Entretiens avec Georges Charbonnier, préface de Georges Limbour. Paris: Julliard, 1958. Reprinted 1995 by éditions André Dimanche, Marseille. André Masson. La Mémoire du monde. Geneva: Skira, 1974. André Masson. Le Vagabond du surréalisme.. Paris: Éditions Saint-Germain-des-Près, 1975. André Masson. Le Rebelle du Surréalisme. Paris: Éditions Hermann, 1976.. Reprinted 1994. André Masson. Les Années surréalistes. Correspondance 1916–1942. Lyon: La Manufacture, 1990..
André Masson. "Dissonances". In An Anthology from X. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. "X magazine", Vol. I, No. III Florence de Mèredieu. André Masson, les dessins automatiques. Blusson, 1988. Stephan Moebius. Die Zauberlehrlinge. Soziologiegeschichte des Collège de Sociologie. Constance:, 2006. Bernard Noël. André Masson, la chair du regard. Collection l'art et l'écrivain. Paris: Gallimard, 1993. René Passeron. André Masson et les puissances de signe. Denoël 1975. José Pierre," L’Aventure Surréaliste autour d’André Breton ", Paris, éd. Filipacchi, 1986. Clark V. Poling. André Masson and the Surrealist Self. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008. Michel Surya. Georges Bataille, la mort à l'œuvre. Paris: Gallimard, 1992. Françoise Will-Levaillant. André Masson, période asiatique 1950–1959. Paris: Galerie de Seine, 1972. Buchholz and Klaus Wolbert. André Mass
Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac
The Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac in Paris, France, is a museum featuring the indigenous art and cultures of Africa, Asia and the Americas. The museum collection has 450,000 objects, of which 3,500 are on display at any given time, in both permanent and temporary thematic exhibits. A selection of objects from the museum is displayed in the Pavillon des Sessions of the Louvre; the Quai Branly Museum opened in 2006, is the newest of the major museums in Paris. It received 1.15 million visitors in 2016. It is jointly administered by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication and the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, serves as both a museum and a center for research; the Musée du quai Branly is located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, close to the Eiffel Tower and the Pont de l'Alma. The nearest Paris Métro and RER stations are Alma -- Pont de l'Alma. Following the tradition of French presidents building museums as monuments to their time in office, as exemplified by Presidents Georges Pompidou.
Still the first half of the 20th Century, a number of French intellectuals and scientists, including André Malraux, André Breton, Claude Lévi-Strauss, had called for a single and important museum in Paris dedicated to the arts and cultures of the indigenous people of the colonized territories, considered primitive peoples without own culture to the science of that time and the non-European art was considered exotic art, drawing upon the large collections gathered by French explorers, missionaries and ethnologists. A proposal for such a museum had been made by the ethnologist and art collector Jacques Kerchache in a 1990 manifesto in the newspaper Libération, called "The masterpieces of the entire world are born free and equal." The manifesto was signed by three hundred artists, philosophers and art historians. Kerchache brought the idea to the attention of Jacques Chirac Mayor of Paris, became his advisor. Chirac was elected president of France in 1995, in the following year announced the creation of a new museum combining the collections of two different museums: the 25,000 objects of the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie, created for the Colonial Exposition of 1931, remade in 1961 by André Malraux, the Minister of Culture under President Charles DeGaulle, into a museum dedicated to the cultures of the overseas possessions of France.
The collections of the laboratory of ethnology of Musée de l'Homme, created for the Paris Exposition of 1937 and contained 250,000 objects. The two museums and collections were different in their purposes and approaches; as a result of this division, the new museum was put under two different ministries. In addition to these existing collections, gathered by French explorers and ethnologists from around the world, the directors of the new museum acquired ten thousand objects; the first venture of the new museum was the opening of a new gallery within the Louvre Museum, in the Pavillon des Sessions, dedicated to what were called the arts premiers, the "first arts". The new section met immediate resistance; the issue was resolved by a decree by President Chirac and the government of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin on 29 July 1998, to construct an new museum at 29-55 quai Branly on the banks of the Seine not far from the Eiffel Tower in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. In December 1998, the museum was established, Stéphane Martin was named its president.
