Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Hedda Gabler is a play written by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Ibsen was present at the premiere, which took place on 31 January 1891 at the Residenztheater in Munich. It is recognized as a classic of realism, nineteenth century theatre, the title character, Hedda, is considered one of the great dramatic roles in theatre. Heddas married name is Hedda Tesman, Gabler is her maiden name, on the subject of the title, Ibsen wrote, My intention in giving it this name was to indicate that Hedda as a personality is to be regarded rather as her fathers daughter than her husbands wife. Hedda Tesman née Gabler — The main character, newly married and bored with both her marriage and life, seeking to influence a human fate for the first time and she is the daughter of General Gabler. George Tesman — Heddas husband, an academic who is as interested in research, despite Georges presumed rivalry with Eilert over Hedda, he remains a congenial and compassionate host, and even plans to return Eilerts manuscript after Eilert loses it in a drunken stupor.
Juliana Tesman — Georges loving aunt who has raised him since early childhood and she is called Aunt Julle in the play, and Aunt Ju-Ju by George. Thea Elvsted — A younger schoolmate of Hedda and an acquaintance of George. Nervous and shy, Thea is in an unhappy marriage, Judge Brack — An unscrupulous family friend. Eilert Lövborg — Georges former colleague, who now competes with George to achieve publication, Eilert was once in love with Hedda. Bertha — A servant of the Tesmans, the daughter of an aristocratic and enigmatic general, has just returned to her villa in Kristiania from her honeymoon. Her husband is George Tesman, a young, and it becomes clear in the course of the play that she has never loved him but married him because she thinks her years of youthful abandon are over. It is suggested that she may be pregnant, the reappearance of Georges academic rival, Eilert Løvborg, throws their lives into disarray. Eilert, a writer, is an alcoholic who has wasted his talent until now. Thanks to a relationship with Heddas old schoolmate, Thea Elvsted, when Hedda and Eilert talk privately together, it becomes apparent that they are former lovers.
The critical success of his published work makes Eilert a threat to George. George and Hedda are financially overstretched, and George tells Hedda that he not be able to finance the regular entertaining or luxurious housekeeping that she had been expecting. Apparently jealous of Theas influence over Eilert, Hedda hopes to come between them, despite his drinking problem, she encourages Eilert to accompany George and his associate, Judge Brack, to a party
Jean Renoir was a French film director, actor and author. As a film director and actor, he more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films La Grande Illusion and The Rules of the Game are often cited by critics as among the greatest films ever made and he was ranked by the BFIs Sight & Sound poll of critics in 2002 as the fourth greatest director of all time. Among numerous honors accrued during his lifetime, he received a Lifetime Achievement Academy Award in 1975 for his contribution to the picture industry. Renoir was the son of the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Renoir was born in the Montmartre district of Paris, France. He was the son of Aline Renoir and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. His elder brother was Pierre Renoir, a French stage and film actor, Renoir was the uncle of Claude Renoir, the son of Pierre, a cinematographer who worked with Jean Renoir on several of his films. Renoir was largely raised by Gabrielle Renard, his nanny and his mothers cousin, shortly before his birth, she had come to live with the Renoir family.
She introduced the boy to the Guignol puppet shows in Montmartre. He wrote in his 1974 memoirs My Life and My Films, She taught me to see the face behind the mask and she taught me to detest the cliché. Gabrielle was fascinated by the new invention, and when Renoir was only a few years old she took him to see his first film. As a child, Renoir moved to the south of France with his family and he and the rest of the Renoir family were the subjects of many of his fathers paintings. His fathers financial success ensured that the young Renoir was educated at boarding schools, from which, as he wrote. At the outbreak of World War I, Renoir was serving in the French cavalry, after receiving a bullet in his leg, he served as a reconnaissance pilot. After the war, Renoir followed his fathers suggestion and tried his hand at making ceramics and he was particularly inspired by Erich von Stroheims work. In 1924, Renoir directed Une Vie Sans Joie or Catherine and she was his fathers last model. At this stage, his films did not produce a return, Renoir gradually sold paintings inherited from his father to finance them.
During the 1930s Renoir enjoyed great success as a filmmaker, in 1931 he directed his first sound films, On purge bébé and La Chienne
Montreuil is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.6 km from the center of Paris and it is the fourth most populous suburb of Paris. Montreuil is located near the Bois de Vincennes park, the name Montreuil was recorded for the first time in a royal edict of 722 as Monasteriolum, meaning little monastery in Medieval Latin. The settlement of Montreuil started as a group of houses built around a small monastery, under the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XVI the Peach Walls which provided the royal court with the fruits were located in Montreuil. It was home to the Lumière brothers and George Méliès whose workshops were located in lower Montreuil. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes, on that occasion, the commune of Charonne was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris and Bagnolet. Montreuil received a part of the territory of Charonne. Today Montreuil is divided into districts, Le bas Montreuil (which joins together the old workshops.
