English National Opera
English National Opera is an opera company based in London, resident at the London Coliseum in St Martin's Lane. It is one of the two principal opera companies in London, along with Covent Garden. ENO's productions are sung in English; the company's origins were in the late 19th century, when the philanthropist Emma Cons assisted by her niece Lilian Baylis, presented theatrical and operatic performances at the Old Vic, for the benefit of local people. Baylis subsequently built up both the opera and the theatre companies, added a ballet company. Baylis acquired and rebuilt the Sadler's Wells theatre in north London, a larger house, better suited to opera than the Old Vic; the opera company grew there into a permanent ensemble in the 1930s. During the Second World War, the theatre was closed and the company toured British towns and cities. After the war, the company returned to its home. By the 1960s, a larger theatre was needed. In 1968, the company moved to the London Coliseum and adopted its present name in 1974.
Among the conductors associated with the company have been Colin Davis, Reginald Goodall, Charles Mackerras, Mark Elder and Edward Gardner. The current music director of ENO is Martyn Brabbins. Noted directors who have staged productions at ENO have included David Pountney, Jonathan Miller, Nicholas Hytner, Phyllida Lloyd and Calixto Bieito. ENO's current artistic director is Daniel Kramer. In addition to the core operatic repertoire, the company has presented a wide range of works, from early operas by Monteverdi to new commissions and Broadway shows. In 1889, Emma Cons, a Victorian philanthropist who ran the Old Vic theatre in a working-class area of London, began presenting regular fortnightly performances of opera excerpts. Although the theatre licensing laws of the day prevented full costumed performances, Cons presented condensed versions of well-known operas, always sung in English. Among the performers were noted singers such as Charles Santley; these operatic evenings became more popular than the dramas that Cons had been staging separately.
In 1898, she recruited her niece Lilian Baylis to help run the theatre. At the same time she appointed Charles Corri as the Old Vic's musical director. Baylis and Corri, despite many disagreements, shared a passionate belief in popularising opera, hitherto the preserve of the rich and fashionable, they worked on a tiny budget, with an amateur chorus and a professional orchestra of only 18 players, for whom Corri rescored the instrumental parts of the operas. By the early years of the 20th century, the Old Vic was able to present semi-staged versions of Wagner operas. Emma Cons died in 1912, leaving her estate, including the Old Vic, to Baylis, who dreamed of transforming the theatre into a "people's opera house". In the same year, Baylis obtained a licence to allow the Old Vic to stage full performances of operas. In the 1914 -- 1915 season, Baylis staged 16 plays. In the years after the First World War, Baylis's Shakespeare productions, which featured some of the leading actors from London's West End, attracted national attention, as her shoe-string opera productions did not.
The opera, remained her first priority. The actor-manager Robert Atkins, who worked with Baylis on her Shakespearean productions, recalled, "Opera, on Thursday and Saturday nights, played to bulging houses." By the 1920s, Baylis concluded that the Old Vic no longer sufficed to house both her theatre and her opera companies. She noticed the empty and derelict Sadler's Wells theatre in Rosebery Avenue, Islington, on the other side of London from the Old Vic, she sought to run it in tandem with her existing theatre. Baylis made a public appeal for funds in 1925. With the help of the Carnegie Trust and many others, she acquired the freehold of Sadler's Wells. Work started on the site in 1926. By Christmas 1930, a new 1,640-seat theatre was ready for occupation; the first production there, a fortnight's run from 6 January 1931, was Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. The first opera, given on 20 January, was Carmen. Eighteen operas were staged during the first season; the new theatre was more expensive to run than the Old Vic, as a larger orchestra and more singers were needed, box office receipts were at first inadequate.
In 1932, the Birmingham Post commented that the Vic-Wells opera performances did not reach the standards of the Vic-Wells Shakespeare productions. Baylis strove to improve operatic standards, while at the same time fending off attempts by Sir Thomas Beecham to absorb the opera company into a joint enterprise with Covent Garden, where he was in command. At first, the apparent financial security of the offer appeared attractive, but friends and advisers such as Edward J. Dent and Clive Carey convinced Bayliss that it was not in the interests of her regular audience; this view received strong support from the press. Any kind of amalgamation which made it the poor relation of the'Grand' season would be disastrous. At first, Baylis presented both opera at each of her theatres; the companies were known as the "Vic-Wells". However, for both aesthetic and financial reasons, by 1934, the Old Vic had become the home of the spoken drama, while Sadler's Wells housed both the opera and a ballet company, the latter co-founded by Baylis and Ninette de Valois in 1930.
Lawrance Collingwood joined the company as resident conductor alongside Corri. With the increased number of productions, guest conductors
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, masque, cantata or musical. The term libretto is sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro. Sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot; some ballet historians use the word libretto to refer to the 15–40 page books which were on sale to 19th century ballet audiences in Paris and contained a detailed description of the ballet's story, scene by scene. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a musical work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources and the writing techniques employed.