The site selected for the new museum, covering an area of 25,000 square meters, was occupied by a collection of buildings belonging to the Ministry of Reconstruction and Urbanism. President François Mitterrand had intended it for one of his grand projects, an international conference center, but that project had been abandoned because of intense opposition from the residents of the neighborhood. At the beginning of 1999 a jury was formed and an international competition was held to select an architect; the competition was won by French architect Jean Nouvel, whose other major works included the Institute of the Arab World, Fondation Cartier in Paris, the renovation of the Lyon Opera, the Palais de Justice in Nantes, the Parc Poble Nou in Barcelona. In his design for the new museum, Nouvel took into account the criticisms of the neighbors who had blocked the Mitterrand project; the new museum was designed to be as out of sight. The shape of the main building follows the curve of the Seine, the three administrative buildings are constructed to harmonize with the Haussmann-period buildings next to them.
In an attempt to create "an origina
The Algerian War known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, the use of torture; the conflict became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France. Started by members of the National Liberation Front on November 1, 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge, the conflict led to serious political crises in France, causing the fall of the Fourth French Republic replaced by the Fifth Republic with a strengthened Presidency; the brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France and discredited French prestige abroad. After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence, De Gaulle decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN.
These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords; the final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement and on 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against. The planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis; this included various assassination attempts on de Gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. Most of the former were carried out by the Organisation armée secrète, an underground organization formed from French military personnel supporting a French Algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in Algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence. Upon independence in 1962, 900,000 European-Algerians fled to France within a few months in fear of the FLN's revenge; the French government was unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France.
The majority of Algerian Muslims who had worked for the French were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between French and Algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them. However, the Harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the French army, were regarded as traitors and many were murdered by the FLN or by lynch-mobs after being abducted and tortured. About 90,000 managed to flee to France, some with help from their French officers acting against orders, as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the Algerian-French population. On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algeria in 1830. Directed by Marshall Bugeaud, who became the first Governor-General of Algeria, the conquest was violent, marked by a "scorched earth" policy designed to reduce the power of the native rulers, the Dey, including massacres, mass rapes, other atrocities. Between 500,000 and 1,000,000, from 3 million Algerians, were killed within the first three decades of the conquest.
French losses from 1830–51 were 3,336 killed in action and 92,329 dead in the hospital. In 1834, Algeria became a French military colony and was subsequently declared by the constitution of 1848 to be an integral part of France and divided into three departments: Alger and Constantine. Many French and other Europeans settled in Algeria. Under the Second Empire, the Code de l'indigénat was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14, 1865, it allowed Muslims to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters and was considered a kind of apostasy. Its first article stipulated: The indigenous Muslim is French, he may be admitted to serve in the navy. He may be called to civil employment in Algeria, he may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen. Prior to 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by 152 by Jewish Algerians; the 1865 decree was modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments.
In 1881, the Code de l'Indigénat made the discrimination official by creating specific penalties for indigènes and organizing the seizure or appropriation of their lands. After World War II, equality of rights was proclaimed by the Ordonnance of March 7, 1944, confirmed by the Loi Lamine Guèye of May 7, 1946, which granted French citizenship to all the subjects of France's territories and overseas departments, by the 1946 Constitution; the Law of September 20, 1947 granted French citizenship to all Algerian subjects, who were not required to renounce their Muslim personal status. Algeria was unique to France because, unlike all other overseas possessions acquired by France during the 19th century, only Algeria was considered and classified an integral part of France. Both Muslim and European Algerians took part in World War II. Algerian Muslims served as tirailleurs (such regiments were created as
Joan Miró i Ferrà was a Spanish painter and ceramicist born in Barcelona. A museum dedicated to his work, the Fundació Joan Miró, was established in his native city of Barcelona in 1975, another, the Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró, was established in his adoptive city of Palma de Mallorca in 1981. Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, a manifestation of Catalan pride. In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods as a way of supporting bourgeois society, declared an "assassination of painting" in favour of upsetting the visual elements of established painting. Born into a family of a goldsmith and a watchmaker, Miró grew up in the Barri Gòtic neighborhood of Barcelona; the Miró surname indicates Jewish roots. His father was Miquel Miró Adzerias and his mother was Dolors Ferrà, he began drawing classes at the age of seven at a private school at Carrer del Regomir 13, a medieval mansion.