Decorations in the state school Voltaire by Maurice Boitel, montreuils inhabitants often exaggeratedly nickname the town the second Malian town after Bamako, or sometimes Mali-sous-Bois or Bamako-sur-Seine even if the Seine doesnt cross the town. 10% of the population is Malian or has Malian origins, the city is divided into two cantons, canton of Montreuil-1 and canton of Montreuil-2. Video game company Ubisoft has its head office in Montreuil. The Air France Paris office is in Montreuil, the communes educational services are operated out of the Opale B Administrative Building. Montreuil has eight collèges, three lycées, two techniques, and the IUT of the University of Paris 8. Robert-Desnos, in a park near the town hall, is the largest library in the commune. It houses a disco and Internet access points, daniel-Renoult, near Montreau Park, serves the Montreau-Ruffins Théophile Sueur community. Colonel-Fabien, in the Ramenas-Fabien-Léo Lagrange community, is near the Intercommunal Hospital, paul-Eluard is near the La Grande Porte shopping centre and is within 50 metres of the Robespierre Paris Métro station and Rue de Paris.
Montreuil is twinned with, Bistriţa in Romania Cottbus in Germany Hornec gang Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer Birthplace of this sculptor Pierre de Montreuil INSEE Official website
Port of Shadows
Port of Shadows is a 1938 French film directed by Marcel Carné. It stars Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan, the screenplay was written by Jacques Prévert based on a novel by Pierre Mac Orlan. The music score was by Maurice Jaubert and it is a notable example of the poetic realism genre. The film was the 1939 winner of Frances top cinematic prize, a scene from the film is seen projected in the 2007 Academy Award-winning dramatization of Ian McEwans wartime tragic drama Atonement. According to Charles OBrien, the film would be one of the first to be called film noir by critics, on a foggy night, Jean, an army deserter, catches a ride to the port city of Le Havre. Hoping to start over, Jean finds himself in a bar at the far edge of town. But, while getting a meal and civilian clothes, Jean meets Nelly. Jean resents the intrusions of Lucien and twice humiliates him by slapping him, when Nelly finds out that her godfather killed Maurice out of jealousy, she uses the information to blackmail him and prevent him from telling the police that Jean is a deserter.
Though the two are in love, Jean plans to leave on a ship for Venezuela, Luc Sante writes that Port of Shadows possesses nearly all the qualities that were once synonymous with the idea of French cinema. As a steady diet, of course, it would give us the willies, at the time of its release, the film was widely criticized for being too negative about the State and moral character of the French. 55 years after its premiere, Luc Sante, writing about the film for its DVD release by Criterion Collection, director Carl Dreyer included the film in his list of top ten films. On the balance, it looks extremely good for a film of this vintage. Steffen noted the sound is clear and without too much distortion. The characters use lots of colorful slang whose flavor is difficult to translate into English, Port of Shadows at the Internet Movie Database Port of Shadows at AllMovie Port of Shadows at the TCM Movie Database Le Quai des brumes/Port of Shadows at filmsdefrance. com
La Chienne is a 1931 French film by director Jean Renoir. It is the sound film by the director and the twelfth film of his career. The literal English translation of the title is The Bitch. It is often referred to in English as Isnt Life a Bitch, the film was remade by Fritz Lang in the United States as Scarlet Street. La Chienne was released by The Criterion Collection on both Blu-ray and DVD, newly restored in 4K, on June 14,2016, Maurice is a married cashier who meets Lulu, a streetwalker. Their chance meeting results in Maurice falling in love with Lulu and she, however, is in love with her boyfriend-pimp, Dédé. Together, Dédé and Lulu plot ways to get Maurice to give cash to Lulu and producer Pierre Braunberger had encouraged the relationship between Flamant and Marèse in order to get the fullest conviction into their performances. After the film had been completed Flamant, who could drive, took Marèse for a drive, crashed the car. At the funeral Michel Simon fainted and had to be supported as he walked past the grave and he threatened Renoir with a gun, saying that the death of Marèse was all his fault.
