The Yorùbá people are an African ethnic group that inhabits western Africa. The Yoruba constitute about 44 million people in total. Majority of this population is from Nigeria, where the Yorùbá make up 21% of the country's population, according to the CIA World Factbook, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Most Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, tonal, is the language with the largest number of native speakers; the Yorùbá share borders with the closely related Itsekiri to the south-east in the North West Niger delta, Bariba to the northwest in Benin, the Nupe to the north and the Ebira to the northeast in central Nigeria. To the east are the Edo, Ẹsan and the Afemai groups in mid-western Nigeria. Adjacent to the Ebira and Edo groups are the related Igala people found in the northeast, on the left bank of the Niger River. To the southwest are the Gbe speaking Mahi, Gun and Ewe who border Yoruba communities in Benin and Togo. To the southeast are Itsekiri who live in the north-west end of the Niger delta.
They chose to maintain a distinct cultural identity. Significant Yoruba populations in other West African countries can be found in Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone; the Yoruba diaspora consists of two main groupings. The other dates to the Atlantic slave trade and has communities in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Saint Lucia, Brazil and Trinidad and Tobago, other countries; as an ethnic description, the word "Yoruba" was in reference to the Oyo Empire and is the usual Hausa name for Oyo people as noted by Hugh Clapperton and Richard Lander. It was therefore popularized by Hausa usage and ethnography written in Ajami during the 19th century by Sultan Muhammad Bello; the extension of the term to all speakers of dialects related to the language of the Oyo dates to the second half of the 19th century. It is due to the influence of the first Anglican bishop in Nigeria. Crowther was himself an Oyo Yoruba and compiled the first Yoruba dictionary as well as introducing a standard for Yoruba orthography.
The alternative name Akú an exonym derived from the first words of Yoruba greetings has survived in certain parts of their diaspora as a self-descriptive in Sierra Leone. The Yoruba culture was an oral tradition, the majority of Yoruba people are native speakers of the Yoruba language; the number of speakers is estimated at about 30 million in 2010. Yoruba is classified within the Edekiri languages, which together with the isolate Igala, form the Yoruboid group of languages within what we now have as West Africa. Igala and Yoruba have important cultural relationships; the languages of the two ethnic groups bear such a close resemblance that researchers such as Forde and Westermann and Bryan regarded Igala as a dialect of Yoruba. The Yoruboid languages are assumed to have developed out of an undifferentiated Volta-Niger group by the 1st millennium BCE. There are three major dialect areas: Northwest and Southeast; as the North-West Yoruba dialects show more linguistic innovation, combined with the fact that Southeast and Central Yoruba areas have older settlements, suggests a date of immigration for Northwest Yoruba.
The area where North-West Yoruba is spoken corresponds to the historical Oyo Empire. South-East Yoruba was associated with the expansion of the Benin Empire after c. 1450. Central Yoruba forms a transitional area in that the lexicon has much in common with NWY, whereas it shares many ethnographical features with SEY. Literary Yoruba, the standard variety taught in schools and spoken by newsreaders on the radio, has its origin in the Yoruba grammar compiled in the 1850s by Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther, who himself was a creole from Sierra Leone. Though for a large part based on the Oyo and Ibadan dialects, it incorporates several features from other dialects; as of the 7th century BCE the African peoples who lived in Yorubaland were not known as the Yoruba, although they shared a common ethnicity and language group. By the 8th century, a powerful Yoruba kingdom existed in Ile-Ife, one of the earliest in Africa; the historical Yoruba develop in situ, out of earlier Mesolithic Volta-Niger populations, by the 1st millennium BCE.