To the dismay of his father, he enrolled at the fine art academy at La Llotja in 1907. He studied at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc and he had his first solo show in 1918 at the Galeries Dalmau, where his work was ridiculed and defaced. Inspired by Fauve and Cubist exhibitions in Barcelona and abroad, Miró was drawn towards the arts community, gathering in Montparnasse and in 1920 moved to Paris, but continued to spend his summers in Catalonia. Miró went to business school as well as art school, he began his working career as a clerk when he was a teenager, although he abandoned the business world for art after suffering a nervous breakdown. His early art, like that of the influenced Fauves and Cubists, was inspired by Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cézanne; the resemblance of Miró's work to that of the intermediate generation of the avant-garde has led scholars to dub this period his Catalan Fauvist period. A few years after Miró's 1918 Barcelona solo exhibition, he settled in Paris where he finished a number of paintings that he had begun on his parents’ summer home and farm in Mont-roig del Camp.
One such painting, The Farm, showed a transition to a more individual style of painting and certain nationalistic qualities. Ernest Hemingway, who purchased the piece, compared the artistic accomplishment to James Joyce's Ulysses and described it by saying, "It has in it all that you feel about Spain when you are there and all that you feel when you are away and cannot go there. No one else has been able to paint these two opposing things." Miró annually returned to Mont-roig and developed a symbolism and nationalism that would stick with him throughout his career. Two of Miró's first works classified as Surrealist, Catalan Landscape and The Tilled Field, employ the symbolic language, to dominate the art of the next decade. Josep Dalmau arranged Miró's first Parisian solo exhibition, at Galerie la Licorne in 1921. In 1924, Miró joined the Surrealist group; the symbolic and poetic nature of Miró's work, as well as the dualities and contradictions inherent to it, fit well within the context of dream-like automatism espoused by the group.
Much of Miró's work lost the cluttered chaotic lack of focus that had defined his work thus far, he experimented with collage and the process of painting within his work so as to reject the framing that traditional painting provided. This antagonistic attitude towards painting manifested itself when Miró referred to his work in 1924 ambiguously as "x" in a letter to poet friend Michel Leiris; the paintings that came out of this period were dubbed Miró's dream paintings. Miró did not abandon subject matter, though. Despite the Surrealist automatic techniques that he employed extensively in the 1920s, sketches show that his work was the result of a methodical process. Miró's work dipped into non-objectivity, maintaining a symbolic, schematic language; this was most prominent in the repeated Head of a Catalan Peasant series of 1924 to 1925. In 1926, he collaborated with Max Ernst on designs for ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev. With Miró's help, Ernst pioneered the technique of grattage, in which one trowels pigment onto a canvas scrapes it away.
Miró returned to a more representational form of painting with The Dutch Interiors of 1928. Crafted after works by Hendrik Martenszoon Sorgh and Jan Steen seen as postcard reproductions, the paintings reveal the influence of a trip to Holland taken by the artist; these paintings share more in common with Tilled Field or Harlequin's Carnival than with the minimalistic dream paintings produced a few years earlier. Miró married Pilar Juncosa in Palma on 12 October 1929, their daughter, María Dolores Miró, was born on 17 July 1930. In 1931, Pierre Matisse opened an art gallery in New York City; the Pierre Matisse Gallery became an influential part of the Modern art movement in America. From the outset Matisse represented Joan Miró and introduced his work to the United States market by exhibiting Miró's work in New York; until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Miró habitually returned to Spain in the summers. Once the war began, he was unable to return home. Unlike many of his surrealist contemporaries, Miró had preferred to stay away from explicitly political commentary in his work.
Though a sense of nationalism pervaded his earliest surreal landscapes and Head of a Catalan Peasant, it was not until Spain's Republican government commissioned him to paint the mural, The Reaper, for the Spanis
Antoine Caron was a French master glassmaker, Northern Mannerist painter and a product of the School of Fontainebleau. He is one of the few French painters of his time, his work reflects the refined, although unstable, atmosphere at the court of the House of Valois during the French Wars of Religion of 1560 to 1598. Caron was born in Beauvais, he began painting in his teens doing frescos for a number of churches. Between 1540 and 1550 he worked under Primaticcio and Niccolò dell'Abbate at the School of Fontainebleau. In 1561, he was appointed the court painter by Catherine de' Henry II of France; as court painter he had the duties of organizing the court pageants. In this way he was involved in organizing the ceremony and royal entry for the coronation of Charles IX in Paris and the wedding of Henry IV of France with Marguerite de Valois; some of his surviving illustrations are from these pageants. His drawings of festivities at the court of Charles IX are sources for the depiction of the court in the Valois Tapestries.
He died in Paris in 1599. Not many of Caron's works survive, but they include historical and allegorical subjects, court ceremonies, astrological scenes, his massacres, done in the mid-1560s. An example is his only signed and dated painting, Massacres under the Triumvirate which hangs in the Louvre. Caron incorporated unusual architectural forms, he placed his human figures insignificantly on grand stages, as did his mentor dell'Abbate. His figures tend to be elongated in portraits such as Portrait of a Lady. Many works attributed to him are attributed to others; as there is minimal documentation of French painting in that era, this is not unusual. Because Caron is well known, his name is to be attached to paintings similar to his known works. In some cases, such painting are now ascribed "to the workshop of Antoine Caron", for example, The Submission of Milan to Francis I in 1515. Massacres of the Triumvirate, 1566, oil on linen canvas, 116 × 195 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris La Sibylle de Tibur, 1575/1580, oil on canvas, 170 × 125 cm, Paris and Melchisedek, c.
1590, wood, 80 × 94 cm. private collection, Paris Astronomers Watching an Eclipse or Dionysius the Areopagite Converting the Pagan Philosophers, 1570s, oil on canvas, 93 × 73 cm. in the collection of Anthony Blunt, now at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles Portrait of a Lady, 1577, Tempera on panel, Alte Pinakothek, München Le train de deuil Amors, Paris Bagathan and Tharès Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in the Münchner Haus der Kulturinstitute, Munich The Elephant Carousel, 1598, oil on wood, 87 × 130 cm. private collection, Paris The Arrest and Supplication of Sir Thomas More oil on wood, Musee de Blois, Blois Apotheose of Semele, c. 1585, oil on wood, 65 × 76 cm. private collection, Paris The Triumph of Winter, c. 1568, oil on canvas, 103 × 179 cm, private collection Diane Chasseresse, 1550, oil on Louvre, The Submission of Milan to Francis I in 1515, c. 1570, oil on wood, 50.5 × 66.8 cm, National Gallery of Canada, Ontario Ehrmann, Jean Antoine Caron: peintre à la cour des Valois, 1521-1599 Droz, Geneva, OCLC 30014514 Ehrmann, Jean Antoine Caron: peintre des fêtes et des massacres Flammarion, Paris, ISBN 2-08-010992-8 Chilvers, Ian "Caron, Antoine" The Oxford Dictionary of Art Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-860476-9 Hueber, Frédéric La vie et l'oeuvre d'Antoine Caron, University of Geneva, Geneva, 3 vol.
"Artist Biographies: Antoine Caron" Barewalls.com