Waxwork is a 1988 American horror comedy film written and directed by Anthony Hickox and starring Zach Galligan, Deborah Foreman, Michelle Johnson, David Warner, Dana Ashbrook, Patrick Macnee. In a small suburban town, a group of high school students--Mark Loftmore, China Webster, Sarah Brightman, Gemma and Tony --visit a mysterious wax museum, resulting from Sarah and China's earlier encounter with a taciturn gentleman who claims to own the exhibit and extends them an invitation. There, they encounter several morbid displays, all of which contain stock characters from the horror genre. Tony and China unintentionally enter two separate pocket worlds, as depicted by the waxwork displays, by crossing the exhibition barrier rope. Tony is at a cabin. A hunter and his son try to kill the werewolf; the son fails and is torn in two, while the hunter shoots the werewolf shoots Tony as he begins to transform into a werewolf. China is sent to a Gothic castle where vampires attack her, Count Dracula turns her into a vampire.
Two of the other students and Sarah, leave the waxwork unscathed. Jonathan, "a college jock", arrives at the wax museum looking for China, but The Phantom of the Opera display gets his attention as David Lincoln walks him into the display. Mark goes to a pair of investigating police detectives, he and Inspector Roberts meet Lincoln. As Mark and Roberts leave the museum, Mark recognizes Lincoln. Roberts realizes that some of the displays look like some of the other missing people comes back to the wax museum, cuts off a piece of China's face, puts it in a bag, walks into the mummy display. Roberts's partner sneaks into the museum, gets his neck broken by Junior, "a tall butler" Lincoln scolds for killing the partner. Mark takes Sarah to the attic of his house, where he shows her an old newspaper detailing the murder of his grandfather; the two consult the wheelchair-bound Sir Wilfred, a friend of Mark's grandfather, who explains how he and Mark's grandfather collected trinkets from "eighteen of the most evil people who lived" and that Lincoln stole the artifacts.
Providing all eighteen with a victim would bring about the "voodoo end of the world, when the dead shall rise and consume all things". On the advice of Sir Wilfred and Sarah enter the waxwork museum at night and douse it with gasoline. However, Sarah is lured into the display of the Marquis de Sade, Mark is pushed into a zombie display by the waxwork's two butlers. Mark is approached by a horde of zombies, but finds that if he does not believe in the monsters they do not exist and cannot harm him. Mark finds his way out of the display and into the Marquis de Sade exhibit, where he rescues Sarah, while the marquis vows revenge. Despite Mark and Sarah's attempts to escape and Lincoln grab Mark and Sarah, pulling them out of sight as Gemma and James return. Gemma gets lured into the Marquis de Sade display, James attempts to steal something from the zombie display. Sir Wilfred and a huge group of armed men, along with Mark's butler Jenkins, in the ensuing battle, several waxworks and slayers die, including Lincoln's butlers and Mark and Sarah's former friends, now evil.
Jenkins consoles Mark by saying the China-vampire he killed wasn't his friend. Mark duels with the Marquis de Sade, killed by Sarah with an axe; the reunited couple are confronted by Lincoln, who dies getting shot by Sir Wilfred and falls in a vat of boiling wax. Sir Wilfred is decapitated by a werewolf as Sarah and Mark manage to escape the burning waxwork with their lives and begin to walk home, not noticing that the hand from the zombie display is scuttling away from the rubble; the "eighteen most evil beings" used in the film are the Marquis de Sade, the werewolf, Count Dracula, the Golem, the Phantom of the Opera, The Mummy, George A. Romero-style zombies, Frankenstein's monster, Jack the Ripper, The Invisible Man, a voodoo priest, a witch, a snakeman, Rosemary's Baby, an axe murderer, a multi-eyed alien, a giant talking venus flytrap, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Cited as the first self-referential horror film before Scream and such, the film was given a limited release in the United States by Vestron Pictures in June 1988.
