Richard Dale Snyder is an American politician, business executive, venture capitalist and accountant who served as the 48th governor of Michigan from 2011 to 2019. He is a member of the Republican Party. From 2005 to 2007, Snyder served as the chairman of the board of Inc.. Prior to his election as governor, he co-founded Ardesta, LLC, a venture capital firm and HealthMedia, Inc. a digital health coaching company, both based out of Ann Arbor, Michigan. He gained national attention during the Flint water crisis, in which he was accused of mishandling the situation that exposed 6,000 to 12,000 Flint children to lead. Noteworthy was Snyder's appointment of a 15-member Commission for improving and reforming Michigan's public defense efforts for the poor in the criminal justice system in order to meet and ensure the rights safe-guarded by the constitution. Snyder was considered a possible Republican Party candidate for Vice President of the United States in 2012, although Paul Ryan was selected. On February 3, 2014, Snyder announced his candidacy for re-election as Governor of Michigan in 2014.
He was elected to a second term in the November 2014 vote, defeating his major challenger, Democrat Mark Schauer. Snyder was term limited and could not seek re-election in 2018, he was succeeded on New Year's Day of 2019 by Democrat Gretchen Whitmer. Snyder was born to Dale F. and Helen Louella Snyder in Battle Creek, where he was raised. His father owned a local window-cleaning company in Battle Creek, he has an elder sister. When he was 16, he took a business class at Kellogg Community College on weekends. By his senior year at Lakeview High School in Calhoun County, Snyder had earned 23 college credits. Snyder visited the admissions office of the University of Michigan in November 1975 and spoke with the admissions director, who recommended that Snyder attend Michigan and create his own degree. Snyder earned his B. G. S. degree in 1977, an M. B. A. degree in 1979, a J. D. degree in 1982, all from the University of Michigan. Snyder is a Certified Public Accountant, he resides in Ann Arbor, Michigan with his wife Sue and their three children and has a vacation home near Gun Lake.
The couple were married in 1987 at Cherry Hill Presbyterian Church in Michigan. Snyder has indicated. Snyder was employed with Coopers & Lybrand, from 1982 to 1991, beginning in the tax department of the Detroit office. Snyder was named partner in 1988; the next year, Snyder was named partner-in-charge of the mergers and acquisitions practice in the Chicago office. He served as an adjunct assistant professor of accounting at the University of Michigan from 1982–84. Snyder joined the computer company Gateway in 1991 as the executive vice president, he served as president and chief operating officer from 1996 to 1997. He remained on the board of directors until 2007. From 2005 to 2007, Snyder served as the chairman of the board. During 2006, Snyder served as interim chief executive officer while a search for a permanent replacement was made, his tenure on the Gateway board ran from 1991 to 2007 until Gateway was sold to Acer Inc. Snyder stated that he did not vote for outsourcing while he was a Gateway board director and he worked to bring jobs to America as the interim CEO of Gateway.
In 1997, Snyder returned to Ann Arbor to found Avalon Investments Inc. a venture capital company with a $100 million fund, along with the co-founder of Gateway, Ted Waitt. Snyder was president and chief executive officer of Avalon from 1997 to 2000, he co-founded Ardesta LLC, an investment firm, in 2000 along with three co-founders, which invested in 20 start-up companies through 2011. He was chairman and chief executive officer of the company. In 1998, Snyder angel funded and co-founded, with University of Michigan School of Public Health professor Victor J. Strecher, HealthMedia Incorporated, a developer of digital health coaching applications for health promotion, disease prevention, behavioral health, disease management; the U-M's Office of Technology Transfer played an integral role in helping HMI get started with Vic Strecher as the founding CEO and the U-M's publicly funded Health Media Research Laboratory providing the new company with exclusive research and development findings into health-related computerized tailored messaging and the exclusive licence to sell that content.