Oral history recorded under the Oyo Empire derives the Yoruba as an ethnic group from the population of the older kingdom of Ile-Ife. The Yoruba were the dominant cultural force in southern Nigeria as far back as the 11th century; the Yoruba are among the most urbanized people in Africa. For centuries before the arrival of the British colonial administration most Yoruba lived in well structured urban centres organized around powerful city-states centred around the residence of the Oba. In ancient times, most of these cities were fortresses, with high gates. Yoruba cities have always been among the most populous in Africa. Archaeological findings indicate that Òyó-Ilé or Katunga, capital of the Yoruba empire of Oyo, had a population of over 100,000 people. For a long time Ibadan, one of the major Yoruba cities, founded in the 1800s, was the largest city in the whole of Sub Saharan Africa. Today, Lagos (Yoruba: Èk
Georges Henri Rouault was a French painter and printer, whose work is associated with Fauvism and Expressionism. Rouault was born in Paris into a poor family, his mother encouraged his love for the arts, in 1885 the fourteen-year-old Rouault embarked on an apprenticeship as a glass painter and restorer, which lasted until 1890. This early experience as a glass painter has been suggested as a source of the heavy black contouring and glowing colours, likened to leaded glass, which characterize Rouault's mature painting style. During his apprenticeship, he attended evening classes at the School of Fine Arts, in 1891, he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, the official art school of France. There he became his favorite student. Rouault's earliest works show a symbolism in the use of colour that reflects Moreau's influence, when Moreau died in 1898, Rouault was nominated as the curator of the Moreau Museum in Paris. Georges Rouault met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Henri Manguin, Charles Camoin; these friendships brought him to the movement of Fauvism, the leader of, considered to be Matisse.
In 1891 Rouault painted The Way to Calvary. From 1895 on, he took part in major public exhibitions, notably the Salon d'Automne, where paintings with religious subjects and still lifes were shown. In 1905 he exhibited his paintings at the Salon d'Automne with the other Fauvists. While Matisse represented the reflective and rationalized aspects in the group, Rouault embodied a more spontaneous and instinctive style, his use of stark contrasts and emotionality is credited to the influence of Vincent van Gogh. His characterizations of overemphasized grotesque personalities inspired the expressionist painters. In 1907, Rouault commenced a series of paintings dedicated to courts and prostitutes; these paintings are interpreted as social criticism. He became attracted to Spiritualism and the dramatic existentialism of the philosopher Jacques Maritain, who remained a close friend for the rest of his life. After that, he dedicated himself to religious subjects. Human nature was always the focus of his interest.
Rouault said: "A tree against the sky possesses the same interest, the same character, the same expression as the figure of a human." In 1910, Rouault had his first works exhibited in the Druet Gallery. His works were studied by German artists from Dresden, who formed the nucleus of expressionism. From 1917, Rouault dedicated himself to painting; the Christian faith informed his work in his search for inspiration and marks him out as the most passionate Christian artist of the 20th century: first of all, in the theme of the passion of Christ. The face of Jesus and the cries of the women at the feet of the cross are symbols of the pain of the world, which for Rouault was relieved by belief in resurrection. In 1929 Rouault created the designs for Diaghilev's ballet The Prodigal Son, with music by Prokofiev and choreography by Balanchine. In 1930 he began to exhibit in foreign countries in London, New York and Chicago. In 1937 Rouault painted The Old King, arguably his finest expressionist work, he exhibited his cycle Miserere in 1948.