It grossed $808,114 at the box office. It was released by Vestron Video the same year on VHS in both R-rated and Unrated editions and went on to sell over 150,000 units; the film's budget was $1.5 million. The film was released on DVD in 2003 by Artisan Entertainment as a double feature with the sequel Waxwork II: Lost in Time and again in 2012 as part of an 8 horror film collection DVD. Lionsgate released the film on Blu-ray for the first time along with its sequel, Waxwork II: Lost in Time, on October 18, 2016, as part of their V
Paparazzi are independent photographers who take pictures of high-profile people, such as athletes, entertainers and other celebrities while subjects go about their usual life routines. Paparazzi tend to make a living by selling their photographs to media outlets focusing on tabloid journalism and sensationalism. Paparazzi tend to be independent contractors, unaffiliated with mainstream media organizations, photos taken are done so by taking advantage of opportunities when they have sightings of high-profile people they are tracking; some experts have described the behavior of paparazzi as synonymous with stalking, anti-stalking bills in many countries address the issue by reducing harassment of public figures and celebrities with their children. Some public figures and celebrities have expressed concern at the extent to which paparazzi go to invade their personal space; the filing and receiving of judicial support for restraining orders against paparazzi has increased, as have lawsuits with judgments against them.
Walter Santesso portrays Paparazzo in the 1960 film La Dolce Vita, marking the character as the eponym of the word paparazzi. Paparazzo Derek Shook's work has appeared online and in publications like Star Magazine, Us Weekly, National Enquirer, People Magazine and Style, Rolling Stone Magazine, The Globe, Hello Magazine, Daily Mail, Vogue, he was interviewed for the movie Supermensch: The Legend of Shep Gordon. Ron Galella is most known for suing Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis after the former First Lady ordered her Secret Service agents to destroy Galella’s camera and film following an encounter in New York City's Central Park in the early 1970s. A news photographer named. In his book Word and Phrase, Robert Hendrickson writes that Fellini took the name from an Italian dialect word that describes a annoying noise, that of a buzzing mosquito; as Fellini said in his interview to Time magazine, "Paparazzo... suggests to me a buzzing insect, darting, stinging." Those versions of the word's origin are sometimes contested.
For example, in the Abruzzo dialect spoken by Ennio Flaiano, co-scriptwriter of La Dolce Vita, the term paparazzo refers to the local clam, Venerupis decussata, is used as a metaphor for the shutter of a camera lens. Further, in an interview with Fellini's screenwriter Flaiano, he said the name came from the book Sulla riva dello Jonio, a translation by Italian poet Margherita Guidacci of By the Ionian Sea, a 1901 travel narrative in southern Italy by Victorian writer George Gissing, he further states that either Fellini or Flaiano opened the book at random, saw the name of a restaurant owner, Coriolano Paparazzo, decided to use it for the photographer. This story is further documented by a variety of Gissing scholars and in the book A Sweet and Glorious Land. Revisiting the Ionian Sea. By the late 1960s, the word in the Italian plural form paparazzi, had entered English as a generic term for intrusive photographers. A person, photographed by the paparazzi is said to have been "papped". A transliteration of paparazzi is used in several languages that do not use the Latin alphabet, including Japanese, Ukrainian, Russian and Hebrew.
Chinese uses 狗仔隊, meaning "puppy squad". Khmer uses អ្នកប្រមាញ់រូប. Due to the reputation of paparazzi as a nuisance, several states and countries restrict their activities by passing laws and curfews, by staging events in which paparazzi are not allowed to take photographs. In the United States, celebrity news organizations are protected by the First Amendment. To protect the children of celebrities, California passed a new bill in September 2013; the purpose of the bill is to stop paparazzi from taking pictures of children in a harassing manner, regardless of who their parents are. This law increased the penalty on the penalty for harassment of children. In 1972, paparazzo photographer Ron Galella sued Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis after the former First Lady ordered her Secret Service agents to destroy Galella's camera and film following an encounter in New York City's Central Park. Kennedy counter-sued claiming harassment; the trial lasted three weeks and became a groundbreaking case regarding photojournalism and the role of paparazzi.