Despite these university-based start-up and R&D advantages, HMI got off to a poor performance start and in 2001 Snyder replaced the founding CEO and rescued the company from insolvency with more of his own money. After multiple rounds of more additional financing through venture capital and yet never achieving profitability, HMI was sold in 2008 for a reported $200 million to Johnson & Johnson; the sale of HMI transferred the ownership of all the personal health information accrued from their millions of users to Johnson & Johnson and played a key role in the negotiated price. At the time of the reported $200 million deal, U-M President Mary Sue Coleman was on Johnson & Johnson's board of directors and the U-M secured millions of dollars with its equity stake in the company; when campaigning for Michigan governor in 2010, Snyder was quoted as saying, "That company is one of the best success stories in the state." Following Snyder's election as Michigan governor, Johnson & Johnson folded HMI into a subsidiary and is no longer op
Michigan National Guard
The Michigan National Guard consists of the Michigan Army National Guard and the Michigan Air National Guard. Michigan Army National Guard units include: Recruiting Office: Bay City, MI Recruiting Office: Sterling Heights, MI 177th Regional Training Institute - Augusta, MI 126th Press Camp Headquarters - Augusta, MI Recruiting & Retention Battalion - Lansing, MI 1208th Military Intelligence Platoon - Taylor, MI 51st Civil Support Team - Augusta, MI Medical Command - Detroit, MI Detachment 15 Operational Support Airlift - Lansing, MI Fort Custer Training Center - Augusta, MI Military Training Center - Grayling, MI 1208th Engineering Survey & Design Team - Lansing, MI 1999th AQ Detachment 1146th Judge Advocate General Detachment - Lansing, MI Detachment 1, 505th Judge Advocate General - Lansing, MI 63rd Troop Command - Wyoming, MI 1-125th Infantry Battalion - Flint, MI Company A - Detroit, MI Company B - Saginaw, MI Detachment 1 – Alpena, MI Company C - Wyoming, MI Company D - Big Rapids, MI Company F, 237 BSB - Bay City, MI 1-126th Cavalry Squadron - Wyoming, MI Troop A – Cadillac, MI Troop B - Manistee, MI Troop C - Dowagiac, MI Company D, 237th BSB - Wyoming, MI Company F, 425th Infantry - Selfridge, MI 1-119th Field Artillery Battalion - Lansing, MI Battery A - Port Huron, MI Battery B - Alma, MI Battery C - Albion, MI 119th Support Company - Augusta, MI 1-182nd Field Artillery Battalion - Detroit, MI Battery A - Detroit, MI Battery B - Bay City, MI Battery C - Lansing, MI 182nd Support Company – Detroit, MI Detachment 2 – Wyoming, MI 272nd Regional Support Group 1225th Cmd Sustainment Support Battalion - Detroit, MI 1071st Maintenance Company - Grayling, MI 1072nd Maintenance Company - Detroit, MI 1073rd Maintenance Company - Greenville, MI 464th Quartermaster Company – Lapeer, MI 246th Transportation Battalion - Jackson, MI 1460th Transportation Company - Midland, MI 1461st Transportation Company - Jackson, MI Detachment 1 - Augusta, MI 1462nd Transportation Company - Howell, MI 1463rd Transportation Company - Wyoming, MI Detachment 1 – Sturgis, MI 146th Multifunctional Medical Battalion - Ypsilanti, MI 1171st Medical Company - Ypsilanti, MI 3-238th General Support Aviation Battalion - Grand Ledge, MI Detachment 1, Company B – Selfridge, MI Detachment 1, Company C - Grand Ledge, MI Company D - Grand Ledge, MI Company E - Grand Ledge, MI Company B, 1-112th Aviation - Grand Ledge, MI Detachment 1, 1-147th Aviation - Grand Ledge, MI Company B, 1-147th Aviation - Grand Ledge, MI Company C, 1-147th Aviation - Grand Ledge, MI Detachment 1, Company D, 1-147th Aviation - Grand Ledge, MI Detachment 1, Company E, 1-147th Aviation - Grand Ledge, MI Detachment 2, Company B, 351 Aviation Support - Grand Ledge, MI 46th Military Police Command - Lansing 177th Military Police Brigade – Taylor, MI 210th Military Police Battalion - Taylor 1775th Military Police Company - Pontiac, MI 1776th Military Police Company - Taylor 144th Military Police Company - Reassigned to Nebraska ARNG in 2016 46th Military Police Company - Corunna, MI 777th Military Police Detachment - Taylor 156th Expeditionary Signal Battalion Company A, 156 ESB, Michigan Company B, 156 ESB, Michigan Company C, 156 ESB, Michigan HQ, 156 ESB, Michigan 631st Troop Command - Lansing, MI Company B, BSTB, 37th BCT - Lansing, MI 460th Chemical Company - Augusta, MI 126th Army Band – Wyoming, MI 107th Engineer Battalion - Ishpeming, MI 1430th Engineer Company - Gladstone, MI Detachment 1 - Marquette, MI 1431st Engineer Company - Calumet, MI Detachment 1 - Baraga, MI 1432nd Engineer Company - Kingsford, MI Detachment 1 - Iron River, MI 1437th Engineer Company - Sault Ste.