In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, the libretto is referred to as the book of the work, though this usage excludes sung lyrics. Libretti for operas and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries were written by someone other than the composer a well-known poet. Pietro Trapassi, known asMetastasio was one of the most regarded librettists in Europe, his libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted, he who wrote the libretti for three of Mozart's greatest operas, for many other composers as well. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi; the French writers' duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a large number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet and Georges Bizet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli composed two operas of his own; the libretto is not always written before the music.
Some composers, such as Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Serov, Rimsky-Korsakov and Mascagni wrote passages of music without text and subsequently had the librettist add words to the vocal melody lines. Some composers wrote their own libretti. Richard Wagner is most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, wrote the libretti for two of his best-known works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchner's play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck. Sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics and the "book" may each have their own author. Thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the "book". In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements – music and libretto, as Lionel Bart did for Oliver!. Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen.
There are the preliminary steps of selecting or suggesting a subject and developing a sketch of the action in the form of a scenario, as well as revisions that might come about when the work is in production, as with out-of-town tryouts for Broadway musicals, or changes made for a specific local audience. A famous case of the latter is Wagner's 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris; the opera libretto from its inception was written in verse, this continued well into the 19th century, although genres of musical theatre with spoken dialogue have alternated verse in the musical numbers with spoken prose. Since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. Much of the recitatives of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, for instance, are DuBose and Dorothy Heyward's play Porgy set to music as written – in prose – with the lyrics of the arias, duets and choruses written in verse; the libretto of a musical, on the other hand, is always written in prose.
The libretto of a musical, if the musical is adapted from a play, may borrow their source's original dialogue liberally – much as Oklahoma! used dialogue from Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, Carousel used dialogue from Ferenc Molnár's Liliom, My Fair Lady took most of its dialogue word-for-word from George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, Man of La Mancha was adapted from the 1959 television play I, Don Quixote, which supplied most of the dialogue, the 1954 musical version of Peter Pan used J. M. Barrie's dialogue; the musical Show Boat, different from the Edna Ferber novel from which it was adapted, uses some of Ferber's original dialogue, notably during the miscegenation scene. And Lionel Bart's Oliver! Uses chunks of dialogue from Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist, although it bills itself
The Holland Festival is the oldest and largest performing arts festival in the Netherlands. It takes place every June in Amsterdam, it comprises theatre, music and modern dance. In recent years, visual arts and architecture were added to the festival roster. Performances take place in Amsterdam venues such as the city theatre, the opera, the Concertgebouw and Muziekgebouw concert halls and the Westergas factory site; each edition is loosely themed, the programme features both contemporary work and classical pieces presented with a modern edge. From 2005 to 2014 the Holland Festival was curated by artistic director Pierre Audi, working with artistic coordinator Lieven Bertels delivering a cutting-edge festival each edition; the festival was founded in 1947 and features some of the world's top artists and performers, as well as lesser-known performers. Notable world premieres included Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet; the festival introduced Maria Callas in the Netherlands, was the first to set up a large symphonic tribute to Frank Zappa with "200 motels-the suite" in 2000.
From 2005, the festival included off-series called EyeFuel and MindFuel. Outreach initiatives to new audiences include successful non-western concerts such as an Umm Kalsoum tribute by Egyptian star Amal Maher in 2010; the festival continues to serve as a beacon for other arts organisations, is visited by a record number of international programmers and artists, seeking inspiration. Pierre Audi left as Artistic Director of the Holland Festival in July 2014, continuing to focus on his role as Artistic Director of the Dutch National Opera and his work as a stage director. In June 2013, British arts manager Ruth Mackenzie, former head of the 2012 London Cultural Olympiad, was appointed as the new Holland Festival Artistic Director from edition 2015. Noël Goodwin. "Holland Festival". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Official website Holland Festival at Google Cultural Institute
The Barbican Centre is a performing arts centre in the Barbican Estate of the City of London and the largest of its kind in Europe. The Centre hosts classical and contemporary music concerts, theatre performances, film screenings and art exhibitions, it houses a library, three restaurants, a conservatory. The Barbican Centre is member of the Global Cultural Districts Network; the London Symphony Orchestra and the BBC Symphony Orchestra are based in the Centre's Concert Hall. In 2013, it once again became the London-based venue of the Royal Shakespeare Company following the company's departure in 2001; the Barbican Centre is owned and managed by the City of London Corporation, the third-largest arts funder in the United Kingdom. It was built as The City's gift to the nation at a cost of £161 million and was opened to the public by Queen Elizabeth II on 3 March 1982; the Barbican Centre is known for its brutalist architecture. Barbican Hall: capacity 1,943. Barbican Theatre: capacity 1,156, it is one of the largest public libraries in London and has a separate arts library, a large music library and a children's library which conducts free events.