In Galella v. Onassis, Kennedy obtained a restraining order to keep Galella 150 feet away from her and her children; the restriction was dropped to 25 feet. The trial is a focal point in a 2010 documentary film by director Leon Gast. In 1997, Princess of Wales and Dodi Fayed were killed in a limousine crash as their driver was speeding, trying to escape paparazzi. An inquest jury investigated the involvement of paparazzi in the incident, although several paparazzi were taken into custody, no one was convicted; the official inquests into the accident attributed the causes to the speed and manner of driving of the Mercedes, as well as the following vehicles, the impairment of the judgment of the Mercedes driver, Henri Paul, through alcohol. In 1999, the Oriental Daily News of Hong Kong was found guilty of "scandalizing the court", an rare law that the newspaper's conduct would undermine confidence in the administration of justice; the charge was brought after the newspaper had published abusive articles challenging the judiciary's integrity and accusing it of bias in a lawsuit the p
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
People is an American weekly magazine of celebrity and human-interest stories, published by Time Inc. a subsidiary of the Meredith Corporation. With a readership of 46.6 million adults, People has the largest audience of any American magazine. People had $997 million in advertising revenue in 2011, the highest advertising revenue of any American magazine. In 2006, it had revenue expected to top $1.5 billion. It was named "Magazine of the Year" by Advertising Age in October 2005, for excellence in editorial and advertising. People ranked number 6 on Advertising Age's annual "A-list" and number 3 on Adweek's "Brand Blazers" list in October 2006; the magazine runs a 50/50 mix of celebrity and human-interest articles. People's editors claim to refrain from printing pure celebrity gossip, enough to lead celebrity publicists to propose exclusives to the magazine, evidence of what one staffer calls a "publicist-friendly strategy". People's website, People.com, focuses on celebrity news and human interest stories.
In February 2015, the website broke a new record: 72 million unique visitors. People is best known for its yearly special issues naming the "World's Most Beautiful", "Best & Worst Dressed", "Sexiest Man Alive"; the magazine's headquarters are in New York, it maintains editorial bureaus in Los Angeles and in London. For economic reasons, it closed bureaus in Austin and Chicago in 2006; the concept for People has been attributed to Andrew Heiskell, Time Inc.'s chief executive officer at the time and the former publisher of the weekly Life magazine. The founding managing editor of People was Richard B. Stolley, a former assistant managing editor at Life and the journalist who acquired the Zapruder tapes of the John F. Kennedy assassination for Time Inc. in 1963. People's first publisher was another Time Inc. veteran. Stolley characterized the magazine as "getting back to the people who are causing the news and who are caught up in it, or deserve to be in it. Our focus is on people, not issues." Stolley's religious determination to keep the magazine people-focused contributed to its rapid early success.
It is said that although Time Inc. pumped an estimated $40 million into the venture, the magazine only broke 18 months after its debut in March 1974. The magazine was sold on newsstands and in supermarkets. To get the magazine out each week, founding staff members slept on the floor of their offices two or three nights each week and limited all non-essential outside engagements; the premier edition for the week ending March 4, 1974 featured actress Mia Farrow starring in the film The Great Gatsby, on the cover. That issue featured stories on Gloria Vanderbilt, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and the wives of U. S. Vietnam veterans; the magazine was, apart from its cover, printed in black-and-white. The initial cover price was 35 cents; the core of the small founding editorial team included other editors, writers and photo editors from Life magazine, which had ceased publication just 13 months earlier. This group included managing editor Stolley, senior editors Hal Wingo, Sam Angeloff and Robert Emmett Ginna.
Many of the noteworthy Life photographers contributed to the magazine as well, including legends Alfred Eisenstaedt and Gjon Mili and rising stars Co Rentmeester, David Burnett and Bill Eppridge. Other members of the first editorial staff included editors and writers: Ross Drake, Ralph Novak, Bina Bernard, James Jerome, Sally Moore, Mary Vespa, Lee Wohlfert, Joy Wansley, Curt Davis, Clare Crawford-Mason, Jed Horne an editor of The Times-Picayune in New Orleans. In 1996, Time Inc. launched a Spanish-language magazine entitled People en Español. The company has said that the new publication emerged after a 1995 issue of the original magazine was distributed with two distinct covers, one featuring the murdered Tejano singer Selena and the other featuring the hit television series Friends. Although the original idea was that Spanish-language translations of articles from the English magazine would comprise half the content, People en Español over time came to have original content. In 2002, People introduced People Stylewatch, a title focusing on celebrity style and beauty – a newsstand extension of its Stylewatch column.