Kill me if you like, responded Renoir, but I have made the film. On October 23,2003, La Chienne was released on DVD in France by Opening Distribution, along with Renoirs On purge bébé, Tire-au-flanc, and Catherine, as part of a box set. The film was released together with Renoirs Partie de campagne by M6 Vidéo on both Blu-ray and DVD in France on November 10,2015. La Chienne was released in North America on LaserDisc in 1989 by Image Entertainment as part of the CinemaDisc Collection, the film was released on VHS by Kino International on February 5,2002, which includes Partie de campagne as an extra. On June 14,2016, American video-distribution company The Criterion Collection released La Chienne, newly restored through a 4K digital transfer, on Blu-ray, the new Blu-ray and DVD cover as well as interior poster was illustrated by Blutch. La Chienne at the Internet Movie Database La Chienne at AllMovie La Chienne at Rotten Tomatoes
Luigi Pirandello was an Italian dramatist, novelist and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays. He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature for his almost magical power to turn psychological analysis into good theatre, Pirandellos works include novels, hundreds of short stories, and about 40 plays, some of which are written in Sicilian. Pirandellos tragic farces are often seen as forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd, Pirandello was born into an upper-class family in a village with the curious name of u Càvusu, a poor suburb of Girgenti. Both families, the Pirandellos and the Ricci Gramittos, were ferociously anti-Bourbon and actively participated in the struggle for unification, Pirandello would eventually assimilate this sense of betrayal and resentment and express it in several of his poems and in his novel The Old and the Young. It is probable that this climate of disillusion inculcated in the young Luigi the sense of disproportion between ideals and reality which is recognizable in his essay on humorism, by the age of twelve he had already written his first tragedy.
At the insistence of his father, he was registered at a school but eventually switched to the study of the humanities at the ginnasio. In 1880, the Pirandello family moved to Palermo and it was here, in the capital of Sicily, that Luigi completed his high school education. He began reading omnivorously, above all, on 19th-century Italian poets such as Giosuè Carducci and he started writing his first poems and fell in love with his cousin Lina. During this period the first signs of serious contrast between Luigi and his father began to develop, Luigi had discovered some notes revealing the existence of Stefanos extramarital relations. This expressed itself, after her death, in the pages of the novella Colloqui con i personaggi in 1915. His romantic feelings for his cousin, initially looked upon with disfavour, were taken very seriously by Linas family. They demanded that Luigi abandon his studies and dedicate himself to the business so that he could immediately marry her. In 1886, during a vacation from school, Luigi went to visit the mines of Porto Empedocle.
The marriage, which seemed imminent, was postponed, Pirandello registered at the University of Palermo in the departments of Law and of Letters. The campus at Palermo, and above all the Department of Law, was the centre in those years of the vast movement which would evolve into the Fasci Siciliani. In 1887, having chosen the Department of Letters, he moved to Rome in order to continue his studies. When I arrived in Rome it was raining hard, it was time and I felt like my heart was being crushed. The desperate laugh, the manifestation of revenge for the disappointment undergone, inspired the bitter verses of his first collection of poems
Montmartre is a large hill in Pariss 18th arrondissement. It is 130 m high and gives its name to the surrounding district, Montmartre is primarily known for the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur on its summit and as a nightclub district. The other, church on the hill is Saint Pierre de Montmartre, Montmartre is the setting for several hit films. This site is served by metro, with line 2 stations at Anvers and Blanche and line 12 stations at Pigalle, Lamarck - Caulaincourt, texts from the 8th century cite the name of mons Mercori, and a 9th-century text speaks of Mount Mars. Excavations in 1975 north of the Church of Saint-Pierre found coins from the 3rd century, earlier excavations in the 17th century at the Fontaine-du-But found vestiges of Roman baths from the 2nd century. According to Hilduin, Denis collected his head and carried it as far as the fontaine Saint-Denis, descended the slope of the hill. Hilduin wrote that a church had built in the place formerly called Mont de Mars. In 1134, king Louis VI purchased the Merovingian chapel and built on the site the church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre and he founded The Royal Abbey of Montmartre, a monastery of the Benedictine order, whose buildings and fields occupied most of Montmartre.
He built a chapel, called the Martyrium, at the site where it was believed that Saint Denis had been decapitated. It became a pilgrimage site. In the 17th century, a priory called abbaye den bas was built at that site, the abbey was destroyed in 1790 during the French Revolution, and the convent demolished to make place for gypsum mines. The church of Saint-Pierre was saved, at the place where the chapel of the Martyrs was located, an oratory was built in 1855. By the 15th century, the north and northeast slopes of the hill were the site of a surrounded by vineyards and orchards of peach. The first mills were built on the slope in 1529, grinding wheat, barley. The siege eventually failed when a relief force approached and forced Henry to withdraw. In 1790, Montmartre was located just outside the limits of Paris and that year, under the revolutionary government of the National Constituent Assembly, it became the commune of Montmartre, with its town hall located on place du Tertre, site of the former abbey.