The Barbican Library houses the'London Collection' of historical books and resources, some of which date back 300 years, all being available on loan. The library has an art exhibition space for hire; the music library has two free practice pianos for public use. The Barbican Centre had a long development period, only opening long after the surrounding Barbican Estate housing complex had been built, it is situated in an area, badly bombed during World War II. The Barbican Centre, designed by Peter Chamberlin, Geoffry Powell and Christoph Bon of Chamberlin and Bon in the Brutalist style, has a complex multi-level layout with numerous entrances. Lines painted on the ground help would-be audience members avoid getting lost on the walkways of the Barbican Housing Estate on the way to the centre; the Barbican Centre's design – a concrete ziggurat – has always been controversial and divides opinion. It was voted "London's ugliest building" in a Grey London poll in September 2003. In September 2001, arts minister Tessa Blackstone announced that the Barbican Centre complex was to be a Grade II listed building.
It has been designated a site of special architectural interest for its scale, its cohesion and the ambition of the project. The same architectural practice designed the Barbican Housing Estate and the nearby Golden Lane Estate. Project architect John Honer worked on the British Library at St Pancras – a red brick ziggurat. In the mid-1990s, a cosmetic improvement scheme by Theo Crosby, of the Pentagram design studio, added statues and decorative features reminiscent of the Arts and Crafts movement. In 2005–2006, the centre underwent a more significant refurbishment, designed by architects Allford Hall Monaghan Morris and Roger Westman, which improved circulation and introduced bold signage in a style in keeping with the centre's original 1970s Brutalist architecture; that improvement scheme added an internal bridge linking the Silk Street foyer area with the lakeside foyer area. The centre's Silk Street entrance dominated by an access for vehicles, was modified to give better pedestrian access.
The scheme included removing most of the mid-1990s embellishments. Outside, the main focal point of the centre is its neighbouring terrace; the theatre's fly tower has been made into a high-level conservatory. The Barbican Hall's acoustic has been controversial: some praised it as attractively warm, but others found it too dry for large-scale orchestral performance. In 1994, Chicago acoustician Larry Kirkegaard oversaw a £500,000 acoustic re-engineering of the hall "producing a perceptible improvement in echo control and sound absorption", music critic Norman Lebrecht wrote in October 2000 – and returned in 2001 to rip out the stage canopy and drop adjustable acoustic reflectors, designed by Caruso St John, from the ceiling, as part of a £7.5 mn refurbishment of the hall. Art music magazine Gramophone still complained about "the relative dryness of the Barbican acoustic" in August 2007; the theatre was built as the London home of the Royal Shakespeare Company, involved in the design, but decided not to renew its contract in 2002 after claiming a lack of performing space, plus the artistic director, Adrian Noble, wanting to develop the company's touring performances.
The theatre's response was to extend its existing six-month season of international productions, "Barbican International Theatre Event", to the whole year. On 23 January 2013 Greg Doran, RSC artistic director, announced the Company's return to the Barbican Centre in a three-year season of Shakespeare's history plays; the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, where the Barbican Centre theatrical performances are staged, the City of London's Barbican Library, neither part of the centre, are on the site. The Museum of London is nearby at Aldersgate, is within the Barbican Estate; the Barbican Centre features in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence as the home of the lead character, a bar call
Louis Andriessen is a Dutch composer and pianist based in Amsterdam. He is a lecturer at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague, he was recipient of the Gaudeamus International Composers Award in 1959. Andriessen was born in Utrecht into a musical family, the son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen, brother of composers Jurriaan Andriessen and Caecilia Andriessen, nephew of Willem Andriessen. Andriessen studied with his father and Kees van Baaren at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague, before embarking upon two years of study with Italian composer Luciano Berio in Milan and Berlin, he joined the faculty of the Royal Conservatory. See: List of music students by teacher: A to B#Louis Andriessen. In 1969 Andriessen co-founded STEIM in Amsterdam, he helped found the instrumental groups Orkest de Volharding and Hoketus, both of which performed compositions of the same names. He became involved in the ongoing Schonberg and Asko ensembles and inspired the formation of the British ensemble Icebreaker. Andriessen, a widower, was married to guitarist Jeanette Yanikian.