Due to its success, the frequency of People Stylewatch was increased to 10 times per year in 2007. In spring 2017, People Stylewatch was rebranded as PeopleStyle. In late 2017, it was announced that there would no longer be a print version of PeopleStyle and it would be a digital-only publication. In Australia, the localized version of People is titled Who because of a pre-existing lad's mag published under the title People; the international edition of People has been published in Greece since 2010. On July 26, 2013, Outlook Group announced that it was closing down the Indian edition of People, which began publication in 2008. In September 2016, in collaboration with Entertainment Weekly, People launched the People/Entertainment Weekly Network; the network is "a free, a
Blame It on Rio
Blame It on Rio is a 1984 American romantic comedy film directed by Stanley Donen and written by Charlie Peters and Larry Gelbart based on the 1977 French film Un moment d'égarement. Starring an ensemble cast led by Michael Caine, Joseph Bologna, Michelle Johnson, Valerie Harper, Demi Moore, José Lewgoy, the film was nominated for a Razzie Award including Worst New Star for Johnson; this is the last theatrically released film directed by Donen, whose previous work included such notable pictures as Singin' in the Rain, On the Town, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers and Charade. Matthew Hollis is married to Karen, father to teenaged daughter, Nikki. Victor, Matthew's colleague and best friend, going through a divorce, is father to 17-year-old Jennifer. Matthew's marriage is not going well for reasons not explained. Just before they are to embark for a trip to Rio de Janeiro, Karen says she is going on vacation by herself to "think about everything." Matthew and Victor decide to go to Rio with their daughters.
Jennifer and Nikki share a room, where she says to Nikki, "Your father is so sweet... I used to have a crush on him", to which Nikki replies, "Me, too". At the beach and Matthew pass numerous women walking around topless; the fathers spot their daughters in the distance, the girls turn around to reveal that they are topless, also. After dropping the girls off at a wedding, the men visit a pub. After Victor pairs off with a local divorcée, Matthew winds up at the wedding, where he runs into Jennifer, they share a passionate kiss, which Nikki witnesses. Matthew and Jennifer have sex on the beach. Matthew stresses. Jennifer begins coming onto Matthew in inappropriate situations. At one point, she gives it to Matthew in public. Jennifer tearfully tells her father that she had an affair with an "older man". Victor sets out to hunt down the mystery man, expecting Matthew to help. Matthew tries to talk Jennifer into ending their relationship, but she is determined to never give him up. Matthew discloses to his friend that it was he with whom Jennifer had the affair.
Victor is not as irritated as Matthew expects, because it is revealed that Victor had been having an affair with Karen. Jennifer tries to commit suicide with an overdose of birth control pills, but survives and the incident brings all of the friends closer together, although the men object about each other's sexual misconduct. Karen and Matthew decide to work on their marital problems, Jennifer begins dating a young male nurse she met while recuperating in the hospital, Matthew thanks daughter Nikki for being the only one who has not misbehaved; as closing credits roll, Matthew, in voice-over narration, says, "You only live once, but it does help if you get to be young twice". Michael Caine as Matthew Hollis Joseph Bologna as Victor Lyons Michelle Johnson as Jennifer Lyons Demi Moore as Nicole Hollis Valerie Harper as Karen Hollis José Lewgoy as Eduardo Marques Lupe Gigliotti as Signora Botega Nelson Dantas as Doctor The film was shot on location in Rio de Janeiro. Johnson, 17 at the time of filming, received permission from a judge to appear topless in some scenes the film.