At the end of his life he burned 300 of his pictures. His reason for doing this was not profound, as he felt he would not live to finish them. Rouault died in Paris in 1958. Dyrness, William A. Rouault: A Vision of Suffering and Salvation. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1971. Maritain, Jacques. Georges Rouault; the Pocket Library of Great Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1954. Getlein and Dorothy Getlein. George Rouault's Miserere. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1964. San Lazzaro, G. di. Homage to George Rouault. New York: Tudor, 1971. Courthion, Pierre. Rouault. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1961. Kochno, Boris. Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. New York: Harper & Row. 1979. Works by or about Georges Rouault at Internet Archive Georges Rouault Foundation Georges Rouault Online at Artcyclopedia.com Images hosted by Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Information on Rouault and the German Expressionist movement Works by Georges Rouault
The Senufo people known as Siena, Sene, Senoufo, Syénambélé, Bamana, are a West African ethnolinguistic group. They consist of diverse subgroups living in a region spanning the northern Ivory Coast, the southeastern Mali and the western Burkina Faso. One sub-group, the Nafana, is found in north-western Ghana; the Senufo people are predominantly animists, with some. They are regionally famous for their handicrafts, many of which feature their cultural themes and religious beliefs. In the 1980s, estimates placed the total ethnic group population of Senufo people somewhere between 1.5 and 2.7 million. A 2013 estimate places the total over 3 million, with majority of them living in Ivory Coast in places such as Katiola, some 0.8 million in southeastern Mali. Their highest population densities are found in the land between the Black Volta river, Bagoe River and Bani River, their kinship organization is matrilineal. The Senufo people are studied in three large subgroups that have been isolated; the northern Senufo are called "Supide or Kenedougou", found near Odienne, who helped found an important kingdom of West Africa and challenged Muslim missionaries and traders.
The southern Senufo are the largest group, numbering over 2 million, who allowed Muslim traders to settle within their communities in the 18th century who proselytized, about 20% of the southern Senufo are Muslims. The third group is small and isolated from both northern and southern Senufo; some sociologists such as the French scholar Holas mentions fifteen identifiable sub-groups of Senufo people, with thirty dialects and four castes scattered between them. The term Senufo refers to a linguistic group comprising thirty related dialects within the larger Gur language family, it belongs to the Gur-branch of the Niger-Congo language family, consists of four distinct languages namely Palaka and Senari in Côte d'Ivoire and Suppire in Mali, as well as Karaboro in Burkina Faso. Within each group, numerous subdivisions use their own names for language. Palaka separated from the main Senufo stock well before the 14th century ad; the Senufo speaking people range from 800,000 to one million and live in agricultural based communities predominately located in the Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, Africa.
Korhogo, an ancient town in northern Ivory Coast dating from the 13th century, is linked to the Senufo people. This separation of languages and sub-ethnic groups may be linked to the 14th-century migrations with its founding along with the Bambara trade-route; the Senufo people emerged as a group sometime within the 16th century. They were a significant part of the 17th to 19th-century Kénédougou Kingdom with the capital of Sikasso; this region saw many wars including the rule of Daoula Ba Traoré, a cruel despot who reigned between 1840 and 1877. The Islamisation of the Senufo people began during this historical period of the Kénédougou Kingdom, but it was the chiefs who converted, while the general Senufo population refused. Daoula Ba Traoré attempted to convert his kingdom to Islam, destroying many villages within the kingdom such as Guiembe and Nielle in 1875 because they resisted his views; the Kénédougou dynastic rulers attacked their neighbors as well, such as the Zarma people and they in turn counterattacked many times between 1883 and 1898.
The pre-colonial wars and violence led to their migration into Burkina Faso in regions that became towns such as Tiembara in Kiembara Department. The Kénédougou kingdom and the Traoré dynasty were dissolved in 1898 with the arrival of French colonial rule; the Senufo people were both victims of and perpetrators of slavery as they victimized other ethnic groups by enslavement. They were enslaved by various African ethnic groups as the Denkyira and Akan states were attacked or fell in the 17th and 18th centuries, they themselves sold slaves to Muslim merchants, Asante people and Baoulé people. As refugees from other West African ethnic groups escaped wars, states Paul Lovejoy, some of them moved into the Senufo lands, seized their lands and enslaved them; the largest demand for slaves came from the markets of Sudan, for a long time, slave trading was the most important economic activity across the Sahel and West Africa, states Martin Klein. Sikasso and Bobo-Dioulasso were important sources of slaves captured who were moved to Timbuktu and Banamba on their way to the Sudanese and Mauritanian slave markets.