Marie, MI 507th Engineer Battalion - Kalamazoo, MI 1433rd Engineer Company - Augusta, MI 1434th Engineer Company - Grayling, MI Detachment 1 - Augusta, MI 1436th Engineer Company - Montague, MI 1440th Engineer Detachment - Grayling, MI 1439th Engineer Detachment - Grayling, MI 1442nd Engineer Detachment - Grayling, MI 745th Explosive Ordnance Disposal - Grayling, MIMichigan Air National Guard units include: 127th Wing, Selfridge Air National Guard Base 110th Airlift Wing, Battle Creek Air National Guard Station/W. K. Kellogg Airport Alpena Combat Readiness Training Center, Alpena Air National Guard BaseThe Michigan National Guard has two State Partnership Program relationships. One is with the Latvian National Armed Forces; the program began in October 2009. The other is with the Armed Forces of Liberia. Michigan Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Michigan Naval Militia Michigan Volunteer Defense Force Michigan Army National Guard Units Bibliography of Michigan Army National Guard History compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History
Government of Michigan
Michigan has a republican form of government with three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of Michigan and the other independently elected constitutional officers. The state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum and ratification; the Michigan Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is organized as a bicameral institution consisting of the Senate, the upper house, the House of Representatives, the lower house. Article IV of the Michigan Constitution, adopted in 1963, defines the role of the legislature and how it is to be constituted. Legislative acts are published in the official Acts of the Legislature and codified in the Michigan Compiled Laws; the Michigan Legislature meets in the Michigan State Capitol in Michigan. Michigan is one of ten states to have a full-time legislature. State Officers Compensation CommissionThe State officers compensation commission, consisting of seven governor appointed members, exists to set salaries for the governor and other elected officials, unless a two-thirds majority in both legislative chambers turned it down.
Independent redistricting commissionThe independent redistricting commission draws up legislative and Congressional districts after each census. The 13 non-office holding members consisting of five independent members, four self-declared Democrats and four self-declared Republicans, would be selected randomly by the Secretary of State from submitted applications. A Commission on legislative apportionment was written into the 1963 state constitution; however given weight land factors for state senatorial districts provided for in the same state constitution that were interdependent and not severable was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in Reynolds v Sims for violating the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution. This commission was transferred to the Department of State under the Executive Organization Act OF 1965; the state legislature has apportioned districts after census until 2020 as the November 6, 2018 general election proposal 2 created a constitutional independent redistricting commission.
Michigan's elected executive officers are: For elected single person executives, term limits of two terms were put into place in 1993. Since 1966, the Lieutenant Governor is elected with the Governor on the same ticket; the Lieutenant Governor is the President of the Michigan Senate and acts as the governor when the Governor is unable to execute the office, including whenever the Governor leaves the state. The Governor is the principal executive officer with the power of veto, reorganize executive government, budget proposal and other powers; the two other elected constitutional executives of the state are the Secretary of State and Attorney General. Both are elected separately for four-year terms concurrently with the governor/lieutenant governor slate; the elected officeholders are second and third in the line of succession and may act as governor during disabilities or absences from the state. The Attorney General is the state’s chief law enforcement officer, executive agencies legal counsel and leads the Department of the Attorney General.