Vincent Canby, reviewing Blame It on Rio, stated "...there's not a single funny or surprising moment in the movie. However, Blame It on Rio is not humorless, it spreads gloom. It's one of those unfortunate projects that somehow suggests that everyone connected with the movie hated it and all of the other people involved." The Australian newspaper The Canberra Times described Blame It on Rio as "one of the worst movies made and the most banal piece of rubbish to have Michael Caine's name on the credits - and he has quite a few bombs to his credit." Roger Ebert gave the film 1 star out of a possible 4, writing: "It's unsettling to see how casually this movie takes a serious situation. A disturbed girl is using sex to play mind games with a middle-aged man, the movie get its yuks with slapstick scenes What's shocking is how many first-rate talents are associated with this sleaze."Rotten Tomatoes gave Blame It on Rio a rating of 9% based on reviews from 22 critics. Blame It on Rio on IMDb Blame It on Rio at AllMovie Blame It on Rio at the TCM Movie Database Blame It on Rio at Rotten Tomatoes
Charles in Charge
Charles in Charge is an American sitcom starring Scott Baio. It aired for a total of 126 episodes over five seasons; the series was a production of Al Burton Productions and Scholastic Productions in association with Universal Television. Baio starred as Charles, a college student attending the fictional Copeland College in New Brunswick, New Jersey, who finds a unique living arrangement with a family in need of a caretaker for their young children; the show starred Willie Aames as Charles' best friend Buddy Lembeck. The series premiered on CBS on October 3, 1984, aired on Wednesday nights at 8 PM paired with another new sitcom, Dreams. Facing off against two hits in ABC's The Fall Guy and NBC's Highway to Heaven, neither show performed well and Charles in Charge was moved to Saturday nights after the cancellation of Dreams. CBS decided to cancel the series after it made no improvement in the ratings after its move to Saturday, Charles in Charge aired its final episode on April 3, 1985, in its original time slot.
At the time of CBS' decision to cancel Charles in Charge, a trend had emerged where network series comedies, would find new life in first-run syndication after cancellation. Universal took advantage of relaunched Charles in Charge in syndication; the first new episode premiered on January 3, 1987, four more seasons were produced before the show came to an end again on November 10, 1990. When the series premiered, Charles had just taken a job with Stan and Jill Pembroke to help care for their three children, sons Jason and Douglas and daughter Lila. In exchange for his services, the Pembrokes provide Charles with board; when the show returned in 1987, the Powell family was living in the home. The family retained Charles' services as well, he became caretaker for Ellen Powell's three children, son Adam and daughters Jamie and Sarah. In addition to them, Ellen's father-in-law Walter moved into the home to serve as his grandchildren's father figure. Charles' mother Lillian, who had not been seen in the initial series, became a more central figure in her son's life when the show moved to syndication as well.
Michael Pearlman and Jennifer Runyon are the only other actors, besides Baio and Aames, to reprise their roles on the show. Pearlman appeared in the second-season premiere, "Amityville". Runyon appeared in "Twice Upon a Time" and "Twice Upon a Time". In the final two seasons, Sandra Kerns only made three more appearances. Charles' mother, was played by Ellen Travolta, John Travolta's sister, she played her sisters and Vanessa. She had played the mother of Chachi Arcola, Scott Baio's character on Happy Days and Joanie Loves Chachi. Chachi's real name, was Charles. Nicole Eggert went on to star in Baywatch. Josie Davis made one appearance in a 1998 Baywatch episode. Both Charles in Charge and Baywatch were TV shows that began on network TV, before moving to first-run syndication. Eggert has since accused her co-star Scott Baio of sexually harassing and sexually abusing her as a minor, beginning at age 14, she said. Baio has denied all her claims. Baio has said that they engaged in a one-time consensual sexual encounter when Eggert was 18, which Eggert initiated.
Eggert has said that she was 17, that Baio initiated their encounter. Baio and Aames are the only two cast members; the theme song was composed by David Kurtz, Michael Jacobs, Al Burton, performed by Shandi Sinnamon. The theme music was mellower in the first season, was remixed for the syndication run. Universal Studios Home Entertainment released a 3-disc set of the first season of Charles in Charge on DVD in North America on February 14, 2006. Due to poor sales, no further seasons were released. In September 2007, it was announced that Arts Alliance America had acquired the rights to the series, they subsequently released seasons 2–5 on DVD. Seasons 4 and 5 were Manufacture-on-Demand releases, available through Amazon.com. All five seasons of the series were made available for streaming through Amazon Video and season one only on Hulu Plus. In addition, the entire series can be streamed on the NBC.com app. List of Charles in Charge episodes Charles in Charge on IMDb Charles in Charge at TV.com Charles in Charge at AllMovie Charles in Charge Online
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it