They were a couple for over 40 years and were married in 1996. Andriessen's early works show experimentation with various contemporary trends: post war serialism and tape, his reaction to what he perceived as the conservatism of much of the Dutch contemporary music scene moved him to form a radically alternative musical aesthetic of his own. Since the early 1970s he has refused to write for conventional symphony orchestras and has instead opted to write for his own idiosyncratic instrumental combinations, which retain some traditional orchestral instruments alongside electric guitars, electric basses, congas. Andriessen's mature music combines the influences of jazz, American minimalism, Igor Stravinsky and Claude Vivier, his harmonic writing eschews the consonant modality of much minimalism, preferring post war European dissonance crystallised into large blocks of sound. Large scale pieces such as De Staat, for example, are influenced by the energy of the big band music of Count Basie and Stan Kenton and the repetitive procedures of Steve Reich, both combined with bright, clashing dissonances.
Andriessen's music is thus anti-Germanic and anti-Romantic, marks a departure from post war European serialism and its offshoots. He has played a role in providing alternatives to traditional performance practice techniques specifying forceful, rhythmic articulations, amplified, non-vibrato, singing. Other notable works include Workers Union, a melodically indeterminate piece "for any loud sounding group of instruments"; the 2011 University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition for the multimedia opera La Commedia. Rondo Barbaro for piano Sonata for flute and piano Elegy for cello and piano Elegy for double bass and piano Nuit d'été for piano four hands Quartet in two movements for string quartet Séries for 2 pianos Nocturnen for 2 sopranos, orchestra Percosse for flute, trumpet and percussion Prospettive e Retrospettive for piano Trois Pièces for piano left hand Aanloop en sprongen for flute and clarinet in Bb Ittrospezione I for piano 4 hands Joli commentaire for piano 4 hands Paintings for one flutist and one pianist Étude pour les timbres for piano Triplum for guitar Canzone 3 for voice and piano Constructions for a Ballet for orchestra, including Ondine, timbres voor orkest Plain-chant for flute and harp Ittrospezione II for large orchestra Sweet for alto recorder Registers for piano A flower song II for oboe solo A flower song III for violoncello solo Ittrospezione III for 2 pianos and 3 instrumental groups Double for clarinet and piano Ittrospezione III – Fragment tenor saxophone ad libitum, 2 pianos Beatles Songs for female voice and piano Souvenirs d'enfance for piano.
Including amongst others: Nocturne, Allegro Marcato, As you like it, Strawinsky, Rondo opus 1, Étude pour les timbres, dotted quarter note = 70 Rage, rage against the dying of the light for 4 trombones Anachronie I for large orchestra The Garden of Ryoan-gi for 3 electronic organs Worum es ging und worum es geht for orchestra Contra tempus for large ensemble Choralvorspiele for barrel organ Anachronie II for oboe, small orchestra Hoe het is for 52 strings and live electronics Sonate op
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Opéra National de Lyon
Opéra de Lyon “Opéra National de Lyon” but marketed during the last decade under the shorter name, is an opera company in Lyon, France and performing at the Opéra Nouvel, an 1831 theater, modernized and architecturally transformed in 1993. The inaugural performance of François-Adrien Boïeldieu's La Dame blanche was given on 1 July 1831; the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries saw some significant French premieres of major operas including Richard Wagner's Die Meistersinger in 1896, Giordano's Andrea Chénier in the following year, Moussorgsky's Boris Godunov in 1913. In addition, many world premieres such as Arnold Schoenberg's Erwartung have been presented. In the years after the 1969 appointment of Louis Erlo as general director, many innovative productions and premieres of both French operas and Twentieth Century operas have been staged. Two significant French artists who have been associated with the Opéra in recent years are the stage director, Laurent Pelly, the soprano, Natalie Dessay.
Past principal conductors at the company have included André Cluytens, John Eliot Gardiner, Kent Nagano, Louis Langrée, Iván Fischer, Kazushi Ono. Since the start of the 2017-2018 season, the company's current principal conductor of the company is Daniele Rustioni, whose appointment to the post was announced in March 2015; the current choirmaster of the company is Philip White, since 2015. The company has Lyon Opera Ballet; as well, the company has a children's choir, La Maîtrise, was created in 1990 to form a top-level choir of young soloists. Since 1993, it has a status similar to other French musical schools. A first theater was built here by Soufflot during the 18th century; the theatre soon became too small and the architects Chenavard and Pollet rebuilt a brand new one in a neo-classical style in 1830. At the beginning of the 1980s, out of age and not meeting the needs any more, the Opera had to be renewed. A competition for architects was thus won in 1986 by Jean Nouvel; the new Opera of Lyon was inaugurated in May 1993 and is now part of the international architectural heritage.
Outside the opera house, Nouvel only kept the outer walls. He dug new underground levels and added a semi-cylindrical dome, used by dancers. On the opera house front wall, 8 muses have been kept in place. John Eliot Gardiner Kent Nagano Louis Langrée Iván Fischer Kazushi Ono Daniele Rustioni Citations Other sources Official website Photos of the Nouvel Opera House