Those enslaved in Senufo lands worked the land and served within the home. Their owner and his dependents had the right to have sexual intercourse with female domestic slaves; the children of a female slave inherited her slave status. The Senufo are predominantly an agricultural people cultivating corn, millet and peanut. Senufo villages consist of small mud-brick homes. In the rainy southern communities of Senufo, thatched roofs are common, while flat roofs are prevalent in dry desert-like north; the Senufo is a patriarchal extended family society, where arranged cousin marriage and polygyny has been common, however and property inheritance has been matrilineal. As agriculturalists, they cultivate a wide variety of crops, including cotton and cash crops for the international market; as musicians, they are world renowned, playing a multitude of instruments from: wind instruments, stringed instruments and percussive instruments (Membra
Lithography is a method of printing based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a metal plate with a smooth surface, it was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate; the stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; the ink would be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate; the image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s; the related term "photolithography" refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. "Photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.
Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of water; the image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, its ability to withstand water and acid.
After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca2, gum arabic on all non-image surfaces; the gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink; when printing, the stone is kept wet with water. The water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is rolled over the surface; the water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it.
When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone. Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, a print went through the press separately for each stone; the main challenge was to keep the images aligned. This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period. "Lithography, or printing from soft stone took the place of engraving in the production of English
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Marshall is a city in and the county seat of Harrison County in northeastern Texas in the United States. Marshall is a major educational center in East Texas and the tri-state area. At the 2010 census, the population of Marshall was 23,523; the population of the Marshall Micropolitan Area, comprising all of Harrison County, was 65,631 in 2010. Marshall was a production center of the Confederacy during the Civil War, it was a major railroad center of the T&P Railroad from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century. Activists in the city's large African American population worked to create social change through the Civil Rights Movement, with considerable support from the black colleges and universities here; the city is known for holding one of the largest light festivals in the United States, the "Wonderland of Lights". It identifies as the self-proclaimed "Pottery Capital of the World", for its sizable pottery industry. Marshall is referred to by various nicknames: the "Cultural Capital of East Texas", the "Gateway of Texas", the "Athens of Texas", the "City of Seven Flags", "Center Stage", a branding slogan adopted by the Marshall Convention and Visitors Bureau.
This area of Texas was developed for cotton plantations. Planters bought them in the domestic slave trade, it had a higher proportion of slaves than other regions of the state, the wealth of the county depended on slave labor and the cotton market. The city was founded in 1841 as the seat of Harrison County after failed attempts to establish a county seat on the Sabine River, it was incorporated in 1843. The Republic of Texas decided to choose the land donated for the seat by Peter Whetstone and Isaac Van Zandt after Whetstone had proven that the hilly location had a good water source; the city became a major city in the state because of its position as a gateway to Texas. The founding of several colleges, including a number of seminaries, teaching colleges, incipient universities, earned Marshall the nickname "the Athens of Texas", in reference to the ancient Greek city-state; the city's growing importance was confirmed when Marshall was linked by a telegraph line to New Orleans. By 1860, Marshall was the seat of its richest county.
Developed as cotton plantations, the county held more slaves than any other in the state. Many planters and other whites were anti-Union because of their investment in slavery, but some residents of Marshall fought for the North. For example, brothers Lionel and Emmanuel Kahn, Jewish merchants in Marshall, fought on opposing sides in the conflict; when Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Marshall's Edward Clark was sworn in as governor. Pendleton Murrah, Texas's third Confederate governor, was from Marshall; the city became a major Confederate supply depot and manufactory of gunpowder for the Confederate Army, hosted three conferences of Trans-Mississippi and Indian Territory leaders. The city was used as the capital of the exiled Confederate government of Missouri, earning it the nickname the "City of Seven Flags"; this was a nod to the flag of Missouri, in addition to the six flags of nations and republics that have flown over the city. Marshall became the seat of Confederate civil authority and headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Postal Department after the fall of Vicksburg.