The Secretary of State and its department handles automobile-related licensing and record holding. The 1963 Constitution requires that all permanent agencies or commissions, except universities, be assigned to one of a maximum of 20 principal departments; the principal departments are the: Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Department of Attorney General Department of Civil Rights Department of Corrections Department of Education Department of Environmental Quality Department of Health and Human Services Department of Insurance and Financial Services Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Department of Natural Resources Department of State Department of State Police Department of Talent and Economic Development Department of Technology and Budget Department of Transportation Department of TreasuryType 1 agencies are under the administration of the agency but operate independently of the principal department in carrying out its function and in most cases created by a type 1 transfer.
Regulations are codified in the Michigan Administrative Code. The state board of Education is a statewide elected board that head the Michigan Department of Education which oversees all education except that of the state universities. Michigan's state universities are immune from control by the legislature, many aspects of the executive branch, cities in which they are located; some degree of political control is exercised as the legislature approves appropriations for the schools. Furthermore, the governor appoints the board of control of most state universities with the advice and consent of the state Senate. Only the board members of the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University are chosen in general elections; the court system consists of the Michigan Supreme Court, the Michigan Court of Appeals as the intermediate appellate court, the circuit courts and district courts as the two primary trial courts, several administrative courts and specialized courts. The Supreme Court administers all the courts.
The Michigan Supreme Court consists of seven members who are elected on non-partisan ballots for staggered eight-year terms, while state appellate court judges are elected to terms of six years and vacancies are filled by an appointment by the governor
Governor of Michigan
The Governor of Michigan is the chief executive of the U. S. state of Michigan. The current governor is Gretchen Whitmer, a member of the Democratic Party, inaugurated on January 1, 2019, as the state's 49th governor, she is eligible for a second term under Michigan's term limits, which limit a governor to only two, four-year terms. Governors of Michigan, as well as their lieutenant governors, must be United States citizens who have resided in Michigan for the four years preceding election and must be at least 30 years of age. A constitutional amendment adopted by the voters at the 2010 general election provides that a person is ineligible for any elected office, including governor and lieutenant governor, if convicted of a felony involving dishonesty, fraud, or a breach of the public trust, if the conviction were related to the person's official capacity while holding any elective office or position of employment in local, State, or Federal government. From statehood until the election of 1966, governors were elected to two-year terms.
Elections are held in November and the governor assumes office the following January, except in the case of death or resignation. From statehood until 1851, elections were held in odd-numbered years. A new state constitution was drafted in 1850 and took effect in 1851; as part of the process bringing the constitution into effect, there was a single one-year term of governor in 1851. Thereafter elections were held in years; the constitution adopted in 1963 changed the governor's term to four years, starting in 1967. Since gubernatorial elections have been offset by two years between the U. S. presidential elections. Gubernatorial elections are held concurrently with State Senate elections; the winner of the gubernatorial election takes office at noon on January 1 of the year following the election. In 1992, an amendment to the Michigan constitution imposed a lifetime term limit of two four-year terms for the office of governor. Prior to this, they were not limited as to. Engler was reelected in 1994 and 1998 before being term limited in 2002.
The governor has responsibilities to: sign or veto laws passed by the legislature. The governor appoints the members of the governing boards of 10 of the state's 13 public universities and department commissions. Forty-nine people have been governor of the state. Prior to statehood, there were five governors of the Michigan Territory. Stevens T. Mason, Michigan's first governor served as a territorial governor, he was elected governor at age 23 as a member of the Democratic Party in 1835 and served until 1840. Mason was the youngest state governor in United States history. Jennifer Granholm became the first female Governor of Michigan on January 1, 2003, when she succeeded John Engler. Granholm was born in Canada. Former Governor George Romney was born in Mexico. Lieutenant Governor of Michigan
Michigan Department of Transportation
The Michigan Department of Transportation is a constitutional government principal department of the US state of Michigan. The primary purpose of MDOT is to maintain the Michigan State Trunkline Highway System which includes all Interstate, US and state highways in Michigan with the exception of the Mackinac Bridge. Other responsibilities that fall under MDOT's mandate include airports and rail in Michigan; the predecessor to today's MDOT was the Michigan State Highway Department, formed on July 1, 1905 after a constitutional amendment was approved that year. The first activities of the department were to distribute rewards payments to local units of government for road construction and maintenance. In 1913, the state legislature authorized the creation of the state trunkline highway system, the MSHD paid double rewards for those roads; these trunklines were signed in 1919, making Michigan the second state to post numbers on its highways. The department continued to improve roadways under its control through the Great Depression and into World War II.
During the war, the state built its first freeways. These freeways became the start of Michigan's section of the Interstate Highway System. Since the mid-1960s, the department was reorganized, it was renamed the Michigan Department of State Highways for a time. Further changes culminated in adding all modes of transportation to the department's portfolio. In August 1973, the department was once again renamed to the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation by executive order; the name was simplified and shortened to that of today. The first State Highway Department was created on July 1, 1905; the department was born out of the Good Roads Movement at the turn of the century. Bicycle enthusiasts as a part of the League of American Wheelmen pushed for better roads and streets, they wanted to ensure that bicyclists could use these streets and roads free from interference from horsedrawn vehicles. This movement persuaded the Michigan State Legislature to form a State Highway Commission in 1892.
Another law in 1893 allowed voters in each county to establish county road commissions. The attention of Michigan residents was turned to the good-roads movement by Horatio S. Earle, the first state highway commission. In 1900 he organized the first International Road Congress in Port Huron and put together a tour of a 1-mile macadam road, he ran for the state senate in 1900 at the urging of the Detroit Wheelmen bicycle club. The legislature set up a state reward system for highways and created the State Highway Department with an office of Highway Commissioner. Earle was appointed by Governor Aaron Bliss; this appointment and department were voided when the attorney general ruled the law unconstitutional. A constitutional amendment was passed in 1905 to reverse this decision; the department was formed, Earle was appointed commissioner by Governor Fred M. Warner on July 1, 1905. At first the department administered rewards to the counties and townships for building roads to state minimum specifications.
In 1905 there were 68,000 miles of roads in Michigan. Of these roads, only 7,700 miles were improved with gravel and 245 miles were macadam; the state's "statute labor system" was abolished in 1907. Under that system, a farmer and a team of horses could work on road improvements in place of paying road taxes. Instead a property tax system was instituted with the funding only for permanent improvements, not maintenance; the nation's first mile of concrete roadway was laid along Woodward Avenue between Six Mile and Seven Mile roads in Detroit. This section of street was 17 feet 8 inches wide. Work began by the Wayne County Road Commission on April 2, 1909 and finished on July 4, 1909, at a cost of $13,354. In 1913 voters elected Frank Rogers to the post of highway commissioner; this election was the first. Automobile registrations surged to 20 times the level at the department's formation, to 60,438, there were 1,754 miles of roads built under the rewards system. Passage of the "State Trunkline Act" provided for 3,000 miles of roadways with double rewards payments.
Further legislation during the Rogers administration allowed for special assessment taxing districts for road improvements, taxation of automobiles based on weight and horsepower and tree-planting along highway roadsides. Another law allowed the commissioner to name all unnamed state roads, it allowed for the posting of signage with the names and distances to towns. The first centerline was painted on a state highway in 1917 along the Marquette-Negaunee Road, designated Trunkline 15, now Marquette County Road 492 That same year the first stop sign was put in place and the country's first "crow's nest" traffic signal tower was installed in Detroit; this traffic light using red-yellow-green was developed by a Detroit police officer. Michigan is home to the first snowplow; this winter maintenance started during World War. In 1919 Michigan first signed the second state after Wisconsin to do so; the first ferry service was started on July 1923, linking Michigan's Upper and Lower peninsulas. The first gasoline tax was enacted in 1923 at the rate of $0.02/gal, but vetoed by Governor Alex Groesbeck.
It was enacted effective in 1926. The highway commissioner was given complete control over the planning and maintenance of the state trunklines. Construction switched to concrete or asphalt only instead of gravel and macadam with an increase in the
Michigan Geological Survey
The Michigan Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the U. S. state of Michigan. The survey is headed by the State Geologist of Michigan; the survey has been composed of three individual surveys: the first from 1837 through 1845, the second from 1859 through 1862, the third from 1869 to present. During most of that time, the survey has been a department of the state government. Since 2011 however, the survey has been administered by the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University. On January 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted as a state. On that same day, a bill was introduced and approved in the state legislature to conduct a geological survey of Michigan. Dr. Douglass Houghton, who created and planned the survey, convinced legislators to approve its creation and funding; the bill, titled "An act to provide for a geological survey of the state", was signed into law by Governor Stevens T. Mason on February 23, commencing the state's first geological survey. Owing to his effort in creating the survey, Houghton was named the first State Geologist.
Abram Sager was appointed as Houghton's assistant for the zoological and botanical aspects of the survey. The survey was appropriated $3000 for its first year; the motivational factor for establishing a geological survey was to secure supplies of salt. Lesser reasons were to help dispel negative beliefs about the state and to investigate copper resources in the Upper Peninsula; as established, the survey was expected to be completed in four years. In March 1838, the survey was divided into four departments: geological and mineralogical, zoological and topographical; each department was headed by a specialist under the direction of the State Geologist. In 1840, the botanical and zoological aspects of the survey were abolished by the legislature, they were perceived as offering the state little benefit, overriding Houghton's protests that they remain. In 1845, Houghton was out sailing on Lake Superior when a storm overturned his boat and he drowned. After this incident the survey was suspended, although Houghton's assistant and another surveyor continued to map the mineralogical deposits on the south shore of Lake Superior.
In the late 1850s, the Michigan Legislature received petitions from various interests to further investigate the state's salt resources, leading to the establishment of a second geological survey on February 15, 1859. Dr. Alexander Winchell of the University of Michigan was named State Geologist on March 9. Winchell spent much of his time from 1859 through 1862 conducting field work that culminated in a single comprehensive report, his report included a general description of the state's geology and more detailed descriptions of some of its mineral resources of economic interest, including coal and salt in the Lower Peninsula, iron in the Upper Peninsula. In 1863 the legislature did not approve further funding for the survey, as the state treasury was dedicated to funding the American Civil War. Official termination of the survey occurred on March 7, 1863, by a joint resolution of the state legislature. By 1869 there was widespread public support for resuming the geological survey, legislation was passed in March.
The survey was known as the Michigan Geological and Biological Survey. An ex officio Board of Geological Survey was created to oversee the department, consisting of the Governor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, President of the State Board of Education. Unlike the previous two surveys and zoological investigations were not included. On April 24, Winchell was reappointed as State Geologist; this time Winchell's ideas for the direction of the survey were in conflict with those of the board. Winchell wanted to concentrate on a scholarly investigation of the Lower Peninsula, but the Board wanted the survey to focus on copper and iron resources in the Upper Peninsula. In response, the Board contracted independent surveys of the Marquette Iron Range and the Copper Country; as a result of frequent debates and political infighting, Winchell resigned in April 1871. Dr. Carl Rominger was named as Winchell's replacement. Rominger worked "practically alone" from 1872 through 1876, focusing on investigating fossil corals and elucidating the geologic structure of the Michigan Basin in the Lower Peninsula.
He supported the independent contractors who were investigating economic resources in the Upper Peninsula. In May 1885, Charles E. Wright, the state's Commissioner of Mineral Statistics, succeeded Rominger, he engaged in the drawing of topographical maps and sketches of the geologic phenomena of the Upper Peninsula. After Wright's death in March 1888, Marshman Edward Wadsworth was appointed as State Geologist. Under Wadsworth, the survey obtained its own offices at the Michigan Mining School, having relied on private offices or the homes of the various geologists. In order that the Michigan Geological Survey could concentrate on economic geology, Wadsworth arranged for the United States Geological Survey to assume responsibility for studies of paleontology and other non-economic scientific topics; the Board of 1891 to 1892 recommended to the legislature a number of changes. These included incorporating the office of Mineral Statistics with the survey, appropriating offices in Lansing, hiring geologists who were independent of state universities and who could dedicate the whole of their time to the survey.
In 1893, Wadsworth became aware of these intentions, offered to resign from the Michigan Mining School if he were given a raise to $4,000 per year. His offer was rejected and Wadsworth resigned. Dr. Lucius Lee Hubbard was appointed State Geologist on July 1, 1893, with Dr. Alfred Church L