The main businesses of the commune were wine making, stone quarries, the mining of gypsum had begun in the Gallo-Roman period, first in open air mines and underground, and continued until 1860. The gypsum was cut into blocks, ground, sold as montmartarite, it was used for plaster, because of its resistance to fire and water
George Bernard Shaw
He wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman and Saint Joan. With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, born in Dublin, Shaw moved to London in 1873, where he established himself as a writer and novelist. By the mid-1880s he was a theatre and music critic. Following a political awakening, he joined the gradualist Fabian Society, Shaw had been writing plays for years before his first public success, 1894s Arms and the Man. Influenced by Henrik Ibsen, he sought to introduce a new realism into English-language drama, using his plays as vehicles to disseminate his political and religious ideas. By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included Major Barbara, The Doctors Dilemma and Caesar, Shaws expressed views were often contentious, he promoted eugenics and alphabet reform while opposing vaccination and organised religion.
He courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World War as equally culpable and he castigated British policy on Ireland in the postwar period, and became a citizen of the Irish Free State in 1934, maintaining dual citizenship. He was prolific, finishing during the years a series of often ambitious plays which achieved varying degrees of popular success. Since Shaws death, opinion has varied about his works and he has at times been rated as second only to William Shakespeare among English-language dramatists, analysts recognise his extensive influence on generations of playwrights. The word Shavian has entered the language as encapsulating Shaws ideas, Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in Portobello, a lower-middle-class part of Dublin. He was the youngest child and only son of George Carr Shaw and his elder siblings were Lucinda Frances and Elinor Agnes. The Shaw family was of English descent and belonged to the dominant Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland, George Carr Shaw and his relatives secured him a sinecure in the civil service, from which he was pensioned off in the early 1850s, thereafter he worked irregularly as a corn merchant.
In 1852 he married Bessie Gurly, in the view of Shaws biographer Michael Holroyd she married to escape a tyrannical great-aunt, if, as Holroyd and others surmise, Georges motives were mercenary, he was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her familys money. She came to despise her ineffectual and often drunken husband, with whom she shared what their son described as a life of shabby-genteel poverty. By the time of Shaws birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, Shaw retained a lifelong obsession that Lee might have been his biological father, there is no consensus among Shavian scholars on the likelihood of this. The young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he recalled that her indifference. He found solace in the music that abounded in the house, Lee was a conductor and teacher of singing, Bessie had a fine mezzo-soprano voice and was much influenced by Lees unorthodox method of vocal production. The Shaws house was filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players
Magic is one of the oldest performing arts in the world in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats using natural means. These feats are called magic tricks, effects, or illusions, the term magic etymologically derives from the Greek word mageia. In ancient times and Persians had been at war for centuries, ritual acts of Persian priests came to be known as mageia, and magika—which eventually came to mean any foreign, unorthodox, or illegitimate ritual practice. The first book containing explanations of magic tricks appeared in 1584, during the 17th century, many similar books were published that described magic tricks. Until the 18th century, magic shows were a source of entertainment at fairs. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, John Henry Anderson was pioneering the same transition in London in the 1840s. Towards the end of the 19th century, large magic shows permanently staged at big theatre venues became the norm, as a form of entertainment, magic easily moved from theatrical venues to television magic specials.
Performances that modern observers would recognize as conjuring have been practiced throughout history, for many recorded centuries, magicians were associated with the devil and the occult. During the 19th and 20th centuries, many stage magicians even capitalized on this notion in their advertisements. The same level of ingenuity that was used to produce famous ancient deceptions such as the Trojan Horse would have used for entertainment. They were used by the practitioners of various religions and cults from ancient times onwards to frighten uneducated people into obedience or turn them into adherents, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in the 18th century, and has enjoyed several popular vogues since. Opinions vary among magicians on how to categorize a given effect, Magicians may pull a rabbit from an empty hat, make something seem to disappear, or transform a red silk handkerchief into a green silk handkerchief. Magicians may destroy something, like cutting a head off, other illusions include making something appear to defy gravity, making a solid object appear to pass through another object, or appearing to predict the choice of a spectator.
Many magical routines use combinations of effects, one of the earliest books on the subject is Gantzionys work of 1489, Natural and Unnatural Magic, which describes and explains old-time tricks. Among the tricks discussed were sleight-of-hand manipulations with rope, paper, at the time and belief in witchcraft was widespread and the book tried to demonstrate that these fears were misplaced. All obtainable copies were burned on the accession of James I in 1603 and it began to reappear in print in 1651. In the early 18th century, as belief in witchcraft was waning, a notable figure in this transition was the English showman, Isaac Fawkes, who began to promote his act in advertisements from the 1720s – he even claimed to have performed for King George II. He throws up a Pack of Cards, and causes them to be living birds flying about the room and he causes living Beasts and other Creatures to appear upon the Table