The city may have been the intended target of a failed Union advance, rebuffed at Mansfield, Louisiana. Toward the end of the Civil War, the Confederate government had $9.0 million in Treasury notes and $3.0 million in postage stamps shipped to Marshall. They may have intended Marshall as the destination of a government preparing to flee from advancing armies. Marshall was occupied by Union forces on June 17, 1865. During Reconstruction, the city was home to an office of the Freedmen's Bureau and was the base for federal troops. In 1873 the Methodist Episcopal Church founded Wiley College to educate freedmen. African Americans came to the city seeking opportunities and protection until 1878; the White Citizens Party, led by former Confederate General Walter P. Lane and his brother George, took control of the city and county governments, their militia ran Unionists and many African Americans out of town. The Lanes declared Marshall and Harrison County "redeemed" from Union and African-American control.
Despite this the African-American community continued to progress. Bishop College was founded in 1881, Wiley College was certified by the Freedman's Aid Society in 1882. Marshall's "Railroad Era" began in the early 1870s. Harrison County citizens voted to offer $300,000 bond subsidy, the City of Marshall offered to donate land north of the downtown to the Texas and Pacific Railway if the company would establish a center in Marshall. T&P President Jay Gould accepted the business incentive, locating the T&P's workshops and general offices for Texas in Marshall; the city had a population explosion from workers attracted to the potential for new jobs here. By 1880 the city was one of the South's largest cotton markets, with crops and other products shipped by the railroad; the city's new prosperity was shown by the opening of J. Weisman and Co. the first department store in Texas. When one light bulb was installed in the Texas and Pacific Depot, Marshall became the first city in Texas to have electricity.
Some nationally known crimes were tried here, including the trials for the attempted murder of Maurice Barrymore. During this period of wealth, many of the city's now historic ho
Printmaking is the process of creating artworks by printing on paper. Printmaking covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, because the imagery of a print is not a reproduction of another work but rather is a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple impressions, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the printmaking processes lends itself to. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to a sheet of paper or other material.
Common types of matrices include: metal plates copper or zinc, or polymer plates for engraving or etching. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process. Other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the same matrix form an edition. Since the late 19th century, artists have signed individual impressions from an edition and number the impressions to form a limited edition. Prints may be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artist's books. Printmaking techniques are divided into the following basic categories: Relief, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix. Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving and metalcut. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, mezzotint, aquatint. Planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image.
Planographic techniques include lithography and digital techniques. Stencil, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screenprinting and pochoir. Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing. Collagraphy is a printmaking technique; this texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process. Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can be combined within the same family. For example, Rembrandt's prints are referred to as "etchings" for convenience, but often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, sometimes have no etching at all. Woodcut, a type of relief print, is the earliest printmaking technique, the only one traditionally used in the Far East, it was first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, by the 5th century was used in China for printing text and images on paper.
Woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, later in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text; the artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper, transferred to the wood. Traditionally the artist handed the work to a specialist cutter, who uses sharp tools to carve away the parts of the block that will not receive ink; the surface of the block is inked with the use of a brayer, a sheet of paper slightly damp, is placed over the block. The block is rubbed with a baren or spoon, or is run through a printing press. If in color, separate blocks can be used for each color, or a technique called reduction printing can be used. Reduction printing is a name used to describe the process of using one block to print several layers of color on one print; this involves cutting a small amount of the block away, printing the block many times over on different sheets before washing the block, cutting more away and printing the next color on top.
This allows the previous color to show through. This process can be repeated many times over; the advantages of this process is that only one block is needed, that different components of an intricate design will line up perfectly. The disadvantage is. Another variation of woodcut printmaking is the cukil technique, made famous by the Taring Padi underground community in Java, Indonesia. Taring Padi Posters resemble intricately printed cartoon posters embedded with political messages. Images—usually resembling a visually complex scenario—are carved unto a wooden surface called cukilan smothered with printer's ink before pressing it unto media such as paper or canvas; the process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface of a metal plate, traditionally made of copper. Engraving using a burin is a difficult skill to learn. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types.